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Religious opi

I could my Lord, proceed much fur- a predominant Church. ther, were it necessary; but, from what nions are to be free. There are to be no we have seen, I think, it is plain, that books, which may not be freely comthere is no likeness whatever in the two mented on and examined into. There is governments. As to that of France, as to be nothing so sacred that reason may it is now new-modled, it appears to me not approach it. There are to be no to resemble the American rather than tythes in France, consequently no beneours. People in France vote for Mem-fices to bestow. This is a government bers of the Legislature upon the principle of representation and taxation going hand in hand. There are no feudal titles or rights in France. The Peers are, in fact, no more than eminent citizens, having no great estates attached to their titles and seats. There is, and there is to be, no established religion. The two Chambers in France, like the Congress in America, are forbidden to pass any law respecting

certainly very much like that of America. Mr. Grattan observed that the French people had exchanged the paradise of the Bourbons for the eternal damnation of


a military despotism." May be so; but, they seem resolved not to have feudal titles and courts; monastries and tythes; gabelles, corvées and game-laws. May be so; but, it has not been proved.

In conclusion, my Lord, give me leave

to suggest, that it woule as wise in us not to cry up our sort of government so much. If it be better than that of France, why want them to have one like it? Moss of my neighbours are well enough content if they are but able to get good cropt themselves, without thinking much about those of other people. We are always calling the French our enemy, and representing their power as so dangerous to Europe; and, why should we, then, fret ourselves because they will not be happier than they are? It would certainly be wise to let them alone; for, by evincing such an everlasting anxiety about their form of government, I am afraid that we shall give rise to a suspicion, that it is their form of government, and not the ambition of their Chief, that we dread, and against which we are about to make



I am, &c. &c. W. COBBETT.


to express; and yet we boast of the loyalty of the whole nation, the love of the people for their present glorious government, and the universal satisfaction which prevails in all quarters. One would think that forty-two millions of pounds sterling, borrowed on one day, was something of a damper to this "general content." But mind, reader, this nominal forty-two millions is, in fact, a much larger sum, for which the country will next year be called on to provide. It arises thus :-the subsidies, which the generous Lord Castlereagh has ageeed we should pay to the Allied Kings, for the purpose of preserving" social order," and the legiti mate rights of princes," are to be sent, at our expence, to their respective head quarters, and to be there paid in hard cash, good sterling guineas; not the paper money, which alone is to be seen in this country, but good gold coin. Now, in order to obtain this, the government agents are at work, in all directions, to buy up whatever coin they can meet with. The Market Price is, this day, Thursday the 15th of June, one pound eleven shil

pound one shilling in coin. Therefore,
for every hundred pounds in coin, which
we deliver to our glorious disinterested
Allies, we pay the sum of one hundred
and fifty eight pounds six shillings and
eight pence in paper. Judge, then,
reader, what is the real amount of the
subsidies we grant to the Potentates of
Europe, for fighting in defence of the
rights of the privileged race :
This is no

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent called the commencement of his reign a New Era. I think I may apply that term to the present crisis. The Emperor Na-lings and eight pence, in paper, for one poleon, it is said, has taken the field; he has placed himself at the head of all those 66 perjured villains," who so basely deserted" the Royal Bourbons for that "vile monster," their present chief. He has left the good city of Paris to protect itself, and has withdrawn the whole of the regular force, leaving the volunteers, or the national guard, as the French call them, to defend the metropolis of the empire; that very metropolis which the hire-joke: it is real serious earnest. But we ling press of this country declared Napo- have only began our subsidies are not leon was afraid to enter in the day time, half granted yet. The King of Denmark and which was defended against the Royal says, that his troops cannot march one legitimate Monarch, by the "perjured yard, until he receives a subsidy. The horde who had united their crimes to Crown Prince of Sweden says, that he those of the Usurper." I do not think must have an equivalent in money for the our Ministers would choose to leave the cession of Guadaloupe to the Bourbons. good city of London to defend itself. I And, be it remembered, that the Bourbon remember when that most obnoxious mea- soldiers, sent to take possession of that sure the Corn Bill was in progress through island, immediately on their landing prothe Legislature, that it was the boast of duced each man the national tri-coloured the ministerial papers, how many thou- cockade out of his knapsack, and declared sands and tens of thousands of troops, of for Napoleon, while it was supposed that all sorts, were quartered in the immediate he was still burried in his exile at neighbourhood of our metropolis, to de- Elba. Thus we paid to the Crown fend it against itself. The Times recorded Prince of Sweden a large sum for transthe names of the regiments, with a sort of ferring the Island of Guadaloupe to savage joy, as if it calculated on some- the Emperor Napoleon, to annihilate thing which it had not ferocity sufficient whom we are now going to pay all Eu

support him. What can the "Infamous Usurper" do against such a mighty army as this. He must of course be put down immediately, and the Royal Louis will be received with a delirium of joy by all his Liege Subjects. In order to ensure sucthe Times declares "from a source


