« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
od and Barley at the last prices quoted ensue, where can you look to? To " in the Gazette, are at a less price than " the British farmer? No--you have " the expence to which the fariner would“ turned your back upon him. But there w be put by growing them, including
". is another thing to be considered, grain “ wages to labourers, krep for horses, may be cheap, and yet be less within
repair of waggons, cost of the seed, “ the compass of some than when it " and rent to the landlord. Of course was diarer. If agriculture be dis
then he will direct his industry and couraged, the farmer will not want so capital to other channels; he will not
many labourers, the ploughman, the grow grain; he will not make land
thresher, and the reaper, will not be a hitherto barren, productive in corn;
“ wanted—and thus will those per“ he will not bring the wastes and heaths "starve annidst cheapness." “ into cultivation. There will compara- “ But it has been said, let the farmer look
tively be no English corn grown. " to his landlord, who having raised his "" "Yery well,” we hear some say, " and "rent in proportion to the encreasing price
“ “ what is that to us, provided, we still “ of grain, ought now to be lowered to the " have abundant supplies open to us."
“ levelat what it was before such increase. “ But softly! it is a great deal to them " There is much reason in this, and it will -a great deal indeed! In the first
operate no doubt upon the landlord. If place, the foreign grower, when he “ he find that he cannot get a high rent " finds that he has nothing to fear from paid, but that he can get a lower one,
the rivalship of the British farmer, will “ of course he will prefer the latter. The “ raise his price. This is obvious two “ cessation of the Property Tax will be “ When he knows you must depend upon “ another relief; But these of themselves “ him for the commodity, he will increase “ will not be sutticient. We take our stand « his terms. There is not a plainer upon this ground, which cannot be sha“ commercial principle than this. Here “ ken; that the British farmer should have “.then is the first inroad upon the cheap-"an interest in cultivating grain. Has ness which
flattered yourself would " he that inferest at the present prices? ** be so permanent. But you must not “No, What is the sellely? Clearly that " forget another circumstance----that "the foreign grouer should bear some
peace cannot be perpetual, and that of the burthens that he does; that he wars must take place.- Nay, that fo- “ should pay a duty upon importation ; reign powers may be more likely to go that this duty should make the price
“ “ to war with us, thinking that they of foreign corn equal to a price which
" " have the means in their hands, -(we, “ the English farmer ought to get for Bri“ depending upon them entirely for “ tish corn, Mr. Burke thought a farmer
grain) of compelling us to accept ternis ough to make 12 per cent. upon his row and to make concessions. We put a capital after paying his rent; Later ro case--Poland will be annexed to, or “writers and witnesses examined by Par" under the controul of Russia. It is liament, think 10 per cent.
a sumi “ from Poland we derive the largest “ much less than is made in almost all " contineutal supplies of foreign corn.“ other trades. At the present price of “ Should we go to war with Russia, she grain the farmer so far from making “'might shut all ber ports, Russian as “This interest upon his capi:al muust les" well as Polish, and prevent the expor-“ seu that capital by cultivating. What • tation of grain.--What should we do the price should he per quarter to " then? We miglit procure it from other "enable him to pay liis reat and gain so " parts, from the Barbary States and inuch
upon his capital, we presume « from America. But would not the not to state from our own knowledge,
price be much increased upon us, those “ Some of the witnesses erainined by the “ Powers always keeping in mind that “ House of Lords declare that wheat " we must depend upon them? Well, ought to be 41. 16s, a quarter, or 125. " but this is not all -- you have formed a busliel iv produce this effect. Others your calculations and your hopes upon
“ fix it at 41. or 10s. the bushel; none " the certainty of the harvest never tuil
" lower, At 31. 15s, or 3s. 1d. per " ing upon the Continent, of there being bushel, (see the reports of the House " always fine and productive scasons. If " of Lords,) all declare the farmer could " the barvest should fail and a scarcity. mut be able to pay his reut and get
“ 10 per cent. upon his capital. They from causes, over which the farmers had “ present average price, according to no controul, that is to say, in part, at “ Saturday's Gazette, is 7s. 11d. the least, from the war. It is not true, “ bushel. We have thus fulfilled our (though it has nothing to do with the “ intention of collecting a few facts, point at issue) that the farmers were “ which we have endeavoured to place wholly innocent here; for, they were nc“ in a prominent point of view, offering toriously amongst the foremost to uphold ** such reasons as they are suggested to Pitt in making war and in carrying on “ our minds. We are quite sure that war, against the Republicans of France.
we speak without partiality or prejudice That has been accomplished, which they “ ourselves; We are neither farmers nor tendered their lives and fortunes, to ac* merchants, neither growers of home nor complish. The republic of France has “ importers of foreign corn. Our chief been destroyed; the Bourbons have been “ anxiety is to reinove, if possible, some restored; liberty has been nearly put out “ prejudices, knowing that he best pro- in that country; and, really, if our far“motes the interests of the poorer classes. mers were to suffer in consequence of "aud of British agricultare, who encou- what has taken place, they certainly would
rages and promotes the interests of the come in for their full share of meriting * British farmer. " If the price of the that suffering. Now we come to the sub
corn,” says an eminent writer, should ject:-The argument is this : that, un“ not compensate the price of growing it, less corn is dear, the English farmer can“ the most serious evil
, the very destrue- not grow it, because it would not bring “tion of agriculture itself, is to be appre- him enough to enable him to pay wages “ hended." Now, though this article is of labour, kcep of horses, repair of wagwritten with great ability, and with even gons, cost of seed, and rent to the landgreater craft than ability, it will require, Word. Now, how fallacious is this! Is I trust, not a great deal to be said, to not the corn which the horses eat, shew that its tendency is to deceive the and which is sown for seed cheap, if people, and to entice them, by a fallacious corn be cheap at market? Are not the statement, into an acquiescence in a mea- wages of labourers, the prices of wheelsure for making corn dear; that being wrights
, and the rent of land cheap, if the undisguised object of the writer. the corn be cheap at market? Why, then, Before 1 proceed to the main points, let should not the English farmer be as able ine notice the insiuuatiou, that objections to grow cheap corn as dear corn ? And to a Corn Bill have been owing to the what becomes of all the terrific statement “ industry of faction.". What then, is about dependence upon foreign nations, OLD GEORGE ROSE become the about the extortioning of the foreign farleader of faction? He, who wrote a mer, about scarcity, about the ruin of pamphlet to convince the people of Eng- the labourer, and the like ? Is it not noland, that, if they did not quietly pay torious, that wheat used to be 5s. a the war-taxes, the French Republicans bushel in England ? Nay, is it not notowould deprive them of the blessed com- rious, that it used to be 25. a bushel ? forts of religion? He has, indeed, been How did the farmer live in those days ? very industrious upon this occasion: but was the labourer starved in those days ? has his been the “inilusíry of faction ?" On the contrary, is it not notorious, that Have the petitions of the loyal” of the paupers have increased with the high Southampton, Portsmouth, Winchester, prices ? Will any man have the confidence and hundreds of other cities and towas, to deny this? And if this cannot be dex proceeded trom“ the industry of faction?" nied, what reason is there to be alarmed Oh, no! this will never do. The pro- at the prospect of continued cheapness ? moters of the measure cannot now raise a What reason is there to suppose, that the cry against the Jacobins. That humbug farmer will be unable to raise cheap corn, is over for ever.--Who told this writer, seeing that his labourers, his smith, his that any body ever said, that revenge wbeelwright, bis collar-maker, his seed, against the farmer was the object of the his rent, will all keep pace with the price opposers of the measure? This is pure of his corn? If these items amount to a invention. It is an invented fact, whereon hundred pounds a year when wheat is 4rs, to build a fallacious argument.--But, we a quarter, and to two hundred pounds a are told here, that the high prices arcse / year when wheat is 80s, a quarter, is het
the farmer as able to raise the forty shil you are laudably enthusiastic. But the ling wheat as the eighty shilling wheat ? real tendency of your exertions is to proHow came this writer to be so indiscreet tect and promote the taxing system, and as to mention horse feed and seed amongst thereby to enable the Government to keep the outgoings of the farmer? These must up, during peace, a standing army and all be at a low price, if his market corn is at those means of patronage, heretofore una low price. They consist of the same known in England, and the keeping up sort of corn that he has to sell. How, of which tends to the total extinguishment in the name of common sense, then, should of even the great country gentlemen, the he have to complain of the amount of little ones having all been swallowed up these outgoings, and, at the same time, long ago.-- Stand here, I pray you, and complain of the cheapness of his corn? reflect before you proceed another inch. But, the truth is, that the absurdity of -You perceive clearly, that the writer, these positions arises from a very ma- whom I have quoted, under pretence of terial omission in the enumeration of the protecting the farmer and promoting agrifarmer's outgoings ; to wit ; the TAXES ! culture, aims at keeping up the taxes, that which, direct and indirect, amount to to say, an immense military establishmore, aye, to double as much, as his la- ment and patronage, which it is your inbour, horse feed, seed, implements, and terest, and the farmer's interest, and the rent, all put together. The direct taxes country's interest, to see reduced to noare upon his land, his property, his horses, thing, seeing, that we
now want no his house, his windows, his gig, his dogs, standing army any more than our forehis man servant, and to these must be fathers did. -I have read a long letter added his poor rates. He pays about 175. of Mr. WESTERN to shew, that it is just a busbel tax out of every 20s. which he and necessary to pass a Bill to protect the lays out in salt; and, in a large farm farmer. The reasonings of that very able house, the salt tax amounts to about 101. letter are unanswerable, if we admit, that a year.
He pays more in tax upon malt the taxing system must remain in full vithan his barley, of which the malt is made, gour, which the author seems to admit, amounts to. He pays a tax upon the and which I wonder that he should have soap and candles, and tea and sugar and admitted. It is clearly shewn, that the wine and spirits used in bis house. He English farmer will not grow corn, unless pays a tax on the leather and iron used in he is put upon as good a footing, at least, his implements and his harness. And, as the French farmer. But, then, it is be it observed and remembered, that he not shewn, that this cannot be accompays a tax upon the beer, the gin, the tea, plished without a“ Corn Bill; the sugar, the salt, the soap, the candles, this ought to be shewn, and clearly shewn, the shoes, the tobacco, used by his la- by those, who, in open hostility to the bourers. For every quart of beer drank common feeling of mankind, propose such by the ploughman, at a public house, the a measure.-The farmer, and the profarmer pays about 4d in tax. The brewer sperity of agriculture, do not depend upon and malster first pay it; the publicap the price of corn alone : there are the pays it to them; the labourer pays it to hides, the skins, the wool, and the fax.
