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words, are worthy to be imprinted upon the memory of every inquirer after truth. Many other excellencies might be pointed out in these lectures, which commend them as valuable helps in the study of mental philosophy.
His great argument, however, against Locke's theory of know. ledge, as we conceive, is strikingly misapplied and erroneous. It is founded in a misapprehension of ihe meaning which Locke gives to the term idea. Cousin speaks of the objects of ideas, the conformity of ideas to their objects, etc. But ihis is not the language of Locke, and no such expressions occur in the passages referred to by our author. According to Locke ideas are the objects of thoughts, and not the thoughts themselves. Hence to speak of the object of an idea is to speak of the object of an object! This misapprehension has led our author to the startling conclusion, that, according to Locke's theory, we have no knowledge of matter or its qualities, of time or space, of finite minds, of the Infinite Spirit, nor of our own existence! Such a conclusion, however, adopted by Berkley and Hume, has long since been refuted as erroneous and absurd. And again we wonder at the process of reasoning by which Cousin seems to confound the theory of Locke with that of Condillac and his followers in France, under the common appellation of sensualism. Locke derives only a part of our knowledge from sensation; and uriformly represents sensation and reflection, as the sources of knowledge.
This work of Cousin, therefore, as it appears to us, on a cursory examination, with all its excellencies, which we admit to be great, is not in all respects unexceptionable. It may be a good book to introduce into our Colleges, and on the whole we are disposed to commend it as such ; but we would have it always in the hands of a professor thoroughly versed in the system of Locke, and who is able to detect the misapprehensions of which we have spoken.
5.—Religion of the Bible, in Select Discourses. By Thomas H.
Skinner. New York: John S. Taylor, 1839. Pp. 323. This volume, (beautifully executed by the publisher,) is “respectfully presented, by the Author, to the Mercer Street Presbyterian Church,” of which he is the pastor. It is in the form of discourses, or essays, the leading topics of which are “Spiritual Religion ;-Spiritual Joy ;-Doing Good, parts first and second ;-Coöperation with God ;- – Prayer, parts first and second ;-The Sab. bath ;-Restraints on Divine Influence;– The First Last, and the Last First."
Several of these pieces have been before printed in periodicals and other forms. They are, however, highly worthy to compose a volume, and well adapted to answer the object of their present publication, which is that the respected author may, by this means,
Catastrophe of the Presbyterian Church.
“ speak more frequently, in their private habitations,” to those accustomed to his voice in the house of God. As intellectual productions they are of a high order; systematic in their arrangement of thought, and convincing in argunent. In style they are beautiful specimens of pure and elegant English composition, worthy of the pen of the Professor of Sacred Rhetoric, and of the zealous, enlightened and persuasive preacher of the gospel. In this respect they exhibit so sew faults, that we do not care to name them in this brief notice. In theology they are discriminating, instructive and biblical, indicating clear views, and an abiding impression, on the mind of the author, of that perfect and harmonious system of truth, of which every doctrine of christian theology is a part. In spirit they possess a life and an unction, derived from the closet, not less than from the pulpit; and though“ presented” by the author to the members of his own charge, they are such as other christian pastors may commend, with much promise of usefulness, to their people. As a whole, the book is entirely congruous with the ministerial character, and suited, wherever it may be read, to help the work of the ministry, in elevating the tone of piety, in the perfecting of the saints," and "the edifying of the body of Christ." 'We know of but few volumes of discourses, at once so unexceptionable, so attractive, and so well adapted to do good.
6.- The Catastrophe of the Presbyterian Church, in 1837, including
a full View of the Recent Theological Controversies in New England. By Zebulon Crocker, Delegate from the General Association of Connecticut to the General Assembly of 1837.
New Haven: B. & W. Noyes, 1838. pp. 300. This work has been several months before the public, but we have not, until quite lately, found opportunity to peruse it. It appears to contain a fair account of the principal exciting controversies which have existed, for a few years past, both in the Presbyterian and Congregational churches, by one who has taken pains to inform himself of the facts and events concerning which he writes. The author's mind appears to have been first excited to the importance of preparing this history, by the discussions to which he listened in the General Assembly of 1837, and by the strange and startling positions which were assumed and acted on by the majority of that body, in abrogating the Plan of Union of 1801, exscinding the Synods of Urica, Geneva, Genesee and the Western Reserve, and in passing resolutions discountenancing the operations of the Home Missionary and Education Societies within the bounds of the Presbyterian church. To a Connecticut clergyman these positions and doings may well be conceived to have been astounding, and our author felt that his brethren in New England were deeply concerned to know whereunto were tending their cherished union and coöpeSECOND SERIES, NO. 1. VOL. I.
ration with the Presbyterian church. He accordingly set himself to the preparation of this history of the measures above referred to, in the accomplishment of which he has found occasion to acquaint his readers with the origin of the Presbyterian church, the controversies which have agitated it, from time to time, the differences of theological views, the encroachments on high-church prerogatives, the “ Act and Testimony” of 1834, and the memorial which followed it, the Trials of Mr. Barnes and Dr. Beecher, and in general the causes which concurred to produce the majority, as it was in the General Assembly of 1837.
Having accomplished this part of his work, Mr. Crocker, finding himself in possession of documents to illustrate the contemporaneous controversies in New England, has embraced an account of these also in the volume before us ;—the New Haven Controversy Controversy between Dr. Taylor and Mr. Harvey ;-between Dr. Taylor and Dr. Tyler :-with Dr. Woods ;-second discussions between Dr. Taylor and Dr. Tyler ;-Discussion on the doctrine of the Divine Purposes ;-Dr. Spring and Dr. Woods on Native Depravity ;-Measures in Connecticut to suppress New Haven Views ; -Dr. Tyler's letters to Dr. Witherspoon, etc.
