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SMITH, P. V.-Sowing and Reaping : a Layman's Word to Young Persons about to be Confirmed. Pp. 16. (S.P.C.K.) id. By the Chancellor of the Diocese of Manchester.

SERMONS AND ADDRESSES. BIGG, C. (the late).-The Spirit of Christ in Common Life. Addresses and Sermons selected and edited by the DEAN OF CHRIST CHURCH. With an Introduction by the BISHOP OF OXFORD. Pp. x+ 304. (Longmans.) 6s, net.

CARNEGIE, W. H.-Churchmanship and Character. Three Years' Teaching in Birmingham Cathedral. Pp. xxxvi +236. (Murray.) 35. 6d. net.

CRAIGIE, J. A.-The Country Pulpit. Pp. 244. (Skeffington.) 35. 6d. net.

FIGGIS, J. N.-The Gospel and Human Needs. 'Hulsean Lectures,' 1908-9, with Additions. Pp. xvi + 194. (Longmans.) 45. 6d. net.

LA TROBE-BATEMAN, W.F.-Our Companion by the Way. Pp. x + 102. (Mowbray.)

LENNARD, V. R. — Passiontide and Easter. Thirteen Addresses for Holy Week and Eastertide, including Good Friday, Palm Sunday, and Low Sunday. Pp. 170. (Skeffington.) 25. net.

MASON, W. V.-Short Addresses for Holy Week. Pp. 84. (Skeffington.) Is. 6d. net.

MILLER, J.--Sermons, Doctrinal, Philosophical, Critical, and Educational. To which are added Translations illustrative of some more notable Continental Divines. First Series. Pp. viii + 286. (Rivingtons.)

OTTLEY, R. L.-Prayer. Pp. 16. (Mowbray.) id.

PEILE, J. H. F.-Ecclesia Discens : the Church's Lesson from the Age. Pp. viii + 304. (Longmans.)

55. net. SEDGWICK, T. A.Paedagogus. Sermons on the Education Question. Pp. 106. (Skeffington.) 25. net.

WILKINSON, Most Rev. G. H. (late Primus of the Scottish Church). — One by One. Counsels in Retreat for those in Priestly or Episcopal Orders. Pp. viii + 106. (Mowbray.) 25. 6d. net.

LITURGICA. SAYWELL, J. L. (and others).—Manual of Occasional Offices for the Use of the Clergy. With Primitive Collects, Formulae, Tables, and Lists. Pp. 298. (London : Cope and Fenwick.) 45. net.

MISSIONS. DUTHIE, D. W.-A Bishop in the Rough. With Preface by the BISHOP OF NORWICH. Pp. xxxviii + 386. (Smith, Elder.) 75. 6d. net.

HALDON, C.-Home Parishes and Foreign Missions : A Guide to Organization. Pp. x+46. (Skeffington.) IS. net,

MOTT, J. R.-The Future Leadership of the Church. Pp. xii + 184. (Hodder and Stoughton.) 35. 6d.

CLASSICAL LITERATURE AND ANTIQUITIES. FOWLER, W. WARDE.-Social Life at Rome in the Age of Cicero. Pp. xvi + 360. (Macmillan.) ros, net.

JEBB (the late) SIR R. C.-The Characters of Theophrastus. An English Translation from a Revised Text, with Introduction and Notes. A New

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Edition edited by J. E. SANDYS, Litt.D. Pp. xvi + 230. (Macmillan.) 75. 6d. net. A most welcome new edition of a delightful book.

BIOGRAPHY AND GENERAL LITERATURE. ADDERLEY, J.-A Piece of New Cloth: a Church Tale of the Twentieth Century. Pp. vi +180. (London : Hunter and Longhurst.) 25. net.

AVEBURY, LORD.Peace and Happiness. Pp. x+ 386. (Macmillan.) 6s. See Short Notice.

BLACKWOOD, A.Jimbo : a Fantasy. Pp. x+258. (Macmillan.) 35. 6d. net.

Boas, F. S.--Giles and Phineas Fletcher : Poetical Works. Vol. II. Cambridge English Classics.' Pp. xxiv + 366. (Cambridge University Press.) 45. 6d. net.

COOK, E. T. and WEDDERBURN, A. (edited by).—The Works of John Ruskin. Volumes XXXVI, XXXVII. Letters, 1827-69, 1870-89. Pp. cxvi +602, xviii + 740. (G. Allen.)

HALL, H. FIELDING.-One Immortality. Pp. iv +284. (Macmillan.) 6s.

MASON, A. J.-Memoir of George Howard Wilkinson, Bishop of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane, and Primus of the Scottish Church, formerly Bishop of Truro. Two Volumes. Pp. xii +414, x+450. (Longmans.) 28s. net.

RICKARDS, M. S. C.-Twilight Music. Pp. xii + 136. (Clifton and London : J. Baker and Son.) Poems dedicated to the Provost of Wor. cester.

SEABURY, W. J.-Memoir of Bishop Seabury. Pp. viii +454. (New York : E. S. Gorham. London : Rivingtons.)

ros, 6d. TUCKWELL, W.-Pre-Tractarian Oxford : a Reminiscence of the Oriel 'Noetics.' Pp. xii + 264. (Smith, Elder.) 7s. 6d. net. With 9 Illustrations. The 'Noetics' are Provosts Eveleigh and Hawkins, Bishops Copleston and Hampden, Archbishop Whately, Dr. Arnold, Professor Baden Powell, and Blanco White.

WELLS, H. G.-Tono - Bungay. Pp. iv + 494. (Macmillan.) 6s.

The Cambridge History of English Literature. Edited by A. W. WARD and A. R. WALLER. Vol. III. Renascence and Reformation. Pp. xii + 588. (Cambridge University Press.) 9s. net.

MISCELLANEOUS. NUNN, J.-The Ornaments of the Minister. An Examination of the Report of the Committee of the Upper House of the Convocation of York. Pp. 42. (London : 82 Victoria Street, S.W.)

RICHARDSON, E. C. (and others). --An Alphabetical Subject Index and Index Encyclopaedia to Periodical Articles on Religion, 1890-99. Pp. xliv + 1168. (New York : C. Scribner's Sons. London : G. E. Stechert and Co.) 425. net.

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The London Diocese Book for 1909. Edited by Rev. Preb. GLENDINNING NASH. Pp. xvi + 362. (S.P.C.K.) Is. 6d. net.

The Official Year-Book of the Church of England, 1909. Pp. xi +642. (S.P.C.K.) 35.

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THE

CHURCH QUARTERLY REVIEW.

NO CXXXVI. JULY 1909.

ART. 1.-THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA AND

THE NATIVE QUESTION. 1. The State : The Organ of Closer Union. A South African

National Magazine. (Capetown: Printed for the

Proprietors by the Cape Times. 1909). 2. Address delivered by Lord Selborne before the Con

gregation of the University of the Cape of Good Hope, February 27, 1909. (Pretoria : Government Printing

Office.) 3. The South African Natives : Their Progress and Present

Condition. Edited by the South African Native Races

Committee. (London: John Murray. 1908.) 4. Leaven : A Black and White Story. By DOUGLAS

BLACKBURN. (London : Alston Rivers. 1908.) At Bloemfontein on May 11, 1909, the dough, of which the ingredients had taken eight months to knead, was put into the national oven in the hope that, when baked, it would come out a fragrant loaf of home-made bread, fit for the consumption of all the children of South Africa. This homely metaphor is borrowed from the High Commissioner's farewell speech to the delegates of the Convention who were entrusted with the magnificent task of shaping a new nation, and most of whom are at this moment here in England hoping to see their great work crowned with success in the Imperial Parliament.

The Closer Union of South Africa may, we trust, be now considered an 'assured fact,' in the absence of unforeVOL. LXVIII.-NO. CXXXVI,

S

seen and extraordinary hindrances. It must, of course, be sanctioned by Parliament and by the King ; but it does not owe its existence to Downing Street. The idea was conceived fifty years ago, and was born, developed and matured in South Africa. The loaf is home-made,' of wheat grown entirely on the fertile plains of Africa. From that achievement it draws its flavour, while its strangeness consists in the circumstances among which it has been shaped. General Botha not long ago said publicly that without the war there could not have been a rapprochement between Boer and Briton, and that the union of the South African Colonies would have been out of the question. Out of the strong came forth sweetness.'

How do the inhabitants of South Africa view the proposal ? The white population seem slowly to have awakened to the conception that a great historic movement was beginning and that they must all take their part in it. During the last summer (our winter months here in England) • Closer Union' societies were rapidly formed in many of the villages and towns of the four Colonies of the Transvaal, Orange River, the Cape, and Natal. Members of the four

. Governments and of the Opposition in each case, the mayors and municipal councillors of leading towns, Africanders, Colonists, Het Volk, Britons and Boers travelled from place to place, holding meetings, explaining the Draft Constitution, and winning adherents to the cause in every direction. The brilliant group of Oxford men, brought out by Lord Milner as his henchmen during his Governorship, were incessantly strenuous, and rendered magnificent service by their enthusiastic propagandist campaign.

In the last month of 1908 a new magazine, entitled The State : The Organ of Closer Union,' and printed in English and Dutch, made its appearance under their editorship. The interest which had been aroused in the cause was shewn on February 12, when a ‘Special Constitution Issue,' devoted to an analysis of the Draft Constitution and to explanations of Proportional Representation, was brought out. All the copies of the magazine were sold in a day or two. Besides The State a large number of pamphlets

were published in South Africa, dealing with the question of the necessity of union and suggesting the lines on which it should be built. Popular articles and letters in the newspapers and speakers at innumerable meetings took their share in spreading information through the four Colonies. The objections of Boer Bond critics in Cape Colony, of Labour Party critics in the Transvaal, or of British critics in Natal, were answered in fervent addresses by General Botha, Dr. Jameson, General Smuts, Sir George Farrar, Mr. Lionel Curteis, and many other devoted campaigners. The men who eight years before were fighting against one another in the Boer War now fought side by side for the great cause of a United South Africa. Closer Union' has already brought about a union of hearts among the delegates, between men who had interchanged mutual respect as foes, but who now rejoice in proclaiming their mutual admiration as friends.

If the foreshadowing of Closer Union has accomplished so much, what may we not hope that the Union itself will be able to do ? That it may weld Britons, Boers, Africanders and Natives into one united Nation should be the prayer of every patriotic Englishman at this time.

Do we at all realize what the greatness of such a Nation will be ? Consider the actual size of the country': a vast sub-continent ten times larger than Great Britain, stretching over 1,214,338 square miles, inconceivably rich in pastoral, agricultural and mineral wealth. Its great mountain ranges, vast veldt and little towns are at present sparsely inhabited by a population numbering 7,964,427, one-fifth of the population of overcrowded Great Britain. Consider also the variety of races of which the new Nation will be composed : men of English, Scottish and German blood; Boers descended from Dutch peasants and French Huguenots ; Coloured People, the offspring of past generations of slaveowners and Hottentot slaves; Malays, who came over

British South Africa includes Cape Colony, Natal, the Orange River Colony, the Transvaal, Rhodesia, Nyasaland, Basutoland, Bechuanaland, and Swaziland. The last three are Native Protectorates, at present under the government of the High Commissioner.

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