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appears to be taken, for working their machinery. I pichase, £3333. On this estife is an excellen Here are several noble establishments for spicio hone, and unit-buildings, ünü ü tarze walleil gara ring woollen yara. Their cropping or shearing den, all in good repair. Alachines were performing their office with the
I have already said that Napoleon apgreatest precision. I think they : so wide awake iu mechanical improvements; indecil, the quality pears to be no very great favourite of Mr. of their clotli proves their skill too well to leave Birkbeck, who not unfrequently calls him a doubt of the excellence of their inplements. a tyrant, and speaks pretty freely of what, There is great decency and comfort in the looks he considers, the oppressive acts of his of their work-people; of whoin women form by government, and the madness of his ambifar the principal part. The ci-devant priory of St. Martin is now a
tious projects. Yet amidst all this tyconserratory of aris and maonfactures. Here are ranny, this oppression, and this mad ainmodels of implements of agriculture, including bition, our author is compelled to ackuowthose in connnon rise in ditferent districis, aisd the modern improvements or attempts at im. ledge, that“ under his auspices the iaterprovement. Among these curiosities are soine “ nal goveroment of the country was wise vsodels of threshing machines, in which the me- 6 and effectual; property was sacred and chanics have proceeded no tiriher than to put in 66 crimes were rare." motion a set of fails, I recognize ju this colkection many implements, parlicnlarly ploughs,
There was a magnificence (says he) aloitt Bowhich I have seen at work as we passed. The aparte which carries you away in defiance of spirit of invention is hardly at work among the your suber judgment. Today I gained a right Frenchi farmers. Poverty shifts with things as
of the astonishing colossal elephant, which was iv they are: capital looks for improvement. I lave liave been elevated vii the scite of the Bastile; visited this collection twice, and it is with regret
froni which a grand street was projected to the I acknowledge that I did not bring away one idea front of the Louvre, through the whole length of worth recording. Agricultural implements form the city. The canal of Onrque, a grand work of bait a small part of the establi>liments it contains is for the supply of Paris with water, was to every machine, I imagine, which is in use in the have formed a fountain through the proboscis of silk and cution manufacture. One room contajlis the elephant. Wherever you turn is soine Aliita But inodels, but a complete set of machinery, jezdic moment of his tasit. In fact, tile stalia which is uder the care of a professor, and regn- deur of Paris was his creatiou, and you now see "latly at work, for the loserweriva of pupils in the workmen busy in all parts, scratching out his art of spinning cottou. Here are also deposited name, and defacing his cagles. This is very pitie munbertess specimens of curious inventions in fill
, The Bourbons, in their attempis to disgrace niechanics, in pliilusopilical iustruments, and in Napleon, by pulling down lois states and obevery branch of artó and manufactures. It is literating the ensigns of Ins power, are directing open on particular days of the week to the pnb- their attack against his least vulnerable part, and -hc; avd every day to foreigners. Such is the libe inviting a comparisou greatly to their own disral spirit of the nation ; exemplified not in this advantage. He executed many great works of instance only, but universally. Those of my lasting atility, and many of amazing splendour. countrymen who have been driven throngh the Voder bis auspices the internal governsent of British Museum, or conducted tlirough any other the comtry was wise and ettecinal: property place of exhibition at home, can put a proper could not be committed with impunily.
was sacred, and crimes were rare because they value on this generous treatment. I once, visited the galleries of natural history in the Jardin des It is somewhat difficult to believe any Plantes on a public day: it was amusing to see man to be a tyrant and an oppressor, who the crowd, niostly of what is called the lower could occupy himself so much with the order, which thronged the rooms ; and edifying to observe their decorum, and the interest. iliey happiness and prosperity of a country over took in examining every thing.
which he reigned, and where the effects of Nothing has a greater tendency to in- his good government were so conspicuous. duce those who are possessed of a little The measures resorted to by Napoleon to -money to take up their residence in France, recruit his armies were, without doubt, of than the low rate at which landed
a severe description, and might be thought
pro*perty may be purchased there when com- rigorous by many individuals in France. pared with its price in this country. The But then it ought to be recollected, that following statement places this in a very
they were necessary in the then state of striking point of view:
things; much more so perhaps than the One tliousand acres árable, 500 woodland, equal crúit their forces. If we consider Napo
measures employed by other.nations to reto 1650 acres Engtish; one third of the arable leon fighting to maintain the integrity of poor cold clay, of little' value; two thirds pretty good wheat land; part dry enough for turnips : the French territory, and for the mainteis let ou lease for vine years (which the tenant nance of treaties, which had been violated would give up on receiving a fair price for his by those who concluded them with him, I stock and crops) at 9000 tranks, £375 sterling : and land-tax 1600 francs, £ 66 13s. per amn, might do not know of a better ground for going be bought as we understood, for about 22 years to war. I have yet to learn that the poo ple were hostile to his views. Every thing, | beck has told us respecting the state of coon the contrary, has tended to convince me, ciety in France be true; if we are to buthat he has not only all along possessed | lieve that the people there are as happy, at their entire affections, but that the wars least, as they are in this country, and he in which he was engaged have always been represents them as much happier; if we agreeable to them, and the chief cause of are to give credit to what he tells us the strong attachment which they have about the low price of land and of provin uniformly shewn towards him, even when sions, the delightful appearance of the a reverse of fortune placed him, in a great country, the high state of cultivation in measure, in the power of his enemies. In which he found it, the many excellent inthis there does not appear to be any symp- stitutions, and the wise code of laws by toms, that the people of France ever con- which the rights of the poorest person in sidered him a tyrant or an oppressor. If France are protected. If all this is to be they had, they would have assisted in held as true, and I have no doubt that it is keeping him down when he was down. true in every particular, and if it is equally Instead of hailing him, on his return from true that Napoleon is a tyrant, then would Elba, as their deliverer, they would have it follow that tyranny is the best calculated united as one man to oppose his reassump- of all forms of government to promote the tion of the government. If then it appears happiness of a people; that the arts and so very clear, that the French people the sciences, that every thing, in fact, connever thought Napoleon a tyrant or an ducive to the greatness and glory of a na. oppressor, never vicwed him in the light of tion, flourish best under a military despot. a despot, never complained of what we, ism. If this principle is to be maintained, good tender souls, call the horrors of the it might indeed be believed that Napoleon conscription, never lamented the continu- | is a tyrant, and that the French people acance of the war, but seem as ready at this tually prefer tyranny and despotism to a moment as ever to fight under so great a free representative government. But who captain. If the people of France, who that has any pretensions to common sense have the best right, the only right, to com- can entertain so absurd a doctrine.plain of these supposed grievances, never France is great and powerful only because troubled themselves in any way about her government possesses talent, and octhem, what right have we to set up a la- cupies itself incessantly with the public mentation on their behalf? Upon what welfare. Her people are happy only beprinciple is it that we affect to feel pity cause her laws and her institutions are and compassion for a nation that do not formed to promote happiness. want our pity ? And where is the pru- can say, that the now greatly improved dence, to say nothing of the injustice, of state of France is the consequence of what calling the sovereign of any people a ty- was called, the paternal sway of the rant, a despot, and an oppressor, when the Bourbons; for during the few months whole of that people have given so many of their continuance in France, they were unequivocal proofs of their entire satisfac- so much occupied with endeavouring to tion with his conduct ? With these proofs give stability to their own power, that before our eyes, we must either admit that they had no leisure to attend to any thing Napoleon is not a tyrant, a despot, nor an else. Nor can it be attributed to the maoppressor, or we must apply these insult- nagement of those in whose hands the
goa ing and degrading epithets to the whole vernment was placed during the early pepopulation of France. He is the man of riod of the revolution. They, no doubt, their choice. They have declared that did much to clear away the rubbish; but they will not submit to another. After it was not till Napoleon was called to fill identifying themselves, as it were, with the office of Chief Magistrate ; it was not this wonderful man, in so pointed a man- till after many years of incessant labour ner, every attack made upon him must be and inconceivable anxiety on the part of held as an attack upon the French people; this most extraordinary man, that France every abusive expression applied to him reached that state of greatness and prosmust be considered as intended to apply perity, in which we now find her, and as to that great nation. There is, besides, a he is described by the impartial pen of deal of inconsistency in maintaining that Mr. Birkbeck. If that gentleman should Napolcop is a tyrant. If what Mr. Birk- be induced to present the public with ano
ther edition of his interesting tour, I am tem, which we had adopted as conforme not without hopes that he will profit by able to the spirit of the age, and favourmy remarks, and either expunge the ob- able to the progress of civilization. In noxious expressions to which I have al- order to attain its completion, and to give Juded, or give such an explanation of it all the extent and stability of which it them as will clear him from the charge of was susceptible, we postponed the estainconsistency; for it appears to me ut. blishment of many internal institutions, terly impossible in any man to rrad his more particularly destined to protect the book, even with a slight degree of atten- liberty of the citizens. Henceforward our tion, and not be convinced, that all that only object is to encrease the prosperity of has been said about Napoleon being a France, by the confirmation of public tyrant, and about his having oppressed liberty: Hence results the necessity of and desolated France, is entirely destitute variousimportant modifications of the cop. of foundation.
stitutions, the senatus-consulta, and other In the concluding part of Mr. Birk- acts which govern this empire. For these beck's tour, he remarks,
causes, wishing, on the one hand, to retain It is die from us to add, that in the course or of the passed what was good and salutary, our enquiries on every topic we met with no in- and on the other, to render the constitustance of incivility; Ho reserve or appearance of tions of our empire in erery thing consuspicion. It was thus from the north to the ex; formable to the national wishes and wants trenie south; and in whatever direction we had flaped our course, I am satisfied we should have
as well as to the state of peace which we experienced the same kind reception. And, in desire to maintain with Europe, we have onr own country, wherever an intelligent French. resolved to propose to the people a series man sliall present liiniself, prepared to comnimo. of arrangements tending to modify and imcate, and anxious to obtain information, le will be received as we were reccived in France; prove its Constitutional Acts; to strengthen making some allowance for a degree of jealony the rights of citizens by every guarantee, among the manufacturers, not incompatible witli to give the representative system its whole personal benevolence, but arising from particular extention, to invest the intermediate bodies circumstances which might render competition with the desirable respectability and spinous. A suficient proof that we are not natura' enemies ! -. Les peuples ne s'entrehäissent pas,' power,-in one word, to combine the as I heard many ot the French exclaim. How highest degree of political liberty and inlong then shall forty millions of civilized people, dividual security, with the force and cenin the two countries, remain the dupes of that wretched and disgraceful policy, by which
tralization necessary govern.
for causing the inde. wents foment perpetual rivalslip and war, onder pendence of the French people to be rethe hackneyed plea of supporting social order and spected by foreigners, and to the dignity religion, and
of our crown. In consequence, the fola Maké enemies of nations who had else, Like kindred drops, beeu mingled iuto one."
lowing articles, forming an act supplemena tary to the constitutions of the empire,
shall be submitted to the free and solemn FRENCH CONSTITUTION. acceptance of all citizens throughout the
whole extent of France:ACT ADDITIONAL TO THE CONSTITUTIONS
Article 1. The constitutions of the emOF THE EMPIRE. Napoleon, by the grace of God and the the 220 Frimaire, year 8, the Senatus Con
pire, particularly the constitutional act of Constitutions, Emperor ofthe French, sulta of the 14 and 16 Thermidor, year 10, to all present and to come greeting.
and of the 28 Floreal, year 12, shall be Since we were called, fifteen years ago, modified by the arrangements which folto the government of the State by the low. All other arrangements are conwishes of France, we endeavoured, at va- firmed and maintained. rious times, to improve the constitutional 2. The Legislative Power is exercised forms, according to the wants and desires by the Emperor and two Chambers. of the nation, and profiting by the lessons 3. The first Chamber, called the Chama of experience. The constitutions of the ber of Peers, is hereditary. empire were thus formed of a series of acts 4. The Emperor appoints its Members, which were sanctioned by the acceptance who are irrevocable, they and their male of the people. It was then our object to descendants, from one eldest son to ano, organise a grand federative European sys. I ther. The number of Peers iş unlimited,
Adoption does not transmit to him who is when its publicity does not compromise, its olject, the dignity of the Peerage. Peers the interest of the State. take their scats at twenty-one years
age, 20. The sittings of the two Chambers but have no deliberative voice till twenty- are public. They may, however, go into
secret committee, the Prers on the demand 5. The Arch-Chancellor of the Em- of ten, and the representatives on the depire is President of the Chamber of Peers, mand of twenty-five members. Governorin certain cases a Member of the Cham- ment may also require secret committees ber specially designated by the Emperor. when it has communications to make. In
6. The Members of the Imperial Fa- all cases deliberation and vote can only be mily, in hereditary order, are Peers of in public sitting. sight. They take their seats at 18 years 21. The Emperor may prorogue, ad. of age, but have no deliberate voice till 21. journ, and dissolve the Chamber of Reprc
7. The second Chamber, called that of sentatives. The Proclamation which pro. Representatives, is elected by ile psople. nounces the dissolution convokes the Eleon
8. Its members are 629 in number. toral Colleges for a new election; and They must be 25 years old at least. fixes the meeting of representatives within
9. Their President is appointed by the six months at the farthest. Chamber, at the opening of the first Ses- 22. During the recess of sessions of the sjon. ble retains his functions till the re- Chambers of Representatives, or in case of newal of the Chamber. llis nomination its dissolution, the Chamber of Peers canji suimmitted to the approbation of the Em- not meet. Peror'.
23. Görernment has the proposal of 10. This Chamber verifies the powers of laws; the Chambers can propose amendits Miembers, and pronounces on the vali- ments; if these amendments are not adoptdity of contested elections.
ed by Government, the Chambers are 11. Its Members receive for travelling bound to vote on the law such as it was espenses, and during the Session, the pay proposed. decreed by the Constitucnt Assembly. 24. The Chambers hare the power of,
12. They are indefinitely re-eligible. inviting Government to propose a law on
13. The Chamber of Representatives is a determinate object, and to draw up what of right wholly renewed every five years. it appears to them proper to insert in the
it. No Member of either Chamber can law. This claim may be made by either be arrested, except in FLAGRANTE DELIC- Chamber. TO, nor prosecuted in any criminal or cor- 25. When a Bill is adopted in either rectional matter during a Session, hut in Chamber, it is carried to the other; and if virtue of a resolution of the Chamber of there approved, it is carried to the Em. which he forms a part.
peror. 15. None can be arrested or detained 26. No written discourse, excepting re.. for debt, from the date of conrocation, nor ports of Committees, of Ministers on laws, for forty days after the Session.
and accounts, can be read in either Cham, 16. In criminal or correctional matters ber. Peers are judged by their Chamber, ac- TITLE II.--OF ELECTORAL COLLEGES AND cording to prescribed forms.
