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shops with all sorts of souvenirs of the old missions. Photographers, as well as postal card and calendar dealers, likewise have reaped a golden harvest. This commercialism may be regarded as the superficial manifestation of the deeper influence that the Spanish missions are exerting on present-day life in California.

The most obvious and striking result, however, of the efforts of the pious friars is to be seen in the creation and development of the mission type of architecture, which has become so popular in recent years in this state. Many writers describe the style as Moresque or Moorish and say that the padres brought it with them from Spain, but this is not strictly true, because these early mission builders created an original type of architecture which was harmoniously adapted to the blue skies and lofty mountains of California. It is a native growth of the new soil, and there is nothing to resemble it elsewhere in America, or, as one writer has said, nothing to correspond with it in Spain. Indeed, it is a mixture of various elements that the designer used for convenience and adaptability.

The custom of building about a quadrilateral with the structures opening on interior court planted with gardens where trades could be plied in the open was universal. So great a hold has the mission architecture taken upon the people that it has become the favorite type of building in this state today. On every hand are to be seen edifices which, in their adaptation of the mission type, serve to recall the old times, and, as a result, mission architecture is observable in the construction of dwelling-houses, schools, churches, libraries, hotels, depots, courthouses, and even warehouses. To perpetuate a historic idea Leland Stanford had the mission architecture used in the construction of the magnificent Stanford University at Palo Alto, where the open court, the long colonnade, the round arches, the corridors, and the tile roofs present a style unique and picturesque, as well as commodious and convenient for the purposes designed. The architecture of the Glenwood Mission Inn at Riverside, California, also conforms remarkably to that of the missions. The roofs are covered with red tiles and in the tower there is a chime of bells. Within the building the mission atmosphere is preserved in its decorations and furnishings.

On every hand, then, may be seen not only public buildings erected upon the old mission plan, but, as an offshoot from the mission type, has come the popular California bungalow.

This creative inspiration has made itself felt in letters and art as well as in architecture. Numbers of novels whose plots are laid in the old Spanish era have appeared from time to time, notable among these being Ramona and For the Soul of Rafael. John S. McGroarty in The Mission Play and Chester Gore Miller in his historical drama, Father Junípero Serra, have portrayed the early epoch for the stage. Many romantic, sentimental, and descriptive books about California have been published in recent years, and they nearly all mention the missions or mission life. Some authors, such as Helen Hunt Jackson, Laura Bride Powers, and George Wharton James, have devoted themselves almost entirely to the subject; and the poems of more or less merit that deal with the missions are legion. Indeed, one may say that almost every writer who has visited the old buildings and ruins has so felt their influence that he has penned a sketch or a poem about them.

The historiography of California forms no unimportant part in the state's literature. It includes not only the manifold works of recent authors but also many that are even more valuable and interesting, such as the Life of Father Serra, by Palou, and the diaries of the early padres, especially those of Father Palou and Father Crespi.

The picturesque mission ruins have also fired the imagination of artists, who have created anew on canvas the romantic scenes of the old days. Sculptors, too, have here found a worthy theme, and they have immortalized Serra in bronze and stone. From the actual art work of the mission fathers, who decorated everything, a whole school of design has developed. This has been accomplished by the hand-crafts artists, for they have largely copied the patterns, colors, symbolism, and, in some cases, even the technique of the Franciscan pioneers. As a consequence hammered brass and copper, tooled leather, carved wood, and the bindings of books all suggest the mission art.

The spirit of restoring and preserving the memories and the traditions of the missions has found its highest and best expression in the impetus it has given to the study of local history. Today school children are taught the facts of California history and are conversant with the story of the missions. To meet this new demand various textbooks have been prepared. Sexton's California Stories can be mentioned as works suitable for the primary classes, while Hunt, Norton, and Bandini have published acceptable histories for the grammar grades. The year 1914, however, saw the culmination of this work when the regents of the University of California, in response to popular demand, established a chair of California history in that institution. The Native Sons of the Golden West have been the prime movers in encouraging the study of local history, and in 1910 they gave $1500 to found a traveling fellowship for the study of Pacific Coast history. Later they added a like sum for the support of a resident fellowship, and so they are now contributing annually $3000 to carry on research work. This action on the part of the Native Sons has been the result of the revival of interest in the missions.

Not only has the work of the historical students, who have had the advantage of the Native Sons fellowships, added much to the world's knowledge of Spanish institutions but it has aroused a closer friendship between Spain and California. A convincing illustration of this better understanding between the two countries is the fact that Governor Johnson thought it worth while to appoint an official representative for California at the bicentennial celebration of the birth of Father Serra, held at the island of Majorca in 1913.

The Franciscan missionaries accomplished great things in their day. They did the pioneer work, introducing modern civilization into our state. They christianized and held in control for a time a vast savage people. The missions were centers of productive industries as well as communities of culture around which clustered the Spanish population. The period of their glory covered less than a century, yet in that brief time they broke the virgin soil, faced and overcame the dangers of the wilderness, and prepared the way for a newer, broader, and more enduring culture. Their greatest service to the present-day Californian was in their making Spanish, and later Mexican, ownership of the land possible by keeping off more aggressive and stronger nations until the United States, moved by her “manifest destiny," stepped in and took the land from the feeble hands of Mexico. Consequently the influence of the missions is the fundamental fact in Californian history.

True, indeed, are the following words of Mr. John F. Davis: “The work of these missions is not dead. Their very ruins still preach the lesson of service and sacrifice, and so every Californian, as he turns the pages of the early history of his state, feels at times that he can hear the echo of the angelus bells of the missions amid the din of money madness of the later days and can find a repose in the better angels of his nature."

Bells of the Past, whose long-forgotten music

Still fills the wide expanse,
Tingeing the sober twilight of the Present

With color of Romance.

THE PURPOSE OF UNIVERSITY STUDY

RICHARD C. TOLMAN

Now that we have come to the end of the year, let me tell you once more what I believe to be the real reason for studying thermodynamics, or indeed any subject worthy of inclusion in a college curriculum. It is of course the enrichment of the inner mental life by satisfying those strong desires which we all have for systematic knowledge concerning the universe and the laws which describe its behavior. In other words, the main purpose of our studies is in its broader sense the promotion of culture.

It has sometimes seemed to me, however, that by its connotations culture has been made the most disgusting word in the English language. It is so often spelled with a capital C and pronounced Cull-chaw, denoting a sort of prize package which can be acquired by attending a course of Chautauqua lectures or by electing enough units in subjects which do not require exact thinking or close application. And the height of vulgarity seems to be reached by those colleges which blatantly advertise this commodity culture for the price of a few years' hazy thinking.

Now, culture is not a thing which you can go out and get as you would buy a banana at a fruit-stall; it is rather the by-product which accompanies a life of vigorous and worthy mental effort. It is the particular duty of colleges

* Remarks at the end of a course in thermodynamics applied to Chemistry.

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