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AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. is an Act, passed by the representative:

of the people. The King grants pensions to whom he The President can give no pension, nor, chooses, under 6,000 dollars a year. He eren with the consent of the Senate, make has more than 100,000 pounds a year any grant whatever of the public monefs placed at his disposal for secret services, not even to the amount of a dollar. Every of which no particular account is ever ren- thing of this sort is done by the Congress, dered even to the parliamerit.

comprising the whole of the representa

tives of the people. The HOUSE OF PEERS hold their The SENATE consists of two Members seats by hereditary right; but the King from each of the States in the Union. may make new peers whenever he chooses. They are elected by the State LegislaThey may be old or young; present or tures, who have been elected by the people. absent; abroad or at home.

They serve for four years. The Constitution positively forbids the granting of any title of nobility. Every Senator is to be not under thirty years of age when elected, and is to be a resident in the

State for which he is elected. The HOUSE OF COMMONS con- The HOUSE OF REPRESENTA. sists of County Members and City and TIVES consists of Members from the Borough Members. Be the county great several States, in number proportioned or small it sends 2 Members ; and, as to to the population of the States, accordthe cities and boroughs, London and West- ing to actual enumeration. They are electminster, which contain about 800,000 ed for two years. persons, send 6 Members, while Old Sa. rum, Gatton, and many other places, containing not a hundred persons eachy send each 2 Members. The Members are elected for seven years.

The qualification for County Members The qualifications for members is mere. L600 a year in land; and £300 a year in ly that of having attained the age of 25 land for borough-members.

years, and having been 7 years a citizen

of the United States. The qualifications of outes are too vari- As to the qualification of voters, it is ous to be half described. In coulies the simply that of having paid taxes, and freeholders only vote, and these do not being in a state to be called on for taxes. form a twentieth part of the payers of There are, in the different states, slight taxes. A house or a bit of freehold land differences in the regulations as to voting; worth 40 shillings a year gives a vote; but, generally, and substantially, the paywhile houses and lands to the amount of ing of taxes, small or great in amount, thousands a year, if retaining any of the gives a right to vote. Of course, as the feudal character, give no vote at all. But, President, Senate, and Representatives, the best account of this matter is to be all chosen from this source, they are found in the Petition, presented to the all really the representatives of the peoHouse of Commons, and received by that ple. It is manifestly a government carried House, on the 6th of May, 1793. In that on by the peoplo, through their delspetition it is stated,


Members. 66 That 30 Peers nominate.. 66

influence .. 39


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“ Total Members, returned by pri. {"vate patronage for England

309 “ and Wales, exclusive of the “ forty-five for Scotland

“ That in this manner a majority of the bot entire House is chosen, and are enabled, “ being a majority, to decide all questions 6 in the name of the whole people of Eng46 land and Scotland.”

All the Ministers have seats in one or No person holding an office under the the other of the Houses, and a great num- government can be a Member of either ber of their secretaries and clerks besides. House; and no one can be appointed to In 1808, when an account of this matter any place (during the time for which he was ordered to be printed by the House of was elected), if such place has been created Commons, there were 76 persons in that during the time he was in the Legislature. House, who received, amongst them, 178,994 pounds sterling a year of the public money. What was received, in this way by the, Peers and their families I have no means of knowing. But, not only can Members of either House enjoy the profits of places, or of grants ; they can receive appointments and grants while they are members. They frequently take part in voting money to themselves. But, there is this safeguard, that in some cases, at least, when a member receives a lucrative appointment, he vacates his seat, and must, if ke continue a Member, be reelected! It is, however, very rarely, that his " constituents" refuse to re-elect him! Oh! la belle chase!.

The king can dissolve the Parliament The President has no power to dissolve whenever he pleases; and the Parliament the Congress, or either of the Houses; has been dissolved at every change of nor to adjourn their meetings, unless they ministry for some time past. He can also disagree upon the subject. Nor can he prorogue the Houses at kis pleasure. call them together at any but at periods

fixed by law, except on extraordinary occasions,


AMERICAN GOVERNMENT, If the king disapproves of a Bill, he If the President does not approve of a rejects it, at once, without assigning any Bill, passed by the two Houses, he sends reasons.

it back with his objections; but if two thirds of both Houses persevere, the Bill

becomes a Law. The king alone coins money, raises The Congress alone has power to coin troops, and fits out navies.

money, to raise troops, to build and equip

ships. The privilege of habeas corpus was sus- The privilege or writ of 'habeas corpus pended in England for several years, dur- cannot be suspended, 'unless, when in ing Pitt's administration, when there was cases of rebellion or invasion, the public neither rebellion nor invasion.

safety may require it. America has lately þeen invaded in several parts, has had her towns burnt and plundered, her coast ravaged and devastated; and yet, the habeas

corpus was not suspended. It is treason to compass the death of the Treason consists only in levying war king; and this may be by writing or against the UNITED STATES, or in talking, and indirectly as well as directly. adhering to their enemies, giving them aid

The crime of treason here is against the and comfort.
king : in America it is against the United
States; that is to say against the people.
By an act of this king's reign (to last 'till
his death, and a year longer) it is declared
to be high treason to endeavour to over-
awe the king, or either house of parlia-

ment, into a change of measures or coun120gils.; and, at one time, it was high trea

son to send to any person in the domi-
nions of France, a bag of flour, a flitch
of bacon, or a bushel of potatoes.
In England the Church Establishment

66 No law shall be made by Congress receives in rents and tythes about an eighth respecting an established religion, or part of the amount of the rental of the whole “prohibiting the free exercise thereof." kingdom. All the Bishops, Deans, Pre- No religious test is required of any man bends, and the greater part of the bene- to qualify him for any office. ficed priests are appointed by the Crown. may publish what he pleases about reli

Any man There are test laws, which shut out from gion. No tythes in America. Marriages political and civil privileges great num- are settled under the eye of the civil bers of the people ; and men are frequent. Magistrate, if the parties choose, ly severely punished, put in felon’s jails, and fred, and pillored into the bargain, for writing, printing, or publishing their opinions about religion. The Bishops have seats in the House of Peers. Marriages are not legal unless sanctioned by the priests of the established church.

As to the liberty of SPEECH and of No law can be passed abridging the the PRESS, many acts have been passed freedom of SPEECH or of the PRESS. to abridge both; but, particularly one on the 12th of July, 1799, which suppressed all political societies, and all societies for debating and lecturing ; except under licences from the King's Justices of the peace, or police Magistrates, Even lodges of the poor

childish Freemasons were





compelled to have a licence to meet, and to be registered ; and, even after this, the King's Justices might order any lodge to be discontinued ; that is to say,

broken up. The King's Justices, in case of disobedience of this law, might punish, at once, by a fine of £20, or three months imprisonment; or if the offenders were convicted on indictment, they were to be transported for seven years.

Publichouse keepers were to lose their licences if they permitted such meetings at their houses. Every place for lecturing, debating, or reading newspapers, where money shall be paid, is to be deemed a disorderly house, unless previously licensed. The King's Justices were authorized to take the licence from any publican ; that is to say, to put an end to his trade, upon receiving information, that seditious or in- . moral publications were read in his house. -As to the PRESS, erery Printer is, by the same act, compelled to give notice to the clerk of the King's Justices, that he keeps a press or presses for printing, and he is to receive a certificate of having given such notice. The Justice's clerk is to transmit a copy of the notice to the King's Secretary of State, in whose office the names and places of abode of all the printers, and the number of the presses, &c. &c. are all nicely registered. Letter Founders are to do the same; and, moreover, they are to keep an account of the types and printing presses that they. sell, and are to produce them, whenerer required, to any Justice of the peace.Then, again, the name and place of abode of the printer must be printed on every paper, or book; and any one issuing forth, dispersing after published, any paper, or book, without the name and place of abode of the printer, to be punished by the forfeiture of £20.—The printer is compelled to keep a copy of every thing he prints ; he is to write on it the name and abode of the person who employed him to print it, under the penalty of £20. Persons selling or handing about papers may be seized and carried before a justice to have it determined, whether they have been offending the law. “Any justice may empower peace officers to search for presses and types HE suspects to be illegally used, and to seize them and the printed papers found.-Asto newspapers, the Proprietors, Printers, and Publishers are all compelled

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to go to the Stamp-Office, and make an affidavit of their being such, and a lso of their place of abode. They are compelled to deposit one copy of each paper at the office; and this copy with their own affi, davits is all that is called for in proof of their being all guilty of any libel found in

the paper.

An act was passed on the 18th of No law can be passed to abridge the December, 1795, making it death for any right of the people peaceably to assemble part of the people above 50 in number, to and to petition for a redress of grievances, meet for the purpose of petitioning, unless notice and authority for holding such Meeting be given to and obtained from the King's justices. The penalty of DEATH, without benefit of Clergy, occurs no less than nine times in this act. This act, not to spin out its details, puts all political meetings wholly under the abso. lute authority of the Justices, Sheriffs, and other Officers; who can in some cases prevent their taking place at all; and, n all cases, put an end to them at their sole discretion.--First a written notice, signed by 7 householders of the place, is to be given of a meeting ; this notice is to be conveyed to the clerk of the Justices. The Justices, thus apprized of the meeting, ar. rive. And, if they hear any body propounding, or maintaining, propositions for altering any thing by law established, except by the authority of King, Lords, and Commons, they may order the offending parties into custody." There needs This is quite clear. It may

be excellent; but it is impossible to find any thing like it in America.

According to the amount, ordered to be printed by the House of Commons in 1808,

There are no sineçures in America, the following are a few of our Sinecure: Auditor of the Exchequer,

Lord Grenville .. £.4,000
Teller, Earl Camden 23,117

Earl Bathurst 2,700
Clerk of the Pells, Hon.
H. Addington

Chamberlains, Hon. F.
North ..

1,755 Montague Burgoyne 1,660

no more.

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