THE MODE OF ELECTION. 17. The office of peer and representa
27. The Electoral Colleges of Depart. tive is compatible with all other public ment and Arrondissement are maintained, functions, except those of matters of ac- with the following modifications : ecunt (comptables); prefects and sub-pre- 28. The Cantonal Assemblies will yearfects are, however, ineligible.
ly fill up by elections all the vacancies in 18. The Emperor sends to the Cham- electoral colleges.. bers Ministers and Counsellors of State, 29. Dating from 1814, a Member of the who sit there and take part in the debates, Chamber of Peers appointed by the Empebut have no deliberative voice unless they ror shall be President for life, and irremoare peers or elected by the people. vable of every Electoral College of De
19. The Ministers, thus Members of partment, either Chamber, or sitting there by mission 30. Dating from the same period, the from Government, give to the Chambers Electoral College of every Department such information as is deemed necessary, I shall appoint, among the Members of each
college of arrondissement, the president i ber of Representatives, and are tried by
이 and two vice-présidents. For that pur- that of Peers. pose, the meeting of the departmental col- 41. Every Minister, every Commandant leges shall precede by a fortnight that of of armed force, by land or sea, may be acthe college of arrondissement.
cused by the Chamber of Representatives, 31. The colleges of department and ar- and tried by that of Peers, for having comrondissement shall appoint the number of promised the safety or honour of the narepresentatives fixed for cach in the tabletion. adjoined.
12. The Chamber of Peers, in that case, 32. The representatives may be chosen cxercises a discretional power either in indiscriminately from the whole extent of classing the offence or mitigating the Fra!ce. Every college of department or punishment. arrondissement which shall choose a mem- 43. Before placing a Minister in accuber out of its bounds, shall appoint a sup- sation, the Chamber of Representatives plementary member, who must be taken must declare that there is ground for exfrom the department or arrondissement. amining the charge.
33. Manufacturing and commercial in- 44. This declaration can only be made dustry and property, sliall have special on the report of a Committee of 60, drawn representatives. The election of conimer- by lot. This Committee must make its cial and manufacturing representatives report in 10 days or sooner after its nomishall be made by the electoral college of nation. department, from a list of persons eligible, 45. When the Chamber declares there is drawn up by the Chambers of Commerce, ground for enquiry, it may call the Miand the Consultative Chambers united. nister before them to demand explanaTITLE II.OF TAXATION.
tions, at least within 10 days after the re31. The general direct tax, whether on port of the Committee. land or moveables, is voted only for one 46. In no other case can Ministers in year: indirect taxes may be voted for se- office be summoned or ordered by the veral years. In case of the dissolution of Chambers. the Chamber of Representatives, the taxes 47. When the Chamber of Represen.. voted in the preceding session are conti- tatives has declared that there is ground Hued till the next meeting of the Chamber. for inquiry against a minister, a new com
35. No tax, direct or indirect, in money mittce of 60 drawn by lot is formed, who or kind, can be levied, no loan contracted, are to make a new report on the placing in no inscription in the great book of the accusation. This committee makes its republic debt can be made, no domain alien- port 10 days after its appointment. ated or sold, no lery of men for the army 48. The placing in accusation is not to ordered, no portion of territory exchanged, take place till 10 days after the report is but in virtue of a law.
read and distributed. 36. No proposition of tax, loan, or levy 49. The accusation being pronounced, of men, can be made but to the Chamber the Chamber appoints five of its members of Representatives.
to prosecute the charge before the Peers. 37. Before the same Chamber must be 50. The 75th art. of the constitutional laid, in the first instance, 1. The General acts of the 22d Frimaire, year 8, importing Budget of the State, containing a view of that the agents of government can only be the receipts, and the proposal of the funds prosecuted in virtue of a decision of the assigned for the year, to each department Council of State, shall be modified by a of service: 2. The account of the receipts law. and expences of the year or of preceding years.
51. The Emperor appoints all Judges. TITLE IT.OF MINISTERS, AND OF RE- They are irremovable and for life from the SPONSIBILITY.
moment of there appointment; but the no38. All the acts of Government must mination of Justices of Peace, and Judges be countersigned by a Minister in office. of Commerce, shall take place as formerly.
39. The Ministers are responsible for The existing Judges, appointed by the acts of Government signed by them, as Emperor in terms of the Senatus Consulwell as for the execution of the laws. tum of the 12th Oct. 1807, and whom he
40. They may be accused by the Cham. I shall think proper to retain, shall receive
1.OF THE JUDICIAŁ POWER.