rope, and even this very same Crown pence, have been both killed, all their Prince of Sweden amongst the rest. Fer- stores and arms (which loaded two frigates dinand the Fourth of the Two Sicilies, has and three sloops of war) taken, and their been kept by us so long that it is an old whole rebel party dispersed in all direcstory to talk of him. But now he will be tions!-The subsidies being duly received, rather more expensive, for we shall have andthe preparations being made, it is now to keep up a large British Army to sup- said that the march to Paris will take port him in possession, besides paying his place immediately.-To be sure, it is alown army, and giving him a good round lowed that there are upwards of 600,000 sum to set up royalty, as we gave our own "Perjured Villians" on the frontiers, Prince Regent at the commencement of with the "Hellish Monster" at their his " new æra." By the by, this sum, head. But what can such a Legion of (£100,000) it appears by some very im- Devils do against the Holy Louis, surpertinent questions lately asked in Par-rounded as he is by Priests; with the liament, was not applied for the purpose good Cause of Legitimate Right on his for which it was granted; and his Royal side; all the population of France ready Highness has again had occasion to apply to rise and tear the "Perjured Villains” to his faithful Commons for assistance, to pieces, and with 1,011,000 men to by whom no doubt it will be most cheerfully relieved. Besides Ferdinand the Fourth, we have the other Ferdinand the Seventh, of the same Royal stock. His army too, it seems cannot march till we find money. Indeed it is shrewdly suspected, that a sum of £800,000 was advanced by us to that beloved monarch, to" of undoubted Authority," that the Emenable him to fit out his late Cadiz expe- peror of Austria is about to bestow one of dition to South America; and, as usual, a his Daughters, the sister of the "unfortusort of fatality attends all that we interfere nate Maria Louisa, on the Duke de Berri, with. The Times, states "that by the ship nephew of the "Desired" Louis. One "Sarah Jane, arrived in 92 days, from would have thought that the Times would "Buenos Ayres, we learn that the revolu- have been rather cautious of adducing tionists have got possession of almost the this as a proof of fidelity. If so, how "whole of Spanish America; that General does it happen that Napoleon is deserted. "Orr has 40,000 troops well armed and And if the Emperor Francis can desert "equipped; that Admiral Brown has 8 one of his Sons in Law, what proof is there "sail of large frigates; and that the ut- that he will not desert another. A short "most anxiety prevailed for the arrival of time will now shew us the result of all "the expedition from old Spain, which, this. If it should happen that Napoleon as it would of course fall immediately should succeed in defending his kingdom "into the hands of the revolutionists, against the prodigious force assembled to would afford them an ample supply of destroy him, the effects will be incalculamilitary stores of all sorts. The British ble! Our glorious Ministers have raised "had embarked their property," &c. &c. the genius of the storm. It is impossible But the most extraordinary passage in this to tell how he is to be appeased. Peace piece of information is, that "the King and tranquility were in their reach; they "Ferdinand has expressed the utmost in- prefered war with all its horrors. But the "dignation against the province of Vene- leisure of peace would have brought about "zuela, for having afforded such facili- reform, and that would not suit the preties to English commerce!" Here is sent system. War and its enormous exRoyal gratitude with a vengence. So penditure, is better suited to the way of we advance Ferdinand, the beloved, thinking of the Prince Regent's Ministers. £800,000 to enable him to punish those But it is a very fearful experiment, and of our friends in America, who are may end fatally. If Napoleon can but disposed to receive our merchandize ! resist the first onset; if he can only “hold The newspapers of to-day state, that the his own," as the phrase is, he will stagger two Chiefs of La Vendee, who have been the Allies. But if he should gain any, equipped by England at an enormous ex- even the smallest advantage; if he should

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be able to recover the late territory of France, to the Rhine, and re-occupy Belgium, the mighty confederacy of Legittimate Monarchs will at once dissolve, fall to pieces, and, each one shifting for himself, the Emperor Napoleon, recovering his former preponderance, will put an end in a short time to the whole Grand Alliance, and leave not a wreck behind!"

MR. COBBETT.-The analogy which you have so clearly shewn to exist between the present political state of France, and as she was in 1793, and the obvious resemblance at the two periods, of the designs of her threatened invaders, are not more striking than the enthusiasm which now animates, as it then animated, the bosom of every Frenchman. All the world has heard of the wonderful effects which this spirit produced. History will tell it to posterity, that it effected the discomfiture of the enemies of France, who had dared to invade her territory, and secured to her the unalienable right of choosing her own form of government. We live at a period not far distant from those great events, which ought to give us correct ideas respecting them. But as we are apt to lose the recollection of particular acts of heroism, it may be useful, at this important and interesting moment, to bring a few of them under review. If they should fail in opening the of soeyes vereigns, or their ministers, to the folly of waging war against opinions, they may have the effect, at least, of reviving our feelings of admiration and respect for a people who so patriotically combated for Liberty; they may encourage us to hope that, although tyrants may unite to subjugate nations, and although the struggle may be long, reason and truth will ultimately triumph.

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ing his remonstrances ineffectual, he pulled a pistol from his pocket and shot himself. The volunteers would not suffer his body to be buried at Verdun, of which the Prussians were about to take possession, but carried it to St. Menehoud. The National Assembly decreed him the honours of the pantheon, and ordered the following inscription to be engraved on his tomb: He chose to put himself to death, rather than capitulate with tyrants!"

