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with man, as he was a young woman? How often have 1 heard persons exHas the period of 1800 years, diminished claim “ I wonder how any one can be so bis strength, or is he a man that he credulous as to be lead away by that should have grown imbecile through age? woman."--In the same manner I have

-How often do we call the Jews a set of heard a gaping clown, when staring at hard hearted and blood thirsty villains the lofty fabric of St. Paul, express his for not believing what took place in their astonishment, that human ingenuity could own day, but executing the Son of God plan and erect so stupendous a pile; but as an impostor. Every impartial person the skilful architect views it with far less must acknowledge, that the great bulk amazement, because he knows the prinof the English place themselves just in ciples upon which the temple was dethe same situation as the Jews, when signed, and the means by which that they ridiculed the Prophetess, and would design was carried into execution, and have persecuted her if our Prince had could himself, perhaps, raise as grand been as weak as Pontius Pilate, and had a structure, if he had the same opportuyielded to their senseless murder brea- nity of displaying his abilities. --Docs thing clamour. It would have been much not this prove, that all our wonder arises more becoming in such insignificant from our ignorance, and that the only animals as we are, to have waited with reason why we are surprised at the weakpatient submission to the Decrees of ness of the Southcoterians is, that we are Heaven, and not presumptuously attempt nnacquainted with the theory of the huto scan the ways of providence by man mind in general, and with our own judging and determining before the ap- faculties in particular? If we were capointed time. We called these people pable of divesting ourselves of the presuperstitious, weak, and stupid, for cre-judices of eclucation, the trammels of diting that which was not more wonder- superstition, and all the shackles which ful than what we firmly believe, though surrounding circumstances impose upon it took place near 2000 years since, and us; if we could dissect our brain, anada banded down to the by tradition, thru 1923 vus ülean, and make a inventory' uts the dark ages and a variety of mediums our knowledge, we should find the porwhich we often take a pleasure in pro- tion of it obtained by thinking, examinving to be suspicious. Does not all this ing, and judging for curselves, so small open a door to the scoffs and jeers of as hardly to be discernible in the mass Infidels ? Does it not give them a glo- of rubbish that we have received with-, rious opportunity of making our foolish out investigation, from our nurse, our conduct in this respect, a powerful en-schoolmaster, and our priest.--The ingine wherewith to strike at the very struction we imbibed from these, was root of our holy religion, by shewing us considered as the dictates of truth and how easily we can see the errors and reason by our infantine capacities. We absurdities of others, and wonder at their grow up in reverence of what we liave being so besotted, when, if we were ca- learned from paients, elders, and supepable of asking ourselves a few close riors, falsely conceiving it the result of questions, we might perhaps find that our own conviction, and, whether right we were cherishing in our own minds dog- or wrong, becoming more obstinately mas equally repugnant to common sense. bigotted to it the longer we continue it. Our prince is aware, that if the discus- | Our self love, pride, and vanity, prompt sion of these topics had been pushed still us to attach a peculiar importance to our further by the misguided zeal of religious own opinions, and to attribute them to persecution, it would give scope to a our judgment and discrimination, or to thousand such illnatured observations any cause but that of chance, or accident, and inferences as those I have just men- which threw us in the way of the educationed; therefore I look up to him with tion we have received, whether good or veneration, as an experienced Father, bad. To set our knowledge of, or our whose judgement is not blinded by his fondness for, particular dogmas to their affection for his children, but who has account, instead of tv our own election, is the resolution to deny such of their re- not sufficiently Aattering to human naquests as his superior knowledge, and ture. Is it then to le wondered at that foresight, convinces him will militate the more ignorant we are, the more obagainst their bappiness,

