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Secretary of State at Washington. This design consisted of a shield with six quarterings, parti one, coupi two, in heraldic phrase. The first gold, and an enameled rose, red and white, for England; the second white, with a thistle, in its proper colors, for Scotland; the third green, with a harp of gold, for Ireland; the fourth blue, with a golden lily-flower, for France; the fifth gold, with the imperial black eagle, for Germany; and the sixth gold, with the Belgic crowned red lion, for Holland. These denoted the countries from which America, had been peopled. He proposed to place the shield within a red border, on which there should be thirteen white escutcheons, linked together by a gold chain, each bearing appropriate initials, in black, of the confederated states. Supporters, the Goddess of Liberty on the right side, in a corselet of armor, in allusion to the then state of war, and holdin: the spear and cap in her right hand, while her left supported the shield. On the left, the Goddess of Justice, leaning on a sword in her right hand, and in her left a balance. The crest, the eye of Providence in a radiant triangle, whose glory should extend over the shield, and beyond the figures. Motto: E Pluribus Unum-"Many in one. Around the whole, "SEAL OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, MDCCLXXVI. ” For the reverse, he proposed the device of Pharaoh, sitting in an open chariot, a crown on his head and a sword in his hand, passing through the divided waters of the Red Sea in pursuit of the Israelites. Rays from a pillar of fire in a cloud, expressive of the Divine presence and command, beaming on Moses, who stands on the shore, and, extending his hand over the sea, causes it to overwhelm Pharaoh and his followers. Motto: Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God."

Jefferson's device was highly approved by his coadjutors, and the committee reported on the 10th of August, 1776; but, for some unaccountable reason, their report was neglected, not having been even placed on record; and the affair was allowed to slumber until the 24th of March, 1779, when Messrs. Lovell, of Massachusetts, Scott, of Virginia, and Houstoun, of Georgia, were appointed a committee to make another device.

On the 10th of May following they reported in favor of a seal four inches in diameter, one side of which should be composed of a shield with thirteen diagonal stripes, alternate red and white. Supporters, a warrior, holding a sword, on one side, and on the other the figure of Peace, bearing an olive branch. The crest, a radiant constellation of thirteen stars. Motto: Bello vel Pace-" For War or Peace"-and the legend, "Seal of the United States." On the reverse, the figure of Liberty, seated in a chair, holding the staff and cap. Motto: Semper"Forever"-and underneath, MDCCLXXVI. This report was re-committed, and again submitted with some slight modifications (substituting the figure of an Indian with bow and arrows in his right hand for that of a warrior) just a year afterwards; but it was not accepted, and the matter rested until April, 1782, when Henry Middleton, Elias Boudinot, and Edward Rutledge were appointed a third

committee to prepare a seal. They reported on the 9th of May following, substantially the same as the committee of 1779 and 1780; but, this not being satisfactory to Congress, on the 13th of June the whole matter was referred to Charles Thomson, its secretary.

He in turn procured several devices, among which was one by William Barton, of Philadelphia, consisting of an escutcheon, with a blue border, spangled with thirteen stars, and divided in the centre, perpendicularly, by a gold bar. On each side of this division, within the blue border, thirteen bars or stripes, alternate red and white, like the American flag adopted on the 14th of June, 1777. Over the gold bar an eye surrounded with a glory, and in the gold bar a Doric column resting on the base of the escutcheon, having a displayed eagle on its summit. The crest, a helmet of burnished gold, damasked, grated with six bars, and surmounted by a red cap of dignity, such as dukes wear, with a black lining, and a cock armed with gaffs. Supporters, on one side the Genius of America, with loose auburn tresses, having on her head a radiant crown of gold, encircled with a sky-blue fillet, spangled with silver stars, and clothed in a long, loose, white garment, bordered with green. From the right shoulder to the left side, a blue scarf with stars, the cinctures being the same as in the border. Around her waist, a purple girdle, fringed with gold, and the word VIRTUE embroidered in white. Her interior hand rested on the escutcheon, and the other held the American standard, on the top of which a white dove was perched. The supporter on the other side was a man in complete armor; his sword-belt blue, fringed with gold; his helmet encircled with a wreath of laurel, and crested with one white and two blue plumes; his left hand supporting the escutcheon, and his right holding a lance with a bloody point. Upon an unfurled green banner was a golden harp with silver strings, a brilliant star, and two lily-flowers, with two crossed swords below. The two figures stood upon a scroll, on which was the motto Deo Favente " With God's Favor "-in allusion to the eye of Providence in the arms. On the crest, in a scroll, was the motto Virtus sola Invicta-" Virtue alone Invincible."