"A young man who had joined the army of the North, met with some disappointments, which induced him to quit the service without leave of absence. Upon his return home, the people flocked about his aged parent, to sympathise with him in the grief which he was supposed to feel for having given birth to a son who had basely deserted the standard of liberty. His father refused to see him, although he was an only son, and had been the pride of his old age. The children pointed at him in the streets, and his former companions avoided his company. His father at length disinherited him; and divided his property amongst the defenders of his country, set out for the army to supply his place. This veteran made the campaign of Flanders, and displayed the greatest heroism in a variety of engagements!"


"It is impossible to conceive the hardships to which the French were exposed: to use the language of Custine, they were without coats, without blankets, without shoes, and without breeches. In the name of humanity," says he, in a letter to the minister of war, 66 I conjure you to relieve them from their present painful state. It freezes very hard, and they have been seven nights under arms." Notwithstanding this lamentable situation, not a murmur was to be heard. The army was composed of volunteers of all ranks and all ages. Male and female were equally proud to suffer in defence of liberty. Among the prisoners taken by the Prussians at Hockheim, was a French officer, who was next day delivered of a fine boy!"

"The heroism of one of the national guards deserves particular notice :-early in the engagement he lost one of his limbs, yet he refused to quit his post; and when told by the surgeon, on dressing his wound, that he would be maintained by the nation, he seemed insensible of his sufferings, and replied, with a firm tone of voice, "I have

still another arm to serve my country, and am perfectly contented, provided France obtains her liberty."

In 1792, France had ten kings coalesced against her; intestine divisions, and civil war lacerated her bosom; her Generals were traitors-her troops disorganized. In 1815, the league is equally formadable, and it may be admitted, to a certain extent, that France is disturbed by the royalists; but no political faction exists sufficiently powerful to disturb the government; the treason of his Generals by which the Emperor was exiled, is destroyed; and, the army, animated with the recollection of its former victories, and burning with ardour to wipe off the stain

"On an alarm that the rebels of the Vendée were about to make an attack upon St. Malo, and that an English fleet was expected in Concale bay, to second their efforts, twelve battalions were raised in haste from the sections of Paris, and dispatched to the menaced spot. The inhabitants of the communes in Normandy contiguous to the rebels, rose in a mass; and that step, together with the gallant behaviour of the people of Granville, repelled the assailants, without the assist-imprinted by the recent occupation of ance of those new levies. There were in Paris, is much more formidable, and in them a number of young men, who had a higher state of discipline than it was at led idle, dissipated lives; and being in- any former period. If France in 1792, sensible to the claims their country had gave such signal proofs of patriotism, and, on them in danger, refused to march; and under so many disadvantages, successfully two battalions, one of the section of the resisted all attempts to debase her, why -Thuilleries, the other of the champs Ely-may she not in 1815, influenced as she is sees, broke out in open rebellion, singing, by the principles of liberty, and so fortuO, Richard, 0, mon roi. When intelli-nately situated as to her means of attack gence was brought to the fathers of families and defence, be able to bring the present in those sections, of the disgraceful con- contest to the same glorious result? duct of their children, they ran to the bar Yours, &c. of the convention, desiring a strict examination might be made into it; and if found to be such as was reported, they swore to OPENING OF THE LEGISLATIVE SESSION. go themselves, and expiate the crimes of their guilty offspring, by shedding their own blood, and resigning the offenders up to the vengeance of the law, and their insulted country."

The writer to whom I am indebted for the above instar ces of heroism, remarks :— "What is worthy of observation on this occasion is, the French, when expiring from loss of blood, consoled one another with the happy prospects the revolution held out to posterity, and expressed a satisfaction in losing their lives in so glorious a cause. Such of the wounded French as were taken proper care of, recovered in a very short time, whilst the wounds of the Austrians, under similar circumstances, were always difficult to be cured, and often proved fatal. The state of the mind had the greatest influence upon the body; the Austrians were goaded on to fight in a cause which they did not approve; the French, on the other hand, were enthusiasts for liberty. The former wept at the remembrance of their homes and families; the latter were proud to suffer in the cause of humanity, and enjoyed happiness even in death."



Sitting of June 5. At this sitting, nothing very interesting took place. On the 6th, the discussions were particularly animated.

M. DUPIN. I have a proposal relative to the form of the oath. The French people have voted the acceptance of the additional act-let us obey that act which does not prejudice your right of ameliorating it in the forms and under the conditions that shall be prescribed. There is another reflection of a nature to assure the welldisposed, and to do way before hand all malignant interpretations. There is no question about the substance of the oathno difficulty-obedience to the Constitution of the Empire, fidelity to the Chief

intimate and indissolable union of the people with the Government-but in the proper and well understood interest of the Government itself, let us recognise that the oath to be good, binding, and in a word constitutional, ought to be taken, not in virtue of a decree, which should contain nothing but the unalterable will of the nation constitutionally expressed.

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