stinate we shall be in adhering to any

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dicalous notion we may have embraced? out having read her works, or examir And is it not evident, that the propered the passares in holy writ upon *23409 the balk of mankind ongiit to which she rested her rivine mission. assige for their profession of a particular I have that zea! and enthusiasm in the zeligion is, that I am a goorl Mahom- cause of truth; that I will make no serumetan, because I was born at Courtanti ple in declaring my opinion on this case, ople, and a true Christian, because I even though I should be thought a was born at London ?--Whea we reflect Southcoier an in disguise, and be loaded upon the history of man, Cail we be sus- with every species of opprobrium. I do prised at any thing he does unler the roundly assest. without ihe fear of iufuence of religion ?-.There is no prin contradiction, that the texts selected ciple so powerful over the human mind by virs. Southcott fo: the illustration sus superstition, when enforced and di- oi her doctrines, are as pointed and as zected by a Priest. It is quite immaterial applicable as any of those upon which whether it is the worship of the niost we ground the christian system. To Hideous idol to which the poor benighted | those who say that her death proved Judian bows the knee,or the more ration the fallacy of her scheme, and her folal afloration of a Supreme Being, as the lowers will no longer exist as a sect, Author of Naturl.-Their effects will be it is answered that her disciples know the same wherever a Priesthood have the the Almighty lias changed bis mind beliberty of modifying them to answer their fore; he had repented that he had made owu interested purposes---Let us then man, that he called Jesus Christ to heabe moderate and charitable, and avoid | ven before he had caused the Lion and exposing our shallow knowledge of self, the Lamb to lay down together, and lv abusing others, even if they should the land to flow with milk and honey; le in error.

But God forbid that I and may he not, say the true believers, should say they are because they see have some wise and mysterious end in danre ia iny Bible than I have been view in taking the holy prophetess to finger to czy urrutenett trinnett, it out bicssos

La with the be extended and improved, and Shiloh. Perhaps the crying sins of this not that of religion ?--The Jews never great Babylon have offended him. But discovered that our systein was predicted be tbis as it may, whatever is, is right; in their books and will not believe it to it is all for the best, and must at last this day. The language of oracles and work together for good. Let us then prophecies' has never been direct and cordially unite in offering up those senperspicuous, but, on the contrary, dark timents of praisé, which are the emanaand inysterious. The fertile imagination tion of a true and loyal heart, to out of St. Augustine could see the whole of good and gracious Prince Regent, for his the New Testament in the Old: le dis- mild and generous conduct towards this covered that even the piece of red rag new sect-of christians, which, I have held out as a signal by a harlot, was no doubt will flourish to the end of time; typical of the blood of our blessed Sa- it being my most serlous persuasion, visur, and the two wives of Abrabam that, according to critical evidence, this theant the synagogue and the catholic system and our own only holy and inchurch. We protestants, in our expo- fållible faith must stand of fall together, sttions, make the man of sin to be the

ESRASMUS PERKINS, pope, the Romish religion antichristian ; and the more enlightened Southcoteriars London, Feb. 17, 1815. can see still farther than us.

They find that Jesns went off without making the earth à paradise as was promised, and quote passages from scripture to prove his second coming in the child SHILOH, The American Documents to be continued to fulfil what he left undone. Hundreds have condemned the prophetess with

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VOL. XXVII. No. 9.]


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[ 258 DELIVERANCE OF SPAIN, dare say, it will be pursued all over Eu

rope. Napoleon put down the InquisiThe following REFLECTIONS place in tion and drove out the Monks. Those a clear right the Changes, which have who now suffer from having fought and taken place in Spain, since the return of wrote against Napoleon and for FerdiFerdinand, the beloved, in consequence nand must take the fruit of thei.'exertions of the Deliverance of that country. For for their pains. Spain is Delivered ; we my part, I have very little feeling for were, as we say, her Deliverers. I will those, who endeavoured to restore him. pity no one, who was for the DeliverThey well knew him and his family; ance, and who yet complains of its consethey well knew the sort of government quences. which they had under that family; they had vo reason to expect better govern

REFLECTIONS ment than before; they wrote and fought for him; they have him ; and much good On the Political Changes which havetaken may he do them. There were many per

place in Spain since the return of Fersons, of whom I was one, who did not

dinand. wish to see Europe under the sway of My object in presenting these reflecNapoleon, but who feared, that his be- tions to the public, is to throw some ing overthrown would produce evil, by light on a subject of the greatest importreplacing all the nations of Europe under ance to the tranquillity of Europe. their old masters, with a despotism, on My homage is due only to justice and the part of the latter, to rule the people to virtue, for in whatever country or inwithi a rod of iron. As to supposing, as dividual they may be found, the friend of some men did, that the old families would liberty must honour and respect them. be more mild in their government than Wishing to divest myself of all national formerly; that the lesson, as it was called, and party spirit, which never fail to blind would make them gentle in future, and the eyes of those who are under their inallow their people more liberty than they fuence, I will express with the utmost enjoyed before, nothing could, it ap- frankness, my ideas on events of such peared to me, be more foolish, nothing importance as those which have lately more opposite to the general practice of' happened in Spain, and which, in my mankind. Who, as I once before asked, opinion, have not yet been considered in that has cattle or sheep which break over their true light. For this purpose I will or through his fences, lower or weaken the give a brief historical recapitulation of fences upon bringing back the flock or the them, without which it will be impossible herd ? Does a lorse break his halter? We to form a just opinion of their origin ang put a chain in its stead. I have a gang

of future

consequences. leaping Mares and Colts, which have The Spanish Nation, invaded by Nabroken out, several times this winter, poleon and deserted by Ferdinand in a from rough pasture into my meadows and way, if not the most criminal

