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blocking the way to success, has created a demand for a more complete education for the growing population. That such training is not only practical because it so well prepares the individual for the chosen vocation, but that it is more and greater than this, inasmuch as it gives to him a universal development, which makes him master of the situation, giving him not only knowledge of things and conditions, but control of the organism which expresses his being.

Man has always rebelled against his so-called imprisonment, against his subjection to the flesh. Only in exceptional cases has he remembered that in the creation he was given dominion over all things. "Know thyself" should not only apply to the ego, its character, but to its expression in materiality, the physical body.

One of the most joyful thoughts in the world is that we are all equally children of the same Divine Father, equally endowed, and (in degree) capable of the same results.

"That all things are possible to him who wills," should be our guiding thought. That many of us are limited, largely through atrophy of our faculties from disuse, is often apparent. And, again, how often are these faculties silent in sleep and simply await an awakening.

There is nothing more pliable and elastic than human thought; and to the teacher of knowledge, patience, and skill, the child is as clay in the potter's hands, to be shaped into the beautiful vase or become a grotesque article of merchandise.

it as the finest organism in the creation of mind, subject to will in proportion as it is known and understood; to use it actively with grace and agility, and with such knowledge as will enable the individual to express himself in poise and gesture as clearly as in speech.

We are told that the outer man is the expression of the inner, and surely this is our principal means of judging. It is a great misfortune if an awkward, abrupt manner and a shrill, sharp voice cloud a beautiful spirit. To be constantly misunderstood is often the result of the physical expressing a thought contrary to the mental and spiritual.

The soft, sweet voice which soothes and persuades might be more common if this generation had been trained in breathing, in placing the voice, in talking through the throat instead of in it, and in using the various sounding-boards of the head, thereby producing resonant musical sounds. Many a public speaker would have been spared in the interruption in his work by the common troublesome throat.

It is reserved for the artist to paint a picture and for the sculptor to model a statue, but it is within the possibility of every one to be a living picture or statue and a thing of beauty, in proportion to the demonstration of true being. What is more beautiful than that freedom and self-possession which comes from a knowledge of one's self in its relationship to an environment?

Self-consciousness is always born of such negative qualities as ignorance, fear, and vanity, and any educational system that breeds it is in error.

As all roads lead to Rome, so do the avenues of sense-training lead to the mind, and it is difficult to draw the line between what is generally spoken of as physical or mental training-for they act and react upon each other constantly.

To the thoughtful believer of such philosophy, what regrets! Not to have one's own! To come suddenly to a realization of "what might have been," what possibilities! To call a halt and begin anew! To have eyes, and see not; ears, and hear not; hands, and unManual training implies physical training. To have able to do; a body, and not know how to use it! control of the hand, as an original tool-nature's own What wealth and what power are possible in the tool,-or be skilled in the use of made tools; to handle fulfillment of such a dream!

We look with wonder at the acrobat, at the daring rider, at the artistic dancer, at the courageous swimmer, and feel that they have almost superhuman power, scarcely realizing that they have simply in a measure overcome the limitations of matter through thought and training.

We listen with pleasure to the conversationalist, the orator, the singer, and marvel at such skill. We worship at the shrine of genius, and sigh for ourselves. The kingdom of heaven is not beyond the stars, but here, to be demonstrated in the full exercise of every faculty of our being. Has it been withheld from us? Shall the coming generation profit by our experience? Physical training-what does it mean? The training of the physique. For what? Not for the art of combat, as some exercises suggest, but for the purpose of finding one's self in one's body, or learning to correctly use, through healthful exercise, all of its parts; to use

the pencil, the pen, the scissors, the knife, the needle, the rule, the compass, the brush, the hammer, etc.,is more or less a matter of training, incidental or intentional. But the successful results of the use of these tools are more the outcome of a mental than of a physical training. We soon learn that the hand is the willing servant of the mind, and very early loses any rigidity of muscle or awkwardness of movement.

Successful making is as dependent upon the beauty of the object to be made as upon the skill of the workmanship, for this reason: the formation of taste is an important factor in manual training. The development of the aesthetic nature of the maker must necessarily influence the making.

To see beauty in the world of nature and of art, and appreciate it, means to express it; therefore, parallel with the development of skill must be a development of the aesthetic, for the two must be combined in a complete product. Of the three things that enter into

any product-raw material, skilled labor, and beauty, -the latter fixes the value of the article. "Touch the crudest material with imagination and it turns to gold."

