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fear of its total extinction in the near future. The immediate cause of its rapid collapse may be traced to the eagerness of the Chinese to acquire by all possible means as much territory as possible. During the last three years hills thickly wooded with camphor trees have been burned over by the Chinese, in order to compel the savages to withdraw. Destruction on so large a scale, naturally tells on the camphor trade. Forests of camphor trees do still exist farther inland, but the absence of all beaten tracks across the mountains renders them difficult of access.

- M. Parize, director of the agricultural station of North Finistère, in Spain, reports a curious phenomenon resulting from the explosion of a tempered glass crucible. He heard one day a violent explosion in his laboratory, and, hastening into the room, saw on the table and floor, in a circle, a layer of glassy débris resembling crystals of sulphate of soda. The explosion was caused neither by a blow nor disturbance of the air. The grains varied in size from the head of a pin to a pea, with a few as large as a nut, but these were divided by cracks which would break them into analogous grains. An inkstand of pressed glass exploded in a similar manner not long ago in Boston.

The small volume just published by Prof. Rudolph Eucken of Halle, entitled 'Prolegomena zu forschungen über der einheit des geisteslebens,' and which is published as the methodological part of a forthcoming comprehensive work on the subject, is as remarkable a bit of philosophical wordmongering as we have lately seen. The author is an expert in terminology, and in this thick pamphlet advances from the history of terms to the invention of them. Instead of psychological he proposes the term 'noological' as more comprehensive because including spirit. Instead of system, the word 'syntagma' is introduced to include large collective tendencies and unities of action as well as of thought. Innensicht,'' vollthat,' arbeitswelt,' 'kombinierendes thun,' which are hardly translatable, and many far more familiar words, are given a precise and technical not to say strained meaning, as instruments to help the author in the impending self-delivery of his system. His problem is stated in so manifold ways-is so hard for him to state in fact that its solution must be difficult indeed. It is, in general, whether there is a unitary character to mental life and the world; whether one force animates all the fulness of being; or, again, whether the universe is one collective act, or fact, with any character so distinctive that it may be described. The texture and quality of the thought is thin and poor. There is no index to speak of, no résumé,

and little promise of reward to the diligent reader.

Aug. Boltz concludes, in a pamphlet on 'The Cyclops, an historical people, deduced from language,' that Cyclops is a perverted form of Siclos, or Siculos, the name of an Italo-Pelasgic tribe inhabiting the eastern portions of Sicily; and that it has no proper etymological connection with the words KiK205 and op. Nevertheless, he thinks that the mythological one-eyed giant of Homer may have originated from some instance of natural monstrosity in real life, that had been encountered by the first Greeks who visited the island.

In a paper read before the Anthropological institute of Great Britain, Sir J. Park Harrison has stated that, according to his observations, among the English the great toe is longer than the second; but as the ancients have represented in statuary the second toe as the longer, this must have arisen from a different proportion prevailing in Greece and Italy. Barroil finds (Arch. per l'antrop., vol. xv.), however, as the result of 447 measurements of Italians, that 62 per cent have the great toe longer; and although it is true that, of twelve antique statues in the galleries of Florence, all but two have the second toe longer, he thinks this has arisen from a conventional feeling, which regarded that shape of the foot as more beautiful. It is found to be the case frequently that the relative length varies in the two feet. While the great toe is the longer in the majority of mankind, the case seems to be reversed in the mongoloid and negro


The Russian government has summoned the principal ironmasters and manufacturers of the Ural and middle Russian districts to attend a conference at St. Petersburg, at which delegates of the various industries will be present, in order to discuss the steps that should be taken to improve the iron industry of Russia. Since 1874 the production of pig iron has not increased, and in some years has decreased. Instead of being, as Russia once was, one of the leading iron-producing countries, Austria produces twice as much, France nearly four times, Germany five times, and England, once an importer of Russian iron, now produces ten times as much. The Moscow Gazette ascribes this to an antiquated system of commerce, onerous railway rates, and insufficient protection on the part of the tariff.

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THE department of agriculture is showing a renewed interest in the sorghum and sugar industries of the country. Professor Wiley, the chemist of the department, has sailed for Europe, where he will spend as much time as is necessary in the investigation of the present condition of these industries in various countries, and a study of the latest improvements in machinery and methods. The results likely to arise out of Professor Wiley's visit will doubtless be of considerable importance as enabling the department to contribute to the success of the experiments that are being made in the United States.

Much interest is just now exhibited in scientific circles in experimental seismology. The rooms of the Philosophical society were crowded at its last meeting, the principal topic being the discussion of the observations made at the time of the Flood Rock explosion. Although perplexing, and to some extent inconsistent, the results promise to be of considerable value. Captain Dutton, in whose hands this subject is placed by the director of the geological survey, proposes to take advantage of dynamite explosions, which are frequently occurring in the excavation of a tunnel near the city, to continue the investigation of the question of the velocity of transmission of the disturbance, and it is earnestly desired that he may be allowed all needed facilities.

It is reported that Baba Gopal Vinayak Joshee, a Brahman pundit, and fellow of the Theosophical society of Bombay, is the guest of Dr. Elliott Coues of this city. An enterprising reporter for one of the city papers has interviewed both the distinguished theosophist and his host, no less distinguished in that line, and, if they are correctly reported, has been made the medium for the transmission of information of the most vital importance to an expectant and anxious public.