, at least the fields, allured by the sight of better most impolitic, nobly resisted so unjust living. What have I done? Have I an aggression. That this desertion was patted them and caressed them? Have contrary to the wish of the Spaniards, is I given them a greater and farther range? evident from the means taken by the peoNot I, faith! I have sought out the places ple of Vittoria to hinder his ill-judged of their escape; and having driven them journey, for they unharnessed his carback, have constantly redoubled the bar- riage, notwithstanding his utmost remonTier; and have, at last, made it imposa strances, and those of bis stupid advisers sible for them to get out with their lives. and followers. In order to oppose the sFerdinand is pursuing my plan, and, I'most effectual resistance to the invasion


of Napoleon, the people appointed new monstrous phenomenon, the Treaty of authorities, because the former were cor- Valency, a treaty so shameful and inderupted or intimidated by the orders of cent, that Ferdinand himself, in order to Ferdinand himself, and as such, unwil bide the ignon.iny of it, pretended that ling to resist the yoke that was about to he had no other intention than to outwit be imposed on them by the conqueror. Bonaparte: (see the puerile and ridicuAll the authorities, established during this lous Pamphilet of the Canon Escoiquiz, a period of the revolution, were recognized worthy companion of Ferdinand, and his by England and by all the other powers counsellor in making the above treaty) of Europe, who dared to oppose the arms as if following Bonaparte on his throne, of Napoleon, and they shewed not the he who had so often degraded himself by least hesitation to form treaties of alliance submission, was now bold enough not to and friendship with them. In short, to fulfil the stipulations, or as if foreseeing doubt the legality of the new Spanish his fall, he would have given the world Government, would be to condemn a re- sufficient grouwd to suspect his veracity, volution, more generally approved than merely to anticipate his treedom by 15 any one of which we have any example. I days, if that lile can be called freedom Nothing could more strongly prove the which is spent among nuns, in passing legitimacy of the government, than the from convent to convent. elections for representatives which took In order to guard against the effects of place in all the provinces unoccupied by so shameful a treaty, in which Ferdinand the enemy, and among the individuals of bound himself without delay, to restore those that were, who met at Cadiz, then to Bonaparte all the prisoners made by the capital of the Spanish Empire, in the Spaniards, which were either in the order to form the extraordinary Cortes ; Peninsula, England, or America, and to an assembly which the government of this cause thiose English troops who were then country, by its agent the Marquis of tighting so gloriously for his personal Wellesley, wisely promoted, knowing that liberty, to evacnate Spain, the ordinary the Spaniards could make no progress in Cortez issued the decree of the 2d of Fedefending their independence, without bruary, 1814, to annull the said convention, procuring at the same time their intemal | The decree was inimediately transliberty. This assembly, notwithstanding mitted to all the Spanish authorities, the désertion of Ferdinand and bis base and to Lord Wellington, who, nominated acts of submission, as those of soliciting by the Cortez generalissimo of the Spato be adopted a son of Napoleon, and nish Armies, was, above all other persons, asking him the command of a division in responsible for its being complied with; his armies for his brother Charles, while because, by a charge of such importance, Spain was suffering under every sacrifice the safeiy and defence of the Cortez, and to redeem him from captivity, decreer even the national liberty, were committed that he was their King, that a Regency to his care, and the representatives of should be appointed in his room, but that the Spanish people had shewn themselves on his return he should not be recognized satisfied with this contidence, inasmuch till he had sworn to the Constitution in as they had honoured him with titles, the bosom of the Cortez, and that any estates and distinctions. The decree act or treaty he might make, should be was also communicated to the English null and void, till the said condition Ambassador, and by means of the Spashould be performed. The Extraordinary nish Ambassadors, to all the Allied PowCortez ordered the Constitution to be ers; they all, as well as Lord Wellington, transmitted to all the Allied Powers, and expressed themselves satisfied with a deby whom the different Regencies were cree so honorable to the representatives recognized legitimate. Napoleon who had issued it, as well as useful to the pressed by the entrance of the Allies into powers who were interested in the indeFrance, sought to diminish the number pendence of Europe. And how could it of his enemies and increase that of his be otherwise, when they saw themselves. friends : : as he well knew the meanness freed from so shameful and dangerous a and baseness of Ferdinand, he took care compromise, as that of furnishing Napoto make him an ally of his own, and the leon with a numerous aud warlike army, enemy of those who were defending his diminishing the number of his enemies müse in Spain. Hence • followed that ) and increasing that of his allies, coin



