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Annals of England

340
Article XXIX., considered in reference to the Three Sermons of the
Archdeacon of Taunton

48
Bartlett's (Mr. J. S.) Brief History of the Christian Church from the
first century to the Reformation

440
Bartholomew's (Mr.) Sermon, God's care for His little ones

585

Batty's (Rev. A.) Three Sermons preached at the Leeds Free Grammar

School

488

Bingham's (Rev. W. P. s.) Lecture on Ecclesiastical Sculpture 579
Bishop of Brechin's Commentary on the Litany

142

Bishop of Natal's

Ten Weeks' Visit to bis Diocese

191

Bishop of New Jersey's Sermon, Ancient Charity the Rule and Re-

proof of Modern

96

Bishop of Salisbury's Letter on Cathedral Reform

143

Bishop Patrick's

Parable of the Pilgrim

238

Blatch's (Rev. W.)

Memoir of the Right Rev. David Low, formerly
Bishop of Ross, Moray, and Argyle

582
Blunt's (Rev. J. H.) Sermons

on the Atonement and the At-one-maker 338
Bode’s (Mr.) Bampton Lectures

488
Bonpert's (Rev. P. Conradi) Scutum Fidei, ad uşus quotidianos Sacer-
dotum

92

Brief History of Sherburn Hospital

, in the County of Durham 291

Browne's (Charles) Lecture on Symbolism

292

Californian Crusoe; or the Lost Treasure Found

92

Carter's (Rev. T. T.) First Five Years of the House of Mercy, Clewer · 191
Castle Builders, the

96
Chamberlain's (Rev. T.) Letter to the Bishop of S. Andrew's

240
Churchman's Diary for 1856

585

Churchman's Library-Bishop Andrewes' Devotions

47

The Bible, and how to use it

96
Mr. Heygate's Manual

238

The Laying on of Hands : a Manual for Confirmation

192

Close’s (Rev. F.) Pamphlet, High Church Education, delusive and dan-

gerous; being an exposition of the system adopted by the Rev. W.

Sewell

236

Codd's (Rev. E. T.) Country Sermons

387

Conscience's (Hendrick) Tales

439

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488

240

Couper (Miss G.) On the Management of Children

Curieis's (Rev. Ĝ. H.) Four Sermons on Spiritual Progress

Denison's (Archdeacon) Sermons on the Real Presence

De Vere's (Aubrey) Heroines of Charity

Doctrine of Christian Baptism

Doctrine of the Real Presence as set forth in Divines and others since

the Reformation

Dubois' (M. l'Abbé) Pratique du Zèle ecclesiastique, ou moyens infal-

libles pour tout Prêtre de rendre son Ministère fructueux

Educational Register

Everley

Faber's (Mr. Frederick) Essay on Catholic Home Missions
Few Words about the Inmates of our Union Workhouses
Filleuls (Mr.) Sermon, The Poor made Rich by Faith
Filleul's (Mr.) Tract, Infant Baptism and Confirmation
Frazer's (Mr.) Edition of the Old Week's Preparation towards a worthy

Receiving of the Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper
Fraser's (Rev. W.) Parish Sermons
Gilderdale's (Mr.) Essay on Family Religion
Glossary of Military Terms
Godfray's (Rev. F.) Sermon, Les Disciples d’Emmaus
Good Fight, the
Grant's (Archdeacon) Lecture on the Crimea
Gurney's (Rev. Archer) Iphigenia at Delphi
Haskoll's (Canon) History of France
Haviland's (Rev. G. E.) Visitation Sermon, Christ's Presence, the en-

couragement of His ministers in the visitation of the Sick
Heartley's (Rev. C. T.)

Pamphlet, Our Cathedrals and their Mission
Henley's (The Right Hon. J. W.) Speech in the House of Commons

on Education

Hill's (Rev. Herbert) Sermons on the Christian Life

Hutchinson's (Canon) Parish Recollections

Hymns following the Course of the Christian Seasons, with Prayers for

the use of Sunday Schools

Ingle’s (Rev. J.) Pamphlet, What is the use of our Cathedrals ?

