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administered to a dumb person? May a minister lend money on usury ? May a civil judge sit in a Consistory court ? Can an ex-bishop be admitted as a Protestant minister ? Is lay-baptism lawful ? Such were a few of the problems submitted to the new Pope. His one solicited interference in the affairs of the English Church, in the case of the stubborn Hooper, was judicious and helpful; but when he undertook to compose the troubles of the Marian exiles at Frankfort he not unnaturally sided with the Calvinists and lost his influence with the Moderates. At Geneva the 'theocracy ’ was established. Every Christian holy day save Sunday had been abolished, and Calvin was even suspected of intending to transfer the Lord's Day services to Friday or Saturday. He could compel everyone to listen to his sermons, officers being employed to hunt out defaulters in their own homes, while he himself visited the villages for this same purpose. He and his friends had at last gained the power of excommunication, and in respect of the sacraments they took what order they pleased, dictating, for example, in baptism what the name might be: no Popish saints or legendary worthies were recognized-no Gaspards, Melchiors or Balthasars, no ‘Anges' or ' Baptistes,' and by

' no manner of means a Claude. In interference with domestic matters, however, some sad disappointments occurred. An attempt to shut up all taverns and to replace them by four

abbeys' or clubs, where no one should be served who would not say grace, failed. dismally in a month; the lieutenant of police had to be reprimanded for questioning servants as to their masters' cardplaying; and the ladies' game of ninepins could not be put down ; but on the other hand a crusade against slashed breeches and doublets with crosses (the Swiss emblem) on them was successful. Musicians might not tarry in the town unless they promised not to play dance music. Stage plays were long discussed and at


1 That Calvin's advice was specially asked in the matter of the divorce of Catherine of Aragon seems doubtful. He was then a very young man indeed, and McCrie (c. ii. n. 52) doubts if the letter on which the statement rests refers to Henry VIII at all.

3 Choisy, p. 239, n. 2.


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last tolerated only if they dealt with Scriptural subjects; but even then the preachers' advised that the money would be better given to the poor.' To be ill for three days without sending for a minister; to beg in the street; to play cards with closed doors; for a bride to wear her hair loose; for a spinster to wear jewellery—all these things were punishable by law. Two young men who betted as to who was the prettiest woman in Geneva were summoned and warned. Calvin's words were as sacred as his person': men who laughed while he was preaching were imprisoned ; Philibert Berthelier was excommunicated for saying that he was as good a man as the dictator; and of frivolous prosecutions for careless words there was no end. Why are you not in church? said an official to a man on horseback in the street : 'Is there room for me and my horse too ? 'he answered, and went to gaol for it. In fine, opinion-and that the opinion of one man—had been made into law, and to hold other opinion was crime.

One side of Calvin's activity, however, it is possible to speak of with whole-hearted praise. In spite of his amazing statement that 'he would rather see all sciences banished from the world than that they should cool the zeal of Christians and turn them from God,'' he was zealous for education. There had for a century been a foundationschool at Geneva, but it had dwindled into insignificance. Calvin revived it in the improved form of a lower or children's school—the ‘College'; and a high school for older studentsthe Academy.' But he had a difficulty in obtaining teachers until the break-up of the College at Lausanne in consequence of the tyranny of Berne, in 1558. The exiled professors flocked to Geneva, where Beza was appointed Rector of the Academy, Chevalier professor of Hebrew, Beraldus of Greek, and John Tagaut of Philosophy. It was principally a seminary of Protestant theology ; but students flocked to it from all parts of Europe, many being excused from subscribing to the Confession of Faith-among them Thomas Bodley.

i Opera, x (ii). 49. * In the Apology for the Nicodemites. Opera, vi. 600.

It was said of a light of modern Oxford that he got his measures carried by refusing to speak to anyone who voted against him, until opposition ceased. The marvellous victories of Calvinism may be said to have been won in similar fashion. In whatever country it obtained a footing it brought with it bitterness, discord, and disintegration. Through the Huguenots of France it all but tore that kingdom in halves; it rent in twain the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands; for the horrors of the Thirty Years' War it was, through the miserable division in the Protestant camp at the critical moment, mainly responsible ; to our own country it brought intestine strife; again it divided the Netherlands in 1830 ; and we can even trace its influence in the smouldering enmity of North and South, of Puritan and Cavalier, which at length blazed forth in the great American Civil War. And yet it has conquered, and conquered by making itself impossible to live with. ' As Alexander it will reign. And it will reign alone'; its neighbour must either submit to it or go; unless, as happened in the single instance of France, he can cast it out. The case against it in respect of this latter country is well, if unconsciously, put by Dr. Fairbairn in speaking of the result of Calvin's influence at the time of his death : Religious hate was even more bitter and vindictive .. but the Huguenots had grown numerous, potent, respected, feared, and disputed with Catholicism the supremacy of the kingdom.' For weal or woe, ' Catholicism' for once gained the day.

There remains one more problem. How is it that a belief not far removed from fatalism, which should have ensured moral paralysis, has increased the moral vitality of every nation which has accepted it? The answer probably is that no man ever yet held this creed in its entirety and with all its logical results as they would affect himself. No man except a maniac ever yet believed himself predestined to be a thief or an adulterer; but millions have believed themselves predestined to be militant saints, and in that belief have contemned and sacrificed earthly pleasures and earthly advantages, have undergone miseries

· Cambridge Modern History, ii. 373.

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unspeakable, and have at last in multitudes cheerfully laid down their lives for the glory of the Lord, and in the firm belief that they were but the instruments of an inexorable will.



LAW REFORM: THE MAJORITY REPORT. 1. Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law and

Relief of Distress, 1909. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. (London : Printed for His Majesty's Stationery Office by Wyman

& Sons, Ltd.) 2. The Poor Law Report of 1909. A Summary explaining

the Defects of the Present System and the Principal Recommendations of the Commission so far as relates to England and Wales. By HELEN BOSANQUET. (London : Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1909.)

I. As we look back over the seventy-five years which have passed since the Poor Law Amendment Act became law, and reflect on the high hopes which were then entertained that its passing would usher in a period of material prosperity and general well-being such as had hardly been dreamed of before, we cannot but feel a sense of keen disappointment and an inclination almost to despair of legislation, however excellent, as a remedial agency. For, disguise it as we will and explain it as we may, the record of these seventy-five years' administration of the new Poor Law is the record of a disastrous and almost gigantic failure. The failure, of course, has not been complete in every direction; there have been times when a considerable impression has been made on the sum total of pauperism, and when it looked as if the impression might be gradually extended till that sum should be reduced within manageable limits; and there are large districts of the country where even now things are very much better than they were in 1834, and where there seems at least

a hope that further improvement may yet take place; there is, moreover, at any rate one department of the reformed Poor Law where a marked and abiding success has been won, which holds out a promise of securing equal or greater results in other departments in the future. And yet, as has already been said, as we gaze over the whole field, these are but partial and transitory patches of light which serve only to throw the general aspect into deeper shadow. When so much was hoped for, how has it come about, we ask ourselves, that so little has been accomplished ? Let us begin by an attempt to answer this question.

There seem to be two chief causes to which the comparative failure of the Poor Law Reform of 1834 has been due. In the first place the authors of that reform were men of a too purely intellectual type, and they were too much in advance of their time. They considered, as did Bentham himself and so many of his contemporaries and of those whom he influenced, that men and women were for the most part beings whose conduct was regulated by enlightened selfinterest; and, in fact, men and women are not such, or at any rate are not such to the degree which Bentham and his associates supposed. In many directions human nature, with its inherited instincts, its deep-rooted prejudices, its sentiments, its irrational likes and dislikes, asserted itself. Men acted quite differently from the way in which rational beings should have acted : they falsified the predictions of the reformers and nullified their best-laid plans. It is only another way of expressing the same thing to say that the reformers were ahead of their time, and so never succeeded in carrying with them those for whose benefit they legislated, nor even persuaded many of those who were called upon to administer the system they had formulated of the soundness of their principles. The result was that in many parts of the country the laws and principles laid down by them were either never put into force at all, or most imperfectly administered ; and, even when partially put into force, they led to very different results from those which their authors had anticipated, while in too many cases they were constantly and ingeniously evaded.

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