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and much effort to promote its cause by her public acts, her own heart and life had been little indeed under the influence of real Christianity. These are awful thoughts for a deathbed, -sad reflections for a dying person, whether that person be high or low, rich or poor, the great Queen Elizabeth, or one of the meanest and most ignorant of her subjects. Thoughts like these were enough to cloud her brow, and to sadden her heart. But it is not possible for us to know what passed in her mind in the solemn, quiet hours of sickness and sorrow.

Let us hope, that when, in answer to the advice given her to direct her thoughts to God and heavenly things, she replied that she had already done so, she spoke truly and sincerely; and that, whatever her past life might have been, however inconsistent with the religion she professed, yet, ere death took her away from her earthly kingdom, she had been taught to seek and to find a title to that inheritance which is "incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth not away."

Queen Elizabeth was the last of the line of Tudor, which commenced, as you know, with her grandfather, Henry VII. It will therefore be well, perhaps, in this place, to say a little about the manners and customs which prevailed in England at the close of the sixteenth

1

century, just as we have done before at some other stated periods.

The country was still in a state of semibarbarism in many respects,-that is, compared with the refinement of modern days; though considerable improvements of all kinds had taken place since the times of the civil wars of York and Lancaster. The people, for instance, were still fond of wild and cruel sports, such as bear-baiting, and bull-baiting; they loved noise and excitement; and even their music was of a loud and inharmonious description. The Queen herself used to listen, during her meals, with much satisfaction, to the sound of twelve trumpets, and two kettle-drums, and an indefinite number of fifes and cornets which made the great hall ring for an hour together. And then, the meals of those days were very different from ours, in other respects, besides the music which enlivened them. Breakfast was seldom thought of, or, if it were, it consisted only of a slice of bread, and a glass of ale ; for the luxuries of tea and coffee were as yet unknown. However, as eleven was the hour for dinner, the morning meal was certainly not so essential for the good folks of Elizabeth's time as it is for ourselves. Supper was served at about five o'clock; and most people went to bed at nine or ten,

and rose very early in the morning.

ours.

The style of dress too, was not at all like

Ladies began now to appear in very fine clothes and ornaments. They wore large showy velvet bonnets, stiff petticoats, and longwaisted bodices, such as we see in old fashioned pictures of the beauties of those days ; pocket handkerchiefs adorned with gold and silver, and a variety of chains and bracelets. Woollen and silk stockings were first introduced in Elizabeth's reign. A pair of black knitted silk ones were presented to the Queen, and she liked them so much, that she would never afterwards wear the cloth stockings to which she had been accustomed before. Needles were now in common use; and pins added very much to the neatness of the ladies' appearance, and formed a good substitute for the clasps and skewers of wood and brass, gold or silver, which had hitherto been employed to fasten the various parts of the dresses. Young men also, studied finery and ornament. They adorned their ears with jewels and ribbons ; and the curious high-pointed hats which were worn, were sometimes decorated with gold and silver, or precious stones. Beards were not suffered to be so long as formerly; and the hair was cut close and short on the top of the head, and allowed to grow long at the sides. So much for dress and fashion. As to luxuries, and conveniences for moving about, they were not much employed. Coaches however had just been introduced ; and Elizabeth used to appear in one on public occasions, instead of riding on horse-back behind her chamberlain, as had been the former custom.

Literature and learning were held in very great honour in Elizabeth's reign. The queen herself was learned ; she was well acquainted with Greek and Latin, and sometimes would deliver a Latin speech on public occasions, without difficulty or previous preparation. Great and clever men abounded in her time. They were so numerous that I cannot tell you of one half of them ; but

you

should be acquainted with a few, at least, of the most distinguished names.

As naval commanders, you have already heard of Lord Howard, and of those who served under him in the expedition against the Spanish Armada. One of these was Sir Francis Drake, who sailed more than once round the world, and wrote an entertaining account of his voyages. Then there was Sir Walter Raleigh, who discovered Virginia, in America, and so named it in honour of the Maiden Queen. Raleigh was a great favourite of Elizabeth, and he had obtained her favour in a very singular manner. It happened, one day, that she was about to cross a street which was covered with mud, and Sir Walter Raleigh,

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who was standing by, dressed in a handsome cloak, instantly threw it off, and spread it before his sovereign, for her to walk upon, that she might not wet nor soil her robes. Such an act of politeness was not likely to pass by unnoticed and unrewarded by Queen Elizabeth. We shall bave more to say about Sir Walter Raleigh in the next reign.

The great statesmen were Cecil, Lord Burleigh, the Queen's prime minister ; the Earl of Leicester; and Sir Francis Walsingham. Among the learned men, I must mention Sir Roger Ascham, who was the tutor of both Queen Elizabeth and Lady Jane Grey; and Sir Philip Sidney, who is much celebrated for his writings. There were also many good as well as learned divines in Elizabeth's reign ; and of these we should particularly remember Bishop Jewell and Richard Hooker, to whose works religion in general, and the Church of England in particular, owes a great deal. And then, not to weary you with many more names, I will only add that two celebrated poets adroned the times of this Queen,--the great Shakespeare, with whom you are already in some degree acquainted; and Spenser, whose works are less generally known and read. Perhaps you may remember, however, that a quotation from him headed one of our early chapters; and no doubt you were amused, if not

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