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DEATH OF THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.
posed to dreadful sufferings. One man only, a medical officer, named Brydon, escaped to recount the miseries which had fallen upon himself and his companions: a few of them had been made prisoners, the rest had perished by hunger, intense cold, and the sword of the Afghans. In the following autumn these disasters were avenged; the British forces gained several victories over the Afghans, and reduced their power.
In 1846, three great victories were gained over another warlike nation,-the Sikhs, who inhabit Lahore. They were forced to ask for peace, but rose again in 1848, and began a second war, which ended in the victory of Goojerat, and the capture of the city of Mooltan by the English. The whole of the Punjab (or the country of the five rivers) to the north-west of Hindostan, has since been annexed to the British. dominions.
In 1851, when England was at peace with all the world, and all the states of Europe were in quietness, a great Peace Festival, the "Exhibition of Industry of all Nations," was held in London.
In the following year, our warrior duke, Wellington, died, September 14th, 1852, at the age of eighty-three. Since the peace of 1815 he had been more than once prime minister; but whether filling the post of first minister or not, he had long been looked up to as the first man. "A brave soldier, a modest hero, a sincere friend to the laws and liberties of his country, a respectful and faithful subject, he had won, without seeking it, the title of first citizen" of the British Empire. Like most brave men, he was very fond of the young. He was buried, like Nelson, with all the
honour that a grateful nation could bestow, and lies beside him, in the crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral.
In little more than a year after his death, the long peace won by his victories was broken, and England was once more at war; but not against the French this time. They were our allies in protecting Turkey against the unjust encroachments of Russia. War
with Russia was declared, March 28th, 1854. Early in the following September the allied troops landed in the Crimea; fought the battle of the Alma on the 20th, and invested Sebastopol. The battle of Balaclava followed on the 26th October, and that of Inkermann, ten days afterwards; and in all these the Allies were victorious, but at a heavy loss of life. But the destruction of life was far greater during the winter months, when our troops were grievously destitute of necessary comforts; and thousands of the bravest hearts in Britain perished for want of shelter, food, and clothing. The patient fortitude with which they endured extreme misery is quite as admirable as their ardour in the fight. The city, so dearly purchased, fell at last, September 8th, 1855; and the fall of Sebastopol was followed by peace with Russia.
In this war, we found for the first time the benefit of that wonderful invention, the electric telegraph, bringing us the news of disaster or success so much more quickly than could have been done by any other
During the last eighty years, our country has produced a multitude of men who have distinguished themselves in science or in literature, and who have largely added to the sum of human knowledge; and during the present century especially, great pains
have been taken to promote religious instruction. Even while the long war with Bonaparte was raging, benevolent men were joining together to found schools, and distribute Bibles, and send Missionaries to the heathen.
And now that we have come to the end of this little History, it will be well to look back and see from what small beginnings the British Empire has arisen. Three hundred years ago our famous Queen Elizabeth reigned only over England and Wales; Ireland was subject in name, but was not really made obedient to her authority until the very close of her reign. The sun never sets on the empire of Queen Victoria; her flag flies in every climate, and she is acknowledged as a sovereign in every quarter of the globe-in the vast countries of British North America; in the West Indies, and Guiana; in Australasia, and India; in South Africa, and Sierra Leone. An Englishman can hardly help feeling proud when he looks on this little island home of ours, and remembers that it holds the sceptre over so large a portion of the earth's surface. Yet we must not think that God gave our warriors and statesmen strength to win and wisdom to keep this great empire, that we might boast ourselves of our power and riches. He gave it to us that we might give to the people of all these lands the great blessings which He has given us—freedom, and just laws, and, above all, the knowledge of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
SAXON LINE RESTORED.
Edward III., surnamed the Confessor. 1042
reigns nine months