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(New Jersey) by the creditable manner in which he filled several important offices, in all which were displayed not only talents of the highest order, but also business habits that are of vast consequence to those who are anxious to serve the public faithfully.

On the death of that eminent statesman, Samuel L. Southard, in 1842, Mr. Dayton was appointed by the Governor to succeed him in the United States Senate; and so ably did he fill the place left vacant by his illustrious predecessor, that he was continued therein by election of the legislature until 1851. His zealous opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law subjected him to several severe encounters with the friends of that measure, in all of which his eloquence and argumentative powers shone conspicuously.

After his nomination for the Vice-Presidency by the "National People's Convention," a committee was appointed to wait upon him, whom he met at Trenton. The chairman briefly apprised him of the proceedings of the Convention, and recapitulated the leading features of the platform which had been adopted. Mr. Dayton, in reply, took occasion to define his position on the most important issues involved in the present political struggle, and said, in substance, that the honor conferred upon him was utterly unexpected; that he felt and duly appreciated it, not on his own account only, but on behalf of his state; that for the last few years, though engaged in the avocations of private life, he had not been an inattentive observer of the course of events; that he could say, with emphasis, that his principles were not changed: he stood now, in reference to the great leading issues of the country, as in times past. After expressing his heartfelt sympathy for Kansas, he alluded to the subject of internal improvements as follows: "The admission of California into the Union as a state--her unprecedented growth-seem now to demand increased facility of communication. A roadway from the West to the Far West will be a ligament binding to the Union both extremes: it will tend to consolidate more firmly the lasting Union of the states-a Union such as our fathers made, based upon equality of rights. It will tend, too, to increase the interior commerce of the country, and to develop still more largely the resources of that magnificent state upon our western borders. The improvements of rivers and harbors are specially appropriated by the Constitution to the general government; and whether our commerce floats upon our coasts, our rivers, or our lakes, it is due to the lives of our citizens, as well as their property, that the government should provide for their safety. He trusted that the people would lay aside all minor differences, and come up manfully to the work-yielding to one another freedom of speech and equality of rights; but claimingnay, exacting-the same for ourselves."


Resolved, That the maintenance of the principles promulgated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Federal Constitution, are essential to the preservation of our republican institutions, and that the Federal Constitution, the rights of the states, and the union of the states, shall be preserved.

Resolved, That with our republican fathers we hold it to be a selfevident truth, that all men are endowed with the inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and that the primary object and ulterior design of our federal government were, to secure these rights to all persons within its exclusive jurisdiction; that as our republican fathers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory, ordained that no person should be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, it becomes our duty to maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it for the purpose of establishing slavery in the United States by positive legislation, prohibiting its existence or extension therein. That we deny the authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, of any individual or association, or individuals, to give legal assistance to slavery in any territory of the United States, while the present Constitution shall be maintained.

Resolved, That the Constitution confers upon Congress sovereign power over the territories of the United States for their government, and that in the exercise of this power it is both the right and the duty of Congress to prohibit in the territories those twin relics of barbarism, polygamy and slavery.

Resolved, That while the Constitution of the United States was ordained and established in order to establish a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, and secure the blessings of liberty, and contains ample provisions for the protection of the life, liberty, and property of every citizen, the dearest constitutional rights of the people of Kansas have been fraudulently and violently taken from them-their territory has been invaded by an armed force-spurious and pretended legislative, judicial and executive officers have been set over them, by whose usurped authority, sustained by the military power of the government, tyrannical and unconstitutional laws have been enacted and enforced -the rights of the people to keep and bear arms have been infringed -test oaths of an extraordinary and entangling nature have been imposed, as a condition of exercising the right of suffrage and holding office the right of an accused person to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury has been denied the right of the people to be secure in their houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures has been violated-they have been deprived of life, liberty, and property without due process of law-that the freedom of speech and of the press has been abridged-the right to choose their repre

sentatives has been made of no effect-murders, robberies and arsons have been instigated and encouraged, and the offenders have been allowed to go unpunished-that all these things have been done with the knowledge, sanction and procurement of the present administration, and that for this high crime against the Constitution, the Union, and humanity, we arraign the Administration, the President, his advisers, agents, supporters, apologists and accessories, either before or after the facts, before the country and before the world, and that it is our fixed purpose to bring the perpetrators of these atrocious outrages and their accomplices to a sure and condign punishment hereafter.

Resolved, That Kansas should be immediately admitted as a state of the Union, with her present free constitution, as at once the most effectual way of securing to her citizens the enjoyments of the rights and privileges to which they are entitled, and of ending the civil strife now raging in her territory.

Resolved, That the highwayman's plea, that "might makes right," embodied in the Ostend circular, was in every respect unworthy of American diplomacy, and would bring shame and dishonor upon any government or people that gave it their sanction.

Resolved, That a Railroad to the Pacific Ocean, by the most central and practical route, is imperatively demanded by the interests of the whole country, and that the federal government ought to render immediate and efficient aid in its construction; and as an auxiliary thereto, the immediate construction of an emigrant route on the line of the railroad.

Resolved, That appropriations by Congress for the improvement of rivers and harbors, of a national character, required for the accommodation and security of our existing commerce, are authorized by the Constitution, and justified by the obligation of government to protect the lives and property of its citizens.

Resolved, That we invite the affiliation and co-operation of the men of all parties, however different from us in other respects, in support of the principles herein declared; believing that the spirit of our institutions, as well as the Constitution of our country, guarantees liberty of conscience and equality of rights among citizens who oppose all legislation impairing their security.


CONSISTS of a Senate and House of Representatives, and must assemble at least once every year, on the first Monday of December, unless otherwise provided by law.

The Vice-President of the United States is ex officio President of the Senate, and has a casting vote in case of an equal division. In his absence, a President pro tem. is chosen from among the members. The Senate comprises two members from each state, (now numbering of course 62,) who are chosen by the state legislatures for the term of six years-one-third biennially.

The members of the House of Representatives (limited by law to the number of 233) are elected by the people for the term of two years, and are apportioned among the different states, according to population, in the following manner: After each decennial enumeration, the aggregate representative population of the United States is ascertained by the Secretary of the Interior, by adding to the whole number of free persons in all the states, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, threefifths of all other persons. This aggregate is divided by 233, and the quotient, rejecting fractions, if any, is the rates of apportionment. The representative population of each state is then ascertained in the same manner, and is divided by the above-named ratio, the quotient giving the apportionment of representatives to each state. loss by fractions is compensated for by assigning to as many states having the largest fractions as may be necessary to make the whole number of representatives 233, one additional member each for its fraction. If, after the apportionment, new states are admitted, representatives are assigned to such states on the above basis, in addition to the limited number of 233; but such excess continues only until the next apportionment under the succeeding census. When the apportionment is completed, the Secretary sends a certificate thereof to the House of Representatives, and to the Governors of the states a certificate of the number apportioned to each state.


The present number of representatives is 234, an additional one being assigned to California by the act of July 30, 1852. There are, besides, seven delegates-one each from Oregon, Minnesota, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Kansas, and Nebraska--who have a right to speak, but no vote.

Since the 4th of March, 1817, the compensation of senators and representatives has been $8 a-day duringthe period of attendance in Congress, without deduction in case of sickness; and $8 for every twenty miles' travel, in the usual road, in going to or returning from the seat of government. The President of the Senate, pro tem. and the Speaker of the House of Representatives, each receive double this At the first session of the Thirty-Fourth Congress, however, an act was passed, fixing the pay of members at $3,000 per annum, but the rates of mileage were left undisturbed.


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