the publican ; "the farmer pays it to the All very great articles of produce. These : labourer ; and, as the farmer must be re-are, in great part, wrought into articles of paid, he must, of course, charge it în dress by our manufacturers, and thus they the price of the next corn that he sells. are exported. Make the corn dear; make -Here, then, is the real cause of the the food of the manufacturertwice as dear necessity of high prices. It is the GO- as the food of the manufacturer in France, VERNMENT, and not the FARMER, America, and elsewhere, and who will who stands in need of high priced corn. purchase the dear manufactures ?-But, -Oh! ye Cokes and Westerns, be not; take away the taxes that support the be not, I pray and supplicate you, made army, the ordnance, a great part of the
the tools of the taxing system ! I know nayy; abolish the new military schools : well that neither of you wish for high and all their enormous expences; return
prices in order to increase, or keep up again to cheap and peaceful government; vour own incomes. Your wish is to pro- lay aside tlie bayonet and the broadtect, to secure the well-being of, a de sword, and be content with the old'scription of persons, as to whose pursuits | fashioned sherift's wand and constable's
staff. Do this, and there will be quite the constitution. It is for those who pro. enough left to discharge the just debts of pose such a measure to shew, that it the country and to support the Crown cannot be done without; and this they with sufficient splendour, though Wheat must shew before any just man will give should again fall (as I hope it will) to the his consent to it.—The measure would
I old 5 shillings a bushel of JETH ROTULL; be no protection to the farmer; it would and agriculture will flourish and farmers do him no good; it would do the landwill thrive as much as they have done for owner no good: what it gave in prohithe last twenty years ; and, what is still bition, it would take away in tax, and of more importance, pauperism will al- give it to the military, naval, and official most disappear, hospitality will revive, and part of the community, the tendency of honesty, the constant companion of com- which must inevitably be to give these a petence, will curtail the long and dismal predominance over all the peaceful arts sists of crimes, commitments, convic- and professions, and to produce all the tions, banishments, and executions, which lamentable consequences which I have now fill the mind with horror and dismay. above described. -For these reasons, I, • Here" say the writers, we take our who am a., farmer by taste as well stand. The English farmer cannot grow as in fact, and who am deeply interested corn, unless, " by an importation duty, in the prosperity of agriculture, detest and “ the foreign farmer be made to bear part abhor, from the bottom of my soul, the
of the English farmer's taxes".—But, he idea of any measure tending to raise, ot will not bear part then; for, he will not keep up, the price of corn ; and, if there bring his corn, and it is meant that he be but one man in all England found to should not. Here I take my stand. "Re-petition against such a measure, I will be duce the tates of the English farmer, that man. and then he will grow corn enough with, out the aid of foreign supply; and the COTINENTAL AFFAIRS. It is inmanufacturers, eating cheap food, will be possible to peruse the information which able to sell cheaper than the manufacturers now daily arrives from the Continent, of other nations; and, thus, all will thrive without experiencing the mostaweful sentogether; make corn dear, by continued sations as to the critical state of affairs heavy taxation, and all will decline toge- in that quarter. It is true, appearances ther, except the military and naval otfi- are very often deceitful, and lowering cial part of the community, who will, in clouds frequently subside; but there nethe end, obtain a predominance, such as ver was a period known in universal histhey possess in the Austrian, Prussian, tory when the “ din of preparation” Russian and German dominions, and seemed so great. Let us turn our eyes English freedom and English manners from the Mediterranean to the Baltie, and English morals and Engash tastes peace and tranquility is no where to be and English learning and eloquence will found. In Italy, all the convulsions of take their flight for ever to the other side the thirteenth century appear to have reof the Atlantic.--I hardly think it possi- vived. The dawn of liberty having openble, that such men as Mr. Coke and Mr. ed on that delightful country, its inhabiWestern should be the partizans of a tants cannot without difficulty return unmeasure having such a tendency. They der the yoke of slavery. We find the may doubt, whether it be practicable, court of Vienna in the most feverish without injury to the fund-holders, to re- alarm on the subject. Long accustomed duce the taxes so as to enable the farmer as the Austrian monarchy has been to to sell wheat at 5s. a bushel. For my look with anxiety to the entire possession part, I have no doubt at all upon the sub- of the Adriatic Gulf, from the possession ject; but, before I give myself the trou- of the ports of which, -she might indulge ble of proving, and my readers the trou a prospective hope of possessing "ships, ble of reading what I have to say upon " colonies, and commerce,” it cannot be, the subject, let the advocates of a new but with the utmost apprehension, that and odious measure give us their argu- she finds the voice of public opinion dements to prove, that the measure is indis- cidedly against her views. Little doubt pensably necessary to the discharge of can be entertained by the most commonthe just debts of the country and to the place politician, that a great motive which support of our government agreeably, to influenced Austria to join the Allies, at the critical period when by Francis's in- , the présent system, and his very name-80 natural desertion of his son-in-law-a de- seldom uccurs, exccpt when he himself sertion so totally unlooked for, that it introduces it, that there is every appearproduced, as it could not fail to do, the ance of his sinking fast, as I fervently most decisive consequences.-I say, the hope he will, into his old denomination Eniperar Francis must have been greatly of Bishop of Rome; when Pope, Coustimulated to this act, by the jealousy clave, and cardinals - would
soon be with wluich he viewed the Iron Crown on forgotten, was it not for the persethe head of Napoleon; shutting ont, as cutions which religion, from time it did for ever, all his Italian prospects. immemorial, has brought upon mankind, The information from Italy is rather bar- ---In Spain, the beloved Ferdinand has ren;
but no doubt can be entertained that outraged every feeling, which the Austria, tinding Murat uecessary to her laws of policy and humanity ought to views, has entered into a secret alliance bave dictated. His friends and his foes with lvim to secure his thrope, on condi- liave fallen in one universal conscription, tion that the upper part of Italy shall be- Neither age nor sex is spared. The come Austrian. Insurmountable difficul- reign of priesthood is revived, in all its fies have been thrown in the way of this horrors. That bloody tribunat the Ina project. Among others, the sudden requisition, is proceeding with gigantie vival of the King of Sardinia, who, in the strides. Horror and desolation mark iis present rage for the resuscitation of legi- progress, and universal destruction is the timate monarchs, has, of course, asserted only trace it leaves behind. Iu France', his claim to his " lawful possessions." | little of tranquillity appears to have been Kut great part of the former kingdom of established. Louis XVlll. whom all parSardinia liad so often changed owners, ties agree to be a mild, benificent, and that it was impossible almost to recollect good man, appears to be too much under its dispersed masters. "Austria has there the influence of the priests to be as popufore been coutented to secure at present iar as he might be, if be would shahe off what she could lay hold of, leaving to their odious voke. The revolution in that que and fortune the completion of her country, unexampled as it has been in ultimate views. The sacrifice of the free extent, both of moral and political infustate of
Cienca to the Sardinian throne ence, has so completely opened the eyes has been a part of this system. Pros of all mankind, that the delusions of Tieasure is said, in alınost all our news religion now excite little else than ridi, papers, to bc tyrannical and oppressive; cule. It l'am 10 believe, the Times to lie in pairable contradiction to every newspaper, which, to use an approprideclaration of the allied powers; and ate phrase on this subject, is always apo violatorý of every profession they made cryphal, a most serious convulsion was as to the literation of Europe. True, or on the point of lately, breaking forih false, 's these areusations may be, I have in Paris, in coilseajuguce of a fanatic little doubt the poor Genoese arust submit monk, wishing, and endeavouring, to to“ existing circumstances." I bave also revive one of those wonstrous absurdities iuv ieurs that Murat himself wil ultimate- which disgraced the dark and barbarous ly fall. I love as he stunds among the periods of ignorance and superstition, igitinteir inarchs, can it be supposed Nor was it prevented gntil the mmg bad that his crisice will be endurul, re- been twice sent to, and, from its increasing minding inena vitae great man by wisem videlice, the most alarning consequences they were set up, and put down at piece were to be apprehended : did ail: this sure? Constant reports and bints are because a wretched priest thought pron. circulated in all the coutinental papers, of per wo deny the righis of sepulc ire to a the advantagerils exchanges offered to respectable woman, who had für siuly hiin for l:is present kingdum ; and if, lihe years ligen an artist in a profession der Beauharisnis, he should not eluose tu no tainly morg liurmaçss, it tot mpre rational, wifti a good gruce, he has exery reason than his own. from every tbing which to dread the resuit. It may not happeut can perselie in that country, her atiaire immediately ; but if the new organization are in à ist unseitled stale. Souli, of Europe remain, luis eveutual fare may who wishes to out llerud-hierod, his be considered as a really sealed. Ask tacird a tiame in the matter of General
the Popier le is so little lought of water Excelmans, li lile la will require mergimitat Didounis.