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SUMMARIES OF FOREIGN REVIEWS.

THEOLOGISCHE STUDIEN UND KRITIKEN (No. 3, 1896).— Dr. Link, Professor of New Testament Exegesis at Königsberg discusses here at considerable length, under the title, 'Die Dolmetscher des Petrus,' the question as to whether the Apostle Peter had or had not a sufficient knowledge of, and a sufficient facility in the use of, the Greek tongue to enable him to address in the course of his missionary journeys, Greek speaking audiences, and to write in that language. The discussion as to this has arisen from what Eusebius reports as taken from Papias, viz., that the presbyter John spoke of Mark as the hermeneutes of Peter. The same office is assigned, by Clement of Alexandria, to one Glaucias. But what function does the term indicate? Dr. Link briefly refers to the controversy on this point, and discusses the usage of the word in Greek writings, chiefly at the times of the Cæsars. He shows that its best equivalent is simply our dragoman, one who translates the utterances of a person addressing an audience, or a person, whose language he cannot himself speak, into their or his native tongue. It did not mean a secretary, an amanuensis, a help to a busy man, but one who rendered the speech or writing of one man into the language of those for whom it was intended. The necessary inference is that Peter was

unable to address his hearers in certain districts in their own tongue. But then what tongue was that? Bleek maintained that it was and could only be Latin, which Mark had mastered when in Rome with Paul. This idea has found little favour, the consensus of opinion being that it was into Greek that Mark rendered the Aramaean of Peter. Dr. Link regards this as certain, and refers for one of the proofs of it to the fact that Peter was pre-eminently the apostle to the Circumcision, even in Rome, and that Greek was the language familiar to the Jews there, and the language in which their intercourse with their brethren in all provinces to the East was carried on. Further, he shows that the language of Papias indicates that Mark was Peter's hermeneutes, not in Rome only, but constantly in his missionary journeys. Dr. Link defends the same sense, against Zahn and Neander, of the term hermeneutes as applied to Glaucias by Clement of Alexandria in relation to Peter. His conclusion is, therefore, that Peter was not skilled in the use of the Greek tongue, and that the epistles and addresses

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that have come down to us as his were not penned or spoken by him in the form in which they have come down to us.The second article is by Professor Fredrick Blass, Professor of Classical Philology, at the University of Halle. It is titled, 'Neue Texteszeugen für die Apostelgeschichte.' The new witnesses are chiefly three; a Latin text from the early part of the thirteenth century and now in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris, No. 321; another, which is in the Royal Library at Wernigerode; and next a Provencal translation, dating from the thirteenth century. All vary in some important particulars from the Vulgate, and Professor Blass gives us, so far as the Acts of the Apostles is concerned, a list of these variants, as likely to aid in getting at a correct text of the original work. -Dr. Carl Cleinen, Privat-Docent at Halle, follows with an elaborate and extremely interesting paper on 'Der Begriff "Religion" und seine verschiedenen Auffassungen.' He gives a series of the definitions of religion given by the most distinguished German writers, who have adventured such, grouping them according as they have regarded religion from the intellectual, aesthetic, or practical point of view. He then discusses the most important of them, and points out their merits and defects respectively.-Dr. Otto Kirn, Professor of Theology at Basel, treats of the significance of Law, and the Mosaic Law as a special form of it, for, or in, Christian ethics. His article bears the title 'Das Gesetz in der christlichen Ethik.' The only other article here is by Herr Pfarrer Paul Durselen of Berlin, Uber eine Darstellung des christlichen Glaubens vom Gnadenstande aus.'-Professor Beer of Halle reviews Dillmann's Handbuch der alttestamentlichen Theologie,' a posthumous work of the celebrated Oriental scholar.

RUSSIA.

VOPROSI PHILOSOPHII I PSYCHOLOGII (January, 1896).— The first number of the present year opens with extracts or brief selections from the far-famed Indian writings, the Upanishads. The selections appear to have been made by a lady, who signs herself Vera Johnston. They are fitly opened by a brief motto from Schopenhauer, who says that 'Deep, independent, high thoughts meet one on every page of the Upanishads. This very rich and very high subject is a teaching for the world. It was a comfort in life and will be a comfort in death.' The translator has undertaken no easy task. As a medium of expression Russian is not at all to be compared with Sanscrit. As compared with Sanscrit it is as a language but of yesterday. Moreover it is so poor in expressions for abstract concep

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tions, that even when translating from a tongue so near to itself, in comparison with the Sanscrit, as the German, the translator has to occupy himself more and more with the selection and composition of such expressions as things in themselves or with world-conception in order to translate such terms as Das Ding an sich and Weltanschauung. Difficulties of this kind are the more hard to overcome when we have to do with translations from the Sanscrit tongue, which for fulness, of colouring and richness of expression is superior to any old or new European language.The second article is on the autonomy of man and its various stadia or halting places, by L. E. Obolenskie.-The third article is by Prince Serge N. Trubetskoi, who takes for his subject the Foundation of Idealism.'-The last article but one in the general part of the journal is by the Russian thinker, Vladimir Solovieff, On the Reality of the Moral Order.' This article is immediately connected with a former, which appeared in No. 30 of the Voprosi,' November, 1895. The author sets out from the logical development of the religious sensation, the unconditional moral element, which is the source of the fulness of good, containing in itself the obligatory relation of all to all. This again realises itself as a complete moral order, otherwise a kingdom of God. But how pure moral good ought to be experienced, though admitted by every preacher of the Categorical Imperative, is according to the author a position which is not so easy to make out. He then enters upon a discussion of the validity of the Ought-Das Sollen, as formulated by Kant, conditioned by the unconditional obligatory. The concluding article is on the Development of the Idea of Imperial Necessity and Social Right in Italy,' as shown especially by the writings of Botero and Campanella.—On this follows an article on Temperament,' and the usual critical notices and bibliography.

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ITALY.

NUOVA ANTOLOGIA (April 1).-P. Molmento describes the encyclopedic art of the Middle Ages.-G. Boglietti faithfully notes the progress which socialism has made in England, but asks what grounds William Morris and Belfort Bax have for their opinion that the advent of socialism is as inexorable and inevitable as the daily rising of the sun?'-P. Lioy writes on 'The Suggestions of the Unknown.'-G. Ricca Salerno discusses the progressive tax in England and France, giving a brief account of taxes in general. The serial story The Sin of an Honest Woman,' by E. Castelnuovo, is continued; and also the Origins of Poetry in Rome,' by E. Cocchia.-The

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bibliographical bulletin praises General Booth's Life and Labour of the People in London.—(April, 15th).—A portion of this number is devoted to a chapter from a book by Senator Finali, just published, entitled Le Marche nel 1860,' in which Finali points out that hitherto an error has been committed by historians in attributing the victory of the battle of Castelfidardo to General Cialdini. That General was not in the battle, and knew nothing of it, only arriving when all was finished. But he had so far contributed to success, in that he had, by an able manoeuvre, prevented General Lamoriciere from reinforcing the troops under General De Courten at Ancona, which fact greatly retarded the advance of the royal army into the kingdom of Naples. The greatest brunt of the battle, however, was borne by the Regina brigade, which had been led to victory by General Cialdini the year previous at Sesia.C. F. Ferraris contributes a translation of part of Marx's Kritik der Politischen Oekonomie.-G. Goiran writes on military reform.-E. Montecorboli has a long and appreciative article on Paul Verlaine. The remaining numbers are continuations.(May, 1st).-R. de Cesare points out the beginning of a new phase in the ecclesiastical policy of the Italian government, and that its new direction has already pacified the Vatican. Only a united action responding to the moral and political necessities of the State can exercise a beneficial influence and be productive of good.-F. Torraca writes about Sicilian schools, and Historical Materialism' by Signor Ferrari, and Castelnuovo's romance are continued.-G. Cimbali explains the political wisdom of Giovanni Botero.-E. Mancini describes the progress made by and the future of electric lighting. -(May 16th).—E. Pinchia gives an interesting account of the family Debormida, the last hero of which lost his life at the battle of Adowah.-A. Salandra writes a statistical paper entitled Two Years of Finance,' and D. Carraroli a long article on the Hungarian Milennium.-Africa in the Green Books,' by E. Arbib, clears up a great deal that was obscure in the Italian campaign.—(June, 1st)—C. Ricci contributes a careful study on the paintings of Tiepolo, who was neglected during the period following his own, but has now received the acknowledgment of which he was worthy.-E. Catellani, at the close of a paper describing events in the Soudan, advises Italy not to forget, should she be called to co-operate in the Soudan, that a universal equilibrium has succeeded or is rapidly succeeding to European equilibrium, and just as, in commerce, science has brought the most distant countries near, so in general politics, the world exists now as a whole, the parts of

which are the organs, and that in less than half a century to come, that European State which has no colonies and interests in all quarters of the world, will be simply wiped out from the list of great powers.-A. Luzio and R. Renier commence a series of papers on the luxury of Isabella of Este, describing her wardrobe, the customs of the Renasence, the influence on Italy of foreign countries, the inefficacy of sumptuary laws, and the setting of the 'fashion' by Isabella.-P. Lioy writes an interesting article on rustic literature.-O. Grande begins a novel 'The Cloud.'-D. Cortese writes on the 'New Spirit,' which he says is as old as the world.-E. G. Boner discusses the Finnish Kalewala.'-(June, 19th).-Besides continuations of previous papers, F. d'Ovidio writes on the sonnet addressed to Dante by Cavalcanti; and I. Guidi on Ancient Abyssinia.' -C. Segrè criticises Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure in an unfavourable manner. He calls the book 'the strongest example of the modern spirit ever seen.' 'If Thackeray or Dickens could rise from the grave and hear the applause bestowed on this book, they would think modern men had been seized with a fit of madness.' The author,' the critic goes on to say, 'tries to prove that man is the mere victim and tool of his social surroundings. Love is the theme of the book, but the reader who looks for the old tenderness and calm in that passion will be cruelly disappointed. It is a saddening thing that a book like Jude the Obscure should have been conceived and found admirers in a country like England, where usually there prevails a simple and strict sense of justice. The evil has penetrated deep, and it is time to rise and oppose the poisonous current, which will otherwise gain ground. With Carducci, the whole field of art should cry out We must return to the traditions of our grand masters!"'. G. Fraisan writes on money circulation in Italy.-O. Z. Bianco reports the latest researches in 'Uranos' and 'Neptune.'

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LA RASSEGNA NAZIONALE (April 1).-G. Zaccagni contributes an article on the late Signor Bonghi.-G. Villa concludes his paper on The Naturalist Romance,' in which he criticises the modern French, Russian, and German psychological writers, and comes to the conclusion that art should not be monopolized by any one school, for a really good work of art is neither classic, romantic, realistic nor socialistic; neither idealistic nor psychological in its tone. Who would think of classifying as belonging to a special school the 'Don Quixote' or the 'Promessi Sposi?' When a work of art arouses discussion, it is a proof that it may have all qualities but the supreme one of being a masterpiece of art. No one dreams of

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