But the criterion of beauty is very apt to vary with the individual. The child and the savage enjoy strong, positive contrasts of form and color,-for here the perceptive faculties are scarcely awakened; whereas the product of a later and a greater civilization, having a keener perception of beauty, will seek quiet, unobtrusive, and subtle combinations.

more easily model a cube than draw one,-for the former is an expression of knowing, and the latter of seeing.

As the eye sees form and color, any ayalysis of form and color and its accompanying expression in modeling and making, drawing and painting, must necessarily develop seeing.

Training in seeing should be begun with the earliest education. Parallel with the modeling of the geometric form, in the kindergarten, should be the drawing of its appearance,-not for the purpose of making a

Simplicity, symmetry, and repose should be the picture of it, but for the purpose of opening the eyes of guiding principles.

The best test of beauty, as Prof. Howison says in "The Essential Principal of Poetic Art," "is its perpetual, increasing interest. The glittering and capricious illusions of fancy can have no lasting abidingplace in the judgment of man."

The creative instinct is one of the strongest instincts of the human family, and making is a universal, spontaneous language. To make something is always a source of satisfaction. To handle raw material and fashion it into some article of use and beauty is universally a source of interest. The same happy expression may be found in the faces of a body of teachers or a class of children during a lesson in paper-folding or clay-modeling. The very desire to do on the part of the children is a sufficient cause for such training; but we must not forget that there are two hands, and a complete development must embrace the equal training of both, not for the purpose of acting simultaneously, but alternately, that the left hand may do equal duty with the right, relieving the right, and thus preventing such difficulties as the penman's paralysis. Another important line of training is that of the eye. Seeing and knowing, or physical sight and mental sight, are so closely allied that they are constantly affecting each other. The mind contains so many concepts, its picture-gallery is so large, that unconsciously the picture on the physical retina is often overshadowed by the mental image.

Form should always be apprehended from two points of view, analyzing what really is and what the eye sees. For instance, we know that a cube has six faces, but we can see but three at one time. We know that each face is square, but the eye sees it square only when facing it; in all other positions its shape varies in proportion to the angle in which it is seen.

The mental picture will compass the whole object, seeing the front, the back, the top, the base, and the sides, or the three dimensions; but the eye sees but the front half, and its limitations are from top to base and from left to right, or only two dimensions.

The mind knows that the house on the distant hill is as large as the one in the foreground, but the eye sees it very small.

The eye rarely deals with facts, but with appearance. It is for this reason that the untrained will so much

the child, never forgetting that the solid is only a means to an end. It is with the keenest interest that we watch the light come into the little eyes and the power to see grow from day to day.

It is very evident that the requirements of the education of to-day are very great. It is quite common to hear the kindergartner and teacher say, "What will be required of us next?" But in all of this there is much hope for the race. "Progress" is the watchword of the hour, and the noble army of women whose influence has been felt if not applauded will in time meet the requirement.

Limitations are always felt with annoyance and sorrow. To be unable to use the physique properly, to be unable to talk in public as easily and distinctly as in private, to be unable to read music and sing, to be unable to draw from objects or from imagination, to be unfamiliar with languages, to be unable to appreciate beauty or have standards in the various fine and industrial arts, means to be just so far lacking.

Is it discouraging? Possibly. But it has a great meaning, and that is, that the teacher must feel herself called to her work, and in the zeal and ardor of this feeling must voluntarily make sacrifices and consecrate herself and her life to her work, knowing that hers is a greater calling than all others,-for in her hands will be molded the characters and lives of future citizens; and just in proportion as she succeeds will she help mankind onward in the expression of its divine nature.

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INDIVIDUALISM IN TEACHING.

ROF. P. W. SEARCH, the earnest champion of indidividualism, has given an impetus to discussion in Los Angeles. The result so far, however, has been disastrous to the further continuance of his system in the public schools of Los Angeles. The opposition to the individual system is tersely put by School Director Simonton as follows:

"I wish to say that a large number of parents are dissatisfied and are asking that we return to the class system. A large number of scholars are dissatisfied, and there is a much larger falling off in the attendance of scholars than usual, attributed to the individual system, thereby losing a large sum of money on the average attendance. The individual system requires more teachers and more rooms in order to do the same

amount of work per scholar, thereby materially increasing the expenses. It is necessary that the scholars be arranged in classes and grades, with regular promotions, in order to draw public money.

"The new system is of less value to the slow or indolent scholar as well as to the timid, for they gain nothing from association. Under the new system the dull pupil loses whatever pride and ambition he may have had under the old. Every report from other places where the new system has been tried has been unfavorable.

"The individual system is an extra tax upon the teacher, so great that some are breaking down under it, and the United States Commissioner of Education. disapproves of it officially in a recent magazine article."

Professor Search in defending his position before the City Board of Education read a long discourse on the subject of individualism. The three points for which individualism contends, he presented as follows:"First-That children differ greatly in stages of growth and in general physical health, and in consequence should not be equally and uniformly pressed. It takes cognizance of the fact that there is such a thing as adolescence, and that all along the line of formative life there are days, periods, and stages for both boys and girls, when there must be special accommodation. It provides for the well child, for the weak child, for the sick child, for the convalescent child. When a pupil has been sick and returns to school convalescent and weak, should he be worked as hard as others to keep up with his class, and doubly so in order to make up what he has lost? Most certainly not. Regularity in attendance is a good thing, but not necessarily as a thing of itself. There are days when a child may be better off at home or in the sunshine than in school. The fact that expert examinations in the city high schools of the United States have revealed ninety per cent of defective physical condition is a complete justification of the position taken by individualism with reference to the conservation of physical health.

"Second-In all the world there is nothing that differentiates so greatly as does creative mind. Shall the minds of children, which are nothing if not creative, be cursed by the limitations of rigid classifications and uniformity in process? Even classes differ so greatly as to cause the frequent apology of teachers. Can more uniformity be expected of individuals, and is it desirable if it could be? There must be opportunity, adjustment, and conservation. The pupil who can do two or three times as much work as his fellows must be permitted to do so; the one who gains most by traveling slowly must not be rushed prematurely into difficulties beyond his power of perfect assimilation. "Third-There must be consideration of individual environments. The home circumstances of life are not the same for all children. The boy who cannot

start with the year until a month or two late should not loose a semester or a year by being forced into a lower class. The girl stopping to help at home for a few weeks should be permitted to resume work where it was interrupted. The child who comes from another school should not be confronted by the ragged edges of a mechanical difference in standing. The pupil who is not promoted should not be required to repeat the exact details of his previous work. In fact the child must be placed where he can get the greatest amount of good to himself, and from that point of placement there must be the open avenue of the most general and versatile opportunity.

"In execution of the ideals involved in this formulation of aims, individualism comes with the following statement of working creed: The school is for the child-not the child for the school; there must be consideration of physical conditions, intellectual ability, conditioning environment; the worker must be placed where he can get the greatest good to himself; the work of the school must be done within school hours; there must be no mechanical limitation to advancement; all work must arise from true motives, which involve utilization of love for work, interest, and determining choice; the child must be trained how to work as a self reliant, independent worker, accustomed in the school to the same conditions he will meet in after life; the entire product of the school must be the selfgoverning citizen, the student athirst for a continued education which is already a part of himself, the man, the woman, of vigorous physical health, intellectual promise, and noble impulse. This is the tentative position taken by individualism. Who can question its righteousness and ultimate victory?"

The Board of Education, however, adopted the folfowing report of the committee appointed to investigate the individual system by a vote of 3 to 2:

"The committee appointed by the Board of Education to investigate the individual system introduced into the schools of the city of Los Angeles by Superintendent Search begs leave to report that it has investigated the same and finds that it is unwise at this time to continue the system in our schools, and would therefore recommend that the same be discontinued and that the superintendent be instructed to return to the class system as heretofore used."

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OROUS BODIES absorb water. Select substances in which the pores can be readily seen, such as a sponge. Let the children discover the porous quality themselves.

EXP. Pour a little colored water into a plate and in it place the sponge and the bread. The children will see the water gradually rising.

The common fats classed under the name of tallow contain the three elements. Paraffin and paraffin oil contain no oxygen. The wick

is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a little earthy matter.

How a Candle Burns.

Light the candle; call attention to the cup of melted tallow, then to the ascent of the liquid fat up the wick by capillary attraction. The children may see the flow upwards.

'Where does the water go?" It fills up the tiny When the liquid fat reaches

holes.

water.

"I place a piece of flint and a piece of lead in the Do these substances suck up the water? No. "Why not?" They have no little holes.* EXP. Place the piece of cane, together with a slate pencil, in a bottle half-filled with spirits of turpentine. In a few minutes the turpentine will have ascended through the pores to the top of the cane, and on the application of a lighted taper will burn with a smoky flame. The turpentine does not ascend through the slate pencil. Why not?

EXP. Next let the children examine pieces of chalk, loaf sugar, table salt, etc. Can they see any pores ? No, but they are there. Show this by placing the chalk, etc., in the colored water. The water is absorbed; we can see it rising; hence the pores must be there. They are too small to be seen.

EXP. Take a piece of loose twine, and, after immersing it in water, place one end in a glass of water and the other end in an empty glass placed at a lower elevation (see cut.) After a time it will be found

that all the water has been transferred to the lower

glass. How has this been brought about? The twine is porous; the water ascended through the pores to the top of the glass, just as it went up the cane, and then trickled down through the pores into the lower glass.

THE CHEMISTRY OF A CANDle. ARTICLES FOR ILLUSTRATION.-A candle and stem of a clay tobacco-pipe.

The Candle.

Question as to what substances are used in the manufacture of candles.

Tell the children that all fats and oils are made up of various compounds of carbon and hydrogen, or of carbon, hydrogen, and a smaller quantity of oxygen.

NOTE. All substances are more or less absorbent. It will be sufficient, however, at this stage that the children should distinguish between substances manifestly absorbent and those which absorb so very little as to be practically non-absorbent.

Fig. 71.

the flame it is changed by the heat to gas. It is the gas which burns. Show this by putting one end of the stem of a clay pipe into the center of the flame (see cut.) A portion of the gas escapes through the pipe and may be ignited at the other end.

Structure of the Flame.

Now look at a steady candle-flame very carefully sideways. In the inside a dark zone is easily detected. This is simply a zone, as we have shown, of unburnt tallow-gas. Next, and surrounding this central zone, Here, for the is the very bright or luminous zone. most part, the hydrogen of the gas combines with the oxygen of the air. This chemical union produces an intense heat, which causes the tiny particles of carbon to glow, and in fact produce the light. Outside this. light-producing zone there is a more abundant supply of oxygen, and combustion is complete. This outside zone is therefore very hot, but yields less light.

The candle-flame then consists of three parts: a dark central zone of gas, to which the oxygen of the air cannot penetrate, and which therefore is not burning; a second or light-producing zone enveloping the first, where some oxygen penetrates, and where the particles of carbon are raised to white heat before themselves

undergoing complete combustion; and a third, or heat zone, again enveloping the luminous zone, where combustion is complete.

We can show the threefold structure of the flame in another way. Press a sheet of white paper, held horizontally, into the flame of a candle almost down to the wick. Retain in that position for a second or two. Remove and note the effect on the paper. A black ring of carbon, in the shape of fine soot, is shown; outside this there is another ring of lighter shade where less carbon is deposited, and within the ring a light deposit of soot is shown.

This deposit of a dark and two light rings of carbon is easily explained. The dark ring corresponds to the luminous zone, where there is abundance of carbon at a white heat.

The carbon within the dark ring is deposited as we press the paper down through the flame.

Department of Supervision. A KAA

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Dr. David Starr Jordan believes in the survival of the fittest in human society. He is fittest! See?

- The Seattle Board of Health has ordered public, private, and Sunday schools closed on account of scarlet fever.

The County Boards of Education are busy at this season of the year preparing for the semi-annual examination of teachers.

The grammar grade diploma sent out by the State Superintendent of Schools is much more artistic than the one used a few years ago.

San Diego, San Luis Obispo, Madera, San Benito, Merced, Yuba, and San Joaquin, are some of the counties that advertise for bids for text-books this year.

Governor Budd did not sign the Omnibus Educational Bill. The school law therefore remains the same as in the law of 1892, except the portion referring to high schools. The amendments to it were signed by the Governor and are now a part of the law.

The teachers of San Francisco gave recently to Ex-State and City Superintendent John Swett a testimonial reception. It was largely attended and showed in many ways the great esteem and good will of teachers and people for John Swett, the man, the teacher, superintendent, and author. Madison Babcock made a very touching and eloquent address of welcome. Mr. Swett was presented with a beautiful souvenir of the occasion, tributes of A. L. Mann, Jean Parker, A. Lyser, S. A. White, Aurelia Griffith, Agnes M. Manning, Joseph O'Connor.

In this day it is rather the admission of inefficiency than of merit to admit a part in making the laws of the State. The pension law has been thoroughly picked to pieces. Harry T. Creswell, attorney and counselor of San Francisco, has given a written opinion on the subject. He decides that Boards of Education cannot under the law arbitrarily re ire teachers. The incapacity must exist. It is further decided that the clerk of the board should certify the one per cent. on the school warrant, and the treasurer to retain the amount so

stated for the pension fund. This fact seems settled: that teachers can proceed to organize under the new pension law. Superintendent Black begins his ad'ministration as Superintendent of Public Instruction on a conservative basis. He has made no radical changes, and advocates no radical reforms. The men he has called to assist him are well known and popular. W.W. Seamen, the chief deputy, made a record as Superintendent of Los Angeles for fine administrative ability. M. P. Stone served four years in the State Department with Superintendent AnderHe won many friends. Mr. E. M. Atkinson, also text-book clerk with Anderson, has been retained. Anderson, in his final report, speaks thus of his assistants:

son.