:

Introductory Sketch of Church History

Jackson's (Rev. W.) Tales and Catechisings

Jameson's (Mrs.) Sisterhoods at Home and Abroad

Kay’s (Dr.) Essay on the Promises of Christianity

Knight's (Rev. R.) Essay on Predestination

Krummacher's (Rev. F. w.) Suffering SAVIOUR; or, Meditations on

the Last Days of CHRIST upon earth

Laud's (Archbishop) Devotions

Legenda Domestica

Liber Cantabrigiensis

Low's (Rev. J. L.) Lecture on the Translation of the Scriptures

Lucy the Housemaid .

Lyttleton's (Lord) Thoughts on National Education

Macaulay's (Miss B. E.) Day in Nismes

Maitland's (Dr.) Remarks on the Bishop of Oxford's Charge

Manual of Prayer for a Christian Servant

Marriott's (Rev. C.) Manual of Prayer

Marriott's (Rev. C.) Pamphlet, The Co-operative Principle not opposed

to a true Political Economy

Marsden's (Rev. J. B.) History of the Christian Church and Sects from

the earliest ages of Christianity

Mary Beaver ; or the Housemaid's Wedding

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PAGE

Memoir of the Life and Death of Sir John King

585

Meyrick's (Mr. James) L'Eglise Anglicane n'est point Schismatique 239

Milner's (Rev. C. F.) Pastor's Gift

238

Moberly's (Dr.) Address read to the Hampshire Church School Society 488
Monro's (Rev. E.) Journey Home

94
Monro's (Rev. E.) Leonard and Dennis

95, 292
Monro's (Rev. E.) Midsummer Eve

540

Montgomery's (R.) Sanctuary; a Companion in Verse for the English

Prayer Book

339

Morgan's (Arthur M.) Poems

540

National Daily Prayer

292

Neale’s (Rev. J. M.) Lent Legends

192
Nevins' (Rev. W.) Scriptural Doctrine of the Holy Communion 388
Newland's (Rev. H.) Seasons of the Church, and what they each 585
Newland's (Rev. H.) Village Clubs

540
Newland's (Rev. H.) Cottage Economy

540

Oakley's (Mr.) Recollections of the English Church

340

Oliphant's (Mr.) Plea for Painted Glass

238

Old William; a Poem for Midsummer Day

340

Our Christian Calling; or Conversations with my Neighbours

585
Parker's Shilling Series : Mother and Son

95

The Railway Accident

584

The Strike

238

Wanted a Wife

584

Parochial Papers, No. 12, Confirmation

388

Parochial Sermons bearing on the subjects of the day

488

Plain Commentary on the Gospels

584

Polehampton's (Mr.) Two Sermons on the Method of Reforming Juve-

nile Delinquents :

540

Practical Sermons on the Characters of the Old Testament

48

Ramsay's (Dean) Manual of Catechetical Instruction

143

Ramsay's (Rev. Arthur) Catechiser's Manual; or the Church Catechism

illustrated and explained

190

Readings for the Christian Year

238

Report of the Finchley Industrial Schools

540

Revised Liturgy of 1689

388

Richards' (Rev. G.) Lectures on our Blessed LORD's Contest with the

Devil

239

Salkeld's (Mr.) Tract, The Godly sincerity of the Prayer Book vindi-
cated

440

Scudamore (Rev. W. E.) on the Communion of the Laity

582

Seven Fairy Tales

238
Short Sermons for the Festivals

96
Sisters of Charity, and some visits with them

191

Story of a Promise that was kept

585

Thrift; or, Hints for Cottage Housekeepers

292

Tyrrell's (Rev. G.) Manual, The Fellow Travellers, or Married Life, &c. 585

Voluntaryism in England and Wales, or the Census of 1851

48

What is Convocation going to do for our Church Services ?

96

What, Where, and Who is Antichrist ?

48

Wilkins” (Rev. J. M.) Lecture on Early Church History

144

Willie Grant; or Honesty is the best policy

585

Williams' (Rev. I.) Sermons on the Epistles and Gospels (concluding
volume)

239
Women as they are

47
Woodford's (Rev. J. R.) Holy Week Lectures; forming a Commentary
upon the latter part of the Apostles' Creed

487

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THE ECCLESIASTIC

AND

THEOLOGIAN.

PRE-RAPHAELITISM.

Pre-Raphaelitism. By the Author of “Modern Painters.” Lon

don: Smith, Elder, and Co. 1851. Lectures on Architecture and Painting. By John Ruskin. Lon

don: Smith, Elder, and Co. 1854. Art : its Constitution and Capacities. A Lecture. By the Rev.

EDWARD YOUNG, M.A. London: Hamilton, Adams, and Co. 1854.

а

In a former article we criticised Mr. Ruskin's architectural principles and the manner in which he puts them forth to the world, as exhibited in the two first of his lectures at Edinburgh. We propose at present to examine the two last lectures in that volume, together with the author's former pamphlet on Pre-Raphaelitism. We have added the book which stands last on our list, as exemplifying some characteristics of Mr. Ruskin's antagonists.

The progress of Pre-Raphaelite art forms a curious chapter in the history of public opinion. Five years ago critics were divided between virulent abuse and contemptuous silence, and even those who thought they could discern powers in the new school not much inferior to the mass of artists whose works crowd the walls of our exhibition rooms, could utter no more favourable prediction than that they would soon outgrow their folly, and give no better advice, than that they should abjure, as soon as possible, both their name and their theory, and subside into common sense.

Time enough has elapsed for those predictions to be realised, and that advice followed, and what is the result ? Neither the name nor the theory has been surrendered, and yet no pictures command a larger share of attention and admiration than those of Millais and Hunt. They have grown indeed in artistic power, but not outgrown their principles. They have proved that the realization of those principles affords scope for the highest efforts, and has its issue in the noblest results. They have borne their full share of obloquy and

VOL. XVII.-JANUARY, 1855.

B

a

contempt, and if the foundation of a new school of English painting, and the inauguration of a new era in the history of art, be anything, they have their reward. It may be of service perhaps to some of our readers, if we state in a few words, what the principles of Pre-Raphaelitism are. They will be found developed at greater length in Mr. Ruskin's fourth lecture. Now there is one common error which lies at the

very

threshold of the subject, and stands in the way of any correct estimation of the merits and position of the artists in question. They are supposed to desire the reduction of art precisely to the state in which it existed previous to the time of Raphael, and to ignore, or rather condemn, all the improvements which it has undergone since that period. And on this hypothesis it is very justly argued that art was never designed to be stationary, any more than science or politics, and that to despise progress in the one, must be just as ridiculous as it is admitted to be in the others. But unfortunately for the point and application of the argument, the Pre-Raphaelites have never denied its truth, and the most casual glance at one of their works would, one might have thought, have convinced any one that its execution evinced an advance on the great painters of early Italy, at least as marked as could be furnished by any of their cotemporaries. Art is made up of principles and practice. The latter is susceptible of constant improvement, but in the former (except by the discovery of principles always in existence, but hitherto unperceived) change is impossible. It is in this respect only that the Pre-Raphaelites desire to imitate the early schools. Up to a certain point in the bistory of art, marked with great precision by the middle period of Raphael's career, two leading principles pervaded its manifestations—the presence of a moral purpose and the preference of truth to beauty. The distinction between modern and mediæval works, as regards the first of these, cannot be drawn out without reference to many things which do not come within the domain of art, and we refer those who wish to follow it up to the Stones of Venice. The other is of narrower compass. In all early painters there will be found rigid adherence to the truth of nature. It does not conflict with this assertion, that there is much in nature which they do not represent at all, and much in what they do represent which stops far short of the reality. Their works indeed are imperfect, but they are always true. painted what they saw around them, and where they are unable to do that fully, they give with the utmost accuracy what they can, and use a conventional formula for that which is beyond their power of execution, so that their imperfections and shortcomings shall not detract from the value of that wbich they do represent. Each successive generation of painters exemplified the same principle with constantly increasing power and mastery over the resources of their art, but the last step was coincident with the advent of the Renais

a

They

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