The author has generally exhibited the main positions of the parties in these several controversies, with clearness, together with their principal arguments, and copious extracts from their writings, presenting a condensed view of the whole subject. To which is added an Appendix, containing an enumeration of publications on the “ New Haven Controversy," and also on the “Unitarian Controversy" in New England.
7.- American Education : or Strictures on the Nature, Necessity
and Practicability of a System of National Education, suited to the United States. By Rev. Benjamin O. Peers. With an Introductory Lelter by Francis L. Hawks, D. D. New
York: John S. Taylor, 1838. pp. 364. This is a popular book on a popular subject. The author has been for many years engaged in the work of instruction, and brings to the subject of education, in the language of Dr. Hawks,“ the enthusiasm of a mind deeply impressed with its importance." His general topics of discussion are the Political Necessity of religious Education ;-the essential features of a System of National Education ;--and the Practicability of National Education ;-with an Appeal to the clergy on their obligations to assist in exciting, elevating and directing public sentiment on the subject of Popular Education.”
We have not been able to give this volume the examination which it deserves, but from the claims of its author to the respect of the public, and from the strong confidence in the ability of the work expressed by Dr. Hawks in his “ Introductory Letter,” we do not hesitate to commend it to our readers and especially to those, to whom the author's closing “ Appeal” is directed. 8.-A Manual of Prayer; designed to assist Christians in learning
the subjects and modes of Devotion. With an Introduction by Rev. Å. Barnes. Second Edition, enlarged. Philadelphia :
Henry Perkins. Boston : Perkins & Marvin, 1838. pp. 306. We have perused this little volume with great satisfaction. It is principally designed to furnish an assistant to closet devotion. Its author, we understand, is a layman, who, on making a profession of religion, and feeling the great responsibilities he had thus assumed, experienced much embarrassment, (as most others have in similar circumstances,) in preparing himself for the intelligent and profitable discharge of the social devotions in which he was called on to engage. This preparation he sought in the retirement of the closet, by storing his memory with a vocabulary of his wants, and training his heart to an intelligent and fervent babit of prayer. rience suggested to him the thought of attempting the preparation of a manual for the use of others. He pursued his object for several years, and has produced a work most happily adapted to the purpose he had in view. The topics of supplication here exhibited are of almost every variety which occur in common life, the language in which they are presented is chaste, scriptural and glowing, and the spirit which pervades them is deep-toned, humble and expansive. They are christian and not sectarian prayers, and may be safely recommended by pastors of all denominations to the study not only of the lambs of their flocks, but to the attention of all who would improve in the gifts and graces of supplication.
9.-A Grammatical Analysis of Selections from the Hebrew Scrip.
tures, with an E.cercise in Hebrew Composition. By Isaac Nordheimer, Doctor in Philosophy of the University of Munich, Prof. of Arabic, Syriac and other Oriental Languages, and acting Prof. of Hebrew, in the University of the city of New York. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838. pp. 148.
. Chrestomathies have, not unfrequently, belied their name. Instead of being easy lessons, they have been among the most difficult compositions which could be selected. The compilers have sought for beautiful pieces, highly rhetorical extracts, rather than those excerpts which would be in the reach of the mere beginner. Some pieces in the Graeca Minora would task the powers of an accomplished scholar. Most of the German reading books which we have seen are open to the same objection. The Arabic Chrestomathies seem to be intended to furnish specimens of the most elegant compositions in the language. They are anything but Chrestomathies. Doubtless De Sacy, Kosegarten and Rödiger would find no stum
bling-block in reading them. But alas for the poor tyro! When opens their
pages, he plunges into a black forest. He is at once involved in a labyrinth where there is no clue.
Dr. Nordheimer, we believe, has avoided this sad mistake. Some of his selections are taken from the Hebrew Prophets, but these are found in the latter end of the volume, after ample grammatical analyses and explanatory remarks on a number of chapters in Genesis, several
passages from the other books of the Pentateuch, and a few of the easier Psalms. The most difficult points in these prophetical selections are, moreover, elucidated by well-timed observations. Perhaps the student when he reaches these extracts will be able to master all their difficulties. Dr. Nordheimer has very properly confined himself almost exclusively to the clearing up of difficulties of a grammatical nature. The young reader is only bewildered by exegesis. Besides, the study of grammar and of the mere forms, in the hands of an intelligent instructor, can be made to assume much interest. The poetical division of the work is preceded by a succinct statement of the peculiarities which exist in the structure of Hebrew poetry. The advanced reader, who would wish for more ample details, would do well to read De Wette's Introduction to the Psalms, translated by Prof. Torrey of the University of Vermont, and published in the Bibl. Repos. Vol. III. p. 445, First Series. It being universally admitted that the practice of composing in a foreign tongue is one of the surest means of becoming thoroughly imbued with its spirit, Dr. Nordheimer has inserted at the close of his volume an Exercise in Hebrew Composition, with accompanying auxiliary directions.
The volume will add to the well-established reputation of the author, or rather authors, for the Chrestomathy is to be considered as the joint production of Dr. Nordheimer and of Mr. William W. Turner, both having borne an equal share in the plan and execution of it. We believe, that there is but one opinion, among all competent judges, of the Grammar, to which this Chrestomathy is a Supplement, and that opinion is one of high commendation. We shall look with interest for the second volume of the Grammar, which is to embrace a consideration of the Syntax. The whole series will exhibit the author as a very able oriental scholar. We hope for corresponding good fruits in the studies and literary character of the country. 10.-Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocquerille, arocat à la
Cour Royale de Paris. Translated by Henry Reeve, Esq.,
1838. pp. 464.