I am indebted to my very able and efficient chief clerk, Mr. M. P. Stone, for the zeal, industry, and care manifested in the preparation of the following statistics. Right here I desire to give to my deputy and to Mr. E. M. Atkinson, textbook clerk, just meed of commendation for their fidelity in the discharge of their duties. To the care and zeal in the discharge of their respective duties exercised by my faithful coadjutors in this office is attributable the freedom from complaint which has characterized my entire administration. They have all done their duty faithfully and well.

The following decision of the Attorney-General will have a startling effect in some counties where the County Boards of Education have not paid any particular attention to the legal part of the text-book question. State Superintendent Black has sent out the following circular letter:

SACRAMENTO, May 17, 1895. Hon. S. T. Black, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Sacramento, Cal.DEAR SIR:-Your favor of May 4th, inquiring as to the right of County Boards of Education to require the use of books in the schools of their jurisdiction, not legally adopted, in lieu of those regularly adopted in conformity with the provisions of Section 1874 of the Political Code, came duly to hand, and contents are noted.

I am directed by the Attorney-General to say in reply thereto that the provisions of said section must be strictly followed, and as pertinent to the question asked by you, I would call your attention to Section 1875 of the same Code, which is as follows: "If any city or district refuse or neglect to use the books that may be prescribed, or use any other text-books in any of the prescribed studies, the Superintendent of Public Instruction must withhold from such city, town, or district, 25 per cent of all State school moneys to which it may be entitled until it comply."

Subdivision 1 of Section 1874 says: "Any books hereafter adopted as part of a uniform series of text-books, must be continued in use for not less than four years." Text-books once legally adopted must be used until changed, as provided for in Section 1874 of the Political Code.

To your question, "Can a County Board of Education adopt a text-book without complying with the provisions of Section 1874? we reply emphatically, "No!" (Section 1874, Political Code, as amended in 1893. Amendments 1893, page 265.) Respectfully,

C. N. POST, First Deputy Attorney-General.

SPECIAL SUMMER SCHOOLS.

T

HIS is the season when teachers are in doubt as to the place where they shall spend their vacation. Already a large number have gone with President Jordan over the popular Northern Pacific to the Yellowstone, and excursions for teachers will leave almost every week in some direction. The excursion feature has become very popular with the teachers; like the summer school it has come to stay. No State in the Union furnishes so many summer schools as California. The parlors, assembly hall, museum, and other attractions of the beautiful Hotel Del Coronado have been given over to a summer school for teachers. The circular states that The Coronado Beach Summer School will open July 2d. It gives no names (which is not good policy), but San Diego always secures the best talent. The school will no doubt be a success, as previous schools at Pacific Beach and Coronado Beach have set the pace.

Later: The names of Prof. Holbrook, of the Lebanon Normal School (Ohio), and of Prof. Mellville Best Anderson, of Stanford, have been announced.

Long Beach Southern California Chatauqua Summer School and Assembly will begin July 15th. Prof. A. J. Cook, of Pomona College, and Professor McClatchie, of Throop Polytechnic Institute, will have charge of the science department.

The usual Chatauqua Summer School will be held at Monterey. No circular has been received as yet. The Stanford professors will of course conduct the Hopkins' School of Science.

The University of California sends out the following circular:

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.

The Physical Laboratory at Berkeley will be open from June 5th till July 17th, this year, and Mr. E. R. Drew will direct a Course of Physical Experimenting and Measurement.

*

The laboratory dues for the course have been fixed at $5, which must be paid in advance.

Inquiries for further information may be addressed to FREDERICK SLATE, Professor of Physics, Berkeley, Cal.

There will be a summer school at the Los Angeles State Normal for special work in psychology, sloyd, music, drawing, and physical culture. Those desiring circulars should write to F. P. Dressler.

Miss Katherine Ball, in decorating the hall where the graduating exercises of the San Francisco Normal School were held, used this rather significant motto: "Thou who teachest teachest not thou thyself?"

The Oakland Board of Education has Imade a rule to retire all teachers over sixty years of age. Such rules will hasten a generous pension law. It is, however, cold, brutal, selfish.

The State Board of Education of Washington met on June 4th to adopt textbooks.

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