pelling Lord, Wellington either to retire to assist in making prisoners the regents from the Peninsula or to fight with that and the members of the Cortez, and to very Spanish army then under his com- execute the other orders of Ferdinand, mand, and the united forces of Soult and It is lamentable to reflect that such a Suchet? On the 26th of March, after commission was executed by an officer having secretly ratified the Treaty of born in a free country; such a commis. Valency, Ferdinand arrived on the fron- sion he ought to have disdained to actiers of Spain. Napoleon was deprived cept, and lie accepted it no doubt ;with of his throne on the 6th of April, and Fer- a view to that command which he afterdinand stopping at Valencia, where he wards received from Ferdinand. These received the foreign Ambassadors, Gene- facts being established, I conceive it is rals and Chiefs oi'a faction hostile to the allowable to make such reflections as Cortez, without the nation having ex-naturally arise on these great political pressed any determination contrary to changes in Spain, on the violent means that which it had sworn to follow, Fer- by which Ferdinand has been raised to dinand having concerted his scheme, an empire above that of the law, as well and provided the means for its execution, as on the injustice with which the Spa* on the 4th of May, published that fatal nish nation is censured for submitting to decree for the destruction of that com- so detestable a despotism, without consi. pact, by which the nation had granted dering the difficulty of getting rid of a him the Crown. Not satisfied with the yoke once imposed, nor of the many sacrifices which the people had volun- circumstances which have conspired a tarily undergone in order to secure him a gainst Spanish liberty. throne, more honorable than that which It is not my intention to make all the he had lost both bv desertion and by his reflections on the subject that might be resignation, prepossessed with the idea expected from a historian; the limits of that he owed every thing to heaven, and a pamphlet will not allow it; a few renothing to men, and educated in ideas marks will be sufficient to throw light on which made him wish to reign only over this business, and my principal intention slaves; after having formed a party from is to place it in a point of view in which among those who were stained with the it may be duly examined and appreciated foul crime of having all more or less con- by others. I forbear to agitate the ques. tributed to support the throne of Joseph, tion, whether the legitimacy of the Spahe declared for the extermination of all nish Goverument being acknowledged ing those who had shewn the smallest dispo- other nations, they ought to acknowledge sition to unite the interests of the throne Ferdinand, in opposition to the constituto those of the people; thus giving an tion sanctioned by the representatives example, not only of the most complete of Spain. I will content myself with incapacity, and the basest malevolence, saying, that if this is answered in the but of the most monstrous and horrible affirmative, it will go so far as to shake the ingratitude. Like all tyrants in similar Throne of every sovereign in Europe, and circumstances, his first means of ven- give room to perpetual convulsions. Pergeance were the imprisonment of all haps, in order to confound the Spanish those disaffected to his government, the constitution with the recognition of destruction of the freedom of the press, Ferdinand, they will say that no nation in order to conceal the atrocity of his has a right to interfere with the interconduct, and represent things as suited nal government of another. But this is his purpose, promising the people a sem- not the matter under consideration, blance of future freedom, the more ef- Without meddling with the Spanish fectually to dazzle their eyes, and those constitution, they had no right to acof all Europe, impudently pretending knowledge Ferdinand till he had been acthat he had published to the Cortez the knowledged by the Spanish Nation, unless act of their dissolution, at a time when they will maintain that a monarch being their principal members were shut up in ackuowledged to day under one state of - separate prisons without communication. circumstances, and these circumstances Having taken these measures, a division remaining the same, he may be ackuotyof ten thousand men, whose van guard ledged to-morrow in a light totally differwas commanded by General Whitting- ent. For other nations to have acknowham, was sent from Valencia to wiadrid, I ledged Ferdinand at so uuseasonalche

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