After vainly striving to perfect a seal which should meet the approval of Congress, Thomson finally received from John Adams, then in London, an exceedingly simple and appropriate device, suggested by Sir John Prestwich, a baronet of the West of England, who was a warm friend of America and an accomplished antiquarian. It consisted of an escutcheon bearing thirteen perpendicular stripes, white and red, with the chief blue, and spangled with thirteen stars; and, to give it greater consequence, he proposed to place it on the breast of an American eagle displayed, without supporters, as emblematic of self-reliance. It met with general approbation, in and out of Congress, and was adopted in June, 1782 so it is manifest, although the fact is not extensively known, that we are indebted for our national arms to a titled aristocrat of the country with which we were then at war. Eschewing all heraldic technicalities, it may be thus described in plain English: Thirteen perpendicular pieces, white


and red; a blue field; the escutcheon on the breast of the American eagle displayed proper, holding in his right talon an olive-branch, and in his left a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper, and in his beak a scroll, inscribed with the motto E Pluribus Unum. For the crest, over the head of the eagle, which appears above the escutcheon, a golden glory breaking through a cloud, proper, and surrounding thirteen stars, forming a constellation of white stars on a blue field.


efforts for nearly six years, a very simple remains the arms of the United States.




ON a white or silver field the Goddess of Virtue, the genius of the commonwealth, is represented dressed like an Amazon, resting on a spear with one hand, and holding a sword in the other. She is in the act of trampling on Tyranny, represented by a man prostrate, a crown fallen from his head, a broken chain in his left hand, and a scourge in his right. On a label above the figures is the word 66 Virginia ;" and beneath them is the motto, Sic semper tyrannis—“Thus we serve tyrants." [There

are no other devices legitimately belonging to the seal, although artists frequently embellish the field with such local or national emblems as their fancy suggests a practice "more honored in the breach than in the observance."]

A shield, or escutcheon, on which is represented the rising sun, with a range of hills and water in the foreground. Above the shield, for the crest, is a wreath surmounted by a half globe, on which rests a startled eagle, with wings outstretched. For the supporters of the shield, on the right is represented the figure of Justice, with the sword in one hand and the scales in the other; and on left the goddess of Liberty, with the wand and cap in her left hand, and the olive branch of peace in her right.




Below the shield is the motto, Excelsior-" More elevated"-denoting that the course of the state is onward and higher. Around the border of the seal, between two plain lines, is the inscription, in Roman capitels, "The Great Seal of the State of New York."

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On the blue ground of an irregularly-formed shield an Indian is represented, dressed with belted hunting-shirt and moccasins. In his right hand is a golden bow, and in his left an arrow with the point downwards. A silver star on the right denotes one of the United States of America. A wreath forms the crest of the escutcheon, from which extends a right arm, clothed and ruffed, the hand grasping a broadsword, the pommel and hilt of which are of gold. Around the escutcheon, on a waving band or label, are the words,



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A circular field, surrounded by a laurel wreath, encompassed by the words, in Roman capitals, "Sigillum Reipublica Neo Hantoniensis" "The Seal of the State of New Hampshire," with the date, 1784, indicating the time of the adoption of the State Constitution.Land and water are repre sented in the foreground, with the trunk of a tree on which the hardy woodman is yet engaged, embracing a scene of busy life significant of the industrious habits of the people; and a ship on the stocks, just ready for launching, with the American banner displayed, is figurative of readiness to embark on the sea of political existence. The sun, just emerging above the horizon, symbolizes the rising destiny of the state, and denotes that her career shall be as brilliant as that cloudless luminary.


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