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TABLE 138.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of the total number of foreign-born employees 69.5 per cent speak English. While the greater proportion of every specified race speak English, it is more commonly spoken by the Russian Hebrews than the other specified races and less commonly by the South Italians. Every race shows a larger proportion of males who speak English than of females.

A comparison of the advancement of immigrant employees of nonEnglish-speaking races in the ability to speak English is made in the table below according to age at time of arrival in the United States. The presentation is according to sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race of individual:

TABLE 139.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all non-English-speaking races.]

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Of the groups of foreign-born employees who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States, 94.7 per cent speak English. Of the group who were 14 or over, 63.2 per cent speak English. Similarly, both males and females show a larger proportion who speak English of the group who were under 14 than of the group who were 14 or over. Age at time of coming to the United States, however, has a considerably greater effect on the extent to which English is spoken by the females than by the males.

The progress made by non-English-speaking races in acquiring the use of the English language after designated periods of residence in the United States is set forth in the following table, which shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race of individual the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

TABLE 140.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.]

Hebrew, Russian.
Lithuanian..

Total.

MALE.

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Of the group of foreign-born employees in the United States less than five years, a bare majority speak English. However, the proportion increases with years of residence in the United States until of the group ten years or over 90.1 per cent speak English. Similarly, the English-speaking proportion of both males and females increases with length of residence in this country.

48296°-VOL 11-11-28

PART IV. CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN CHICAGO, ILL.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Employees for whom information was secured [Text Table 141 and General Table 86].

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

A detailed study was made of 95 households in Chicago, the heads of which were engaged in the clothing manufacturing industry. The results of this study, however, appear in the showing for the industry as a whole, and are not shown separately for the city of Chicago. Detailed returns were also obtained for 8,627 individual employees in addition to the households studied, and these data are used as a basis for the survey of the clothing industry in Chicago. The following table shows, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

TABLE 141.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race.

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Less than 0.05 per cent.

TABLE 141.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity and race-Continued.

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