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All the working processes' of this wonderful philosophy were concealed from the newspaper man, however, and for two reasons, which, in his calmer moments, he cannot but regard as somewhat personal. One was that "this knowledge in the hands of bad men would be a terrible thing;" the other, that "a mind not yet cultivated to follow out this high train of thought might be driven insane by it."

A good deal was said about astral visits' and that sort of thing, and experiments and results were recounted, in comparison with which the work of the Society for psychical research, with its cards and its guessed numbers, appears absolutely childish; in fact, it must be relegated to the stone age.

Preparations are being made for the meeting of the American public health association, to be held in this city early in next month (Dec. 8-11). A strong local committee has been appointed, including, among others, several leading physicians of the army and navy. The meeting is likely to bring together a large number of the leading sanitarians of the country. The association is but little more than ten years old, but it is one of the most active and influential in the world. Washington, D.C., Nov. 16.


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PROFESSOR SALISBURY'S letter in Science for Nov. 6 gives the present location of a miscreant who has been plundering cabinets and libraries throughout the country for the last two or three years, and who has been making decent people even more unhappy by assuming their names than by stealing their books. His present address is County Jail, Elkhorn, Wis. Esto perpetua. This is the address; but as to the name, who knows? For the last six months he has dragged through the mire the honored name of Leo Lesquereux, to the great annoyance of the venerable owner. Before this he was Prof. F. A. Arendel of the Pennsylvania survey. Other names under which he has stolen and swindled are N. U. Taggart, E. Douglass, E. D. Whitney, E. D. Strong, etc. Three of these names have the initials E. D., in which fact there may be some significance.

The Milwaukee police record says of him that he has but one hand, wearing a false hand on one arm. This fact may help to identify him. He seems to have a remarkable amount of geological knowledge, and especially on fossil botany. Where did he get this knowledge? Who trained him? Who was his father? Who was his mother? Has he a sister? Has he a brother?

These are questions that many victims desire to have answered, in whole or in part. E. O. Columbus, O., Nov. 9.

Effigy mounds in Iowa.

Near the village of North McGregor, Clayton county, Iowa, on the south-western quarter of section 3, T. 95, R. 3 W., is situated probably the largest group of 'effigy' or imitative mounds west of the Mississippi. These earthworks are built on a dividing ridge, and are elevated about 500 feet above the river. The surrounding country is broken and rugged, the bluff on the east side along the Mississippi River being perpendicular in many places. To the north-west lies Yellow River, and on the south-west Bloody Run. This remarkably fine group was surveyed by me on the 25th and 26th of May, 1885; and a few details, illustrated by a topographical plan, may perhaps be acceptable to those readers of Science who are interested in North American antiquities.

These mounds number fifteen in all, consisting of two long embankments, ten animals, and three birds, and they occupy a terre-plein of just about 2,000 feet in length. The first embankment is 190 feet long, 18

feet wide, and 14 feet high; the second, 138 feet long, 18 feet wide, and 14 feet high.

The animals represented vary from 79 to 109 feet in length, and are from two to three feet in height. No two are exactly alike in outline, though the difference is more in the shape of the head than in the general form. It will be noticed that they are all tailless, though, of the whole number of beasts surveyed by me to the present time, fully two-thirds have tails. Considered as works of construction,

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they being in relief, these animals are very fine; but, taking the size and shape of the legs and head in proportion to the body, they are decidedly clumsy. Indeed, with a few exceptions, the animal-shaped mounds of western Wisconsin, also, are no exception to this rule. It is probable that each leg, as built, was intended to represent a pair of legs rather than a single one, and this may account for their clumsiness.

The birds of this group are each different in form, and are more symmetrical than the animals, which is usually the case. Though symmetrical, the wings of bird effigies are nearly always much longer than they should be in proportion to the length of the body and head as compared with natural birds.

An ornithological friend (Dr. Thomas. S. Roberts of Minneapolis) has furnished me a list showing the actual length from point of bill to the end of longest tail feather-and breadth, from tip to tip of wings, fully outstretched, of some forty-six North American birds. Taking this length as the unit, I find the proportions of four of them to be as follows; viz,—

Of the Magpie (the lowest).


Wild turkey.

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Bald eagle





Fish-hawk (the highest) 1:2.80


Now, on examining the diagrams of forty-three undoubted bird-effigies surveyed by myself, it appears that fifteen are over the extreme natural limit given above the ratio of one of them being as high as 1: 7.20, and that of the very lowest not less than 1:1.50. The actual size of this longest 'bird' is, length of body, 77 feet; and from tip to tip of wings, 554 feet.

its back, but the tail spoils the whole effect, on that supposition; it being 140 feet in length, nearly twice the length of the body (74 feet).

It will thus be seen that to classify these earthen imitations of birds according to any natural system is almost an impossibility, and, with a few exceptions, it is the same with the effigies of animals, reptiles, etc. An instance may be given of one near Viola, Wisconsin, which looks more like a deer than any other animal. Its head is turned as if looking over

There are effigies undoubtedly representing turtles and lizards; there is also a class to which either name can be applied. The question is, To which category do they belong?

In view of all these facts, therefore, it would appear that attempts to speculate about the object or uses for which these fantastic earthworks were constructed, or concerning the precise kind of animal, etc.. represented by the effigies, might be considered, in the present state of our knowledge of the subject, a little premature. