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Villiers, his half-brother on the father's side, he preferred to the presidentship, where he lived in singular estimation for his justice and hospitality, and died with the unfeigned regret of the whole province. The eldest of the brothers, and heir of the name, was made a Baronet, but abstained from court, enjoying perhaps the greater satisfaction of self-fruition. His mother was created a Countess by patent in her own person, which was a new leading example, having become somewhat rare since the days of Queen Mary. And his sister, the Countess of Denbigh, he humbly recommended to the Queen; who on the discharge of some of her French attendants, took her into three several places of honour and confidence.
In short, not to insist on every particular branch of those private preferments, all his female kindred of the entire or half-blood, of the name of Villiers or Beaumont, within any near degree, were matched either with peers of the realm and their apparent heirs, or at least with knights or doctors of divinity, and of plentiful condition. His own subsistence in court he did not much strengthen, but stood there upon his own feet; for in truth most of his courtly connexions rather leaned upon him, than shored him up. His familiar servants, either about his person in ordinary attendance, or about his affairs of state, of law, or of office, he left both in good fortune, and what is more, in good reputation.
By the elegance of his person, the beauty of his face,* and the courtliness of his address, he gained
* It was for his fine face, that James usually called him Stenny' (the diminutive of Stephen) alluding to Acts vi. 15. where it is said of the first Martyr, All that sat in the council look
as high an ascendency over his Sovereign, as other favourites have usually done only by a long course of obsequious and servile assiduity. No wonder that the accumulation of honour, wealth, and power upon a vain man, suddenly raised from a private station, should expose him to envy; especially as the Duke was not less void of prudence and moderation in the use of these enjoyments, than the fond King had been in bestowing them. It must be acknowledged, however, that this great man was not without his virtues. He had all the courage and sincerity of a soldier; and was one of the few courtiers, as honest and open in their enmity, as military men are in their friendship. He was the last reigning favourite, that ever openly tyrannised in this kingdom.
ing steadfastly on him, saw his face as it had been the face of an angel. Some of his Grace's expressions of servility to the King were not less singular: one of his letters concludes with, "Your faithful dog, STENNY." The Queen, in her letter to him (then Marquis of Buckingham) soliciting his intercession with her royal husband in behalf of Sir Walter Ralegh, addresses him as "Her kind Dogge!"
ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY.
THIS prelate was the son of Maurice Abbot a clothworker, who suffered great hardships for his attachment to the Protestant faith under Queen Mary from the persecution of Dr. Story, an active bigot in those unhappy days. He resided at Guildford in Surrey, where his son George was born in 1562. The first rudiments of his education he received rom Mr. Francis Taylor, Master of the Free Grammar School in that town. Thence he removed to Baliol College, Oxford; and, in 1583, was chosen Probationer Fellow of that Society. Entering into holy orders soon afterward, he became a celebrated preacher. In 1593, he took the degree of B. D., and in 1597 that of D. D. The same year, likewise, he was elected Master of University College.
About this time a disagreement arose between Abbot and Laud, his celebrated successor in the metropolitan chair. These two divines, at a very
* AUTHORITIES. Heylin's Life of Abbot; Winwood's Memorials; Fuller's Church History; Rushworth's Collections; Clarendon's History of the Rebellion; and Wellwood's Memoirs.
early period, considered each other as rivals; and Laud having advanced some tenets in his academical exercises, which appeared to favour the doctrines of the Romish church, Abbot was active in promoting the censure passed upon him in 1606 by the University this was so highly resented by Laud, that their mutual aversion continued for life.
In 1599, Dr. Abbot was made Dean of Winchester, and the following year elected Vice-Chancellor of Oxford; an honour, which he enjoyed a second and third time in the years 1603 and 1605. The translation of the Bible now in use was begun by command of James I. in 1604; and Abbot was the second of the eight Oxford divines,* to whom
* It may not be improper to insert in this place the names of the whole body employed in this important work, with the rules which regulated their labours.
"Those appointed in 1604," says Lewis ( History of English Translations of the Bible,' p. 310.) 66 were distributed into six classes, and were to meet at Westminster, Cambridge, and Oxford, according to the following Order agreed upon for the translating the Bible:
"The Pentateuch, and the Story from Joshua to 1 Chronicles exclusive, by ten Westminster divines: Drs. Lancelot Andrews, Dean of Westminster; John Overal, Dean of St. Paul's; Adrian de Saravia; Richard Clarke, (Cantuar.); John Layfield, and Leigh; and Messrs. Burleigh and Bedwell (Stretford); King (Sussex); and Thompson (Clare):
"From 1 Chronicles the rest of the Story, and the Hagiographa, viz. Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Canticles, and Ecclesiastes, by eight from Cambridge; Mr. Livelye, Dr. Richardson, and Messrs. Chadderton, Dillingham, Harrison, Andrews, Spaldinge, and Bing:
"The Four Greater Prophets with the Lamentations, and the Twelve Lesser Prophets, by seven from Oxford; Drs. Hardinge, Reinolds, Holland, and Kilbie; and Messrs. Smith (Hereford), Brett, and Fareclowe:
the care of translating the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Revelation was committed. He
The Epistles of St. Paul, and the Canonical Epistles, by seven of Westminster: Drs. Barlow, Dean of Chester; Hutchinson, and Spencer; and Messrs. Fenton, Rabbett, Sanderson, and Dakins:
"The four Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Apocalypse, by eight from Oxford: Drs. Ravis, Dean of Christ-Church; ABBOT, Dean of Winchester; Montague, Dean of Worcester; and Thomson, Dean of Windsor; Mr. Savile, Drs. Perin and Ravens, and Mr. Harmar :
"And the Prayer of Manasses with the rest of the Apocrypha by seven from Cambridge: Drs. Dupont, Branthwaite, and Radcliffe; and Messrs. Ward (Eman.), Downes, Boyse, and Warde of King's."
To these forty-seven, of whom Andrews, Overal, Smith, Barlow, Ravis, ABBOT, Montagu, and Thomson were soon afterward exalted to the Bench, were to be added seven others as Overseers of the Translation, and especially as guardians of the third and fourth subjoined rules, to make up the intended number of fifty-four (perhaps three from each University, and one from Westminster, thus completing the number supplied by each to eighteen); and "for the better ordering of their proceedings," we are told by Fuller in his Church-History, (X. 46, 47.) his Majesty recommended the following Rules to them to be very carefully observed:
1. The ordinary Bible read in the Church, commonly called the Bishops' Bible, to be followed, and as little altered as the original will permit:
2. The names of the Prophets and the Holy Writers, with the other names in the Text, to be retained as near as may be, accordingly as they are vulgarly used:
3. The old ecclesiastical words to be kept, as the word Church' not to be translated Congregation:'
4. When any word hath divers significations, that to be kept, which hath been most commonly used by the most eminent Fathers, being agreeable to the propriety of the place and the analogy of faith:
5. The division of the chapters to be altered either not at all, or as little as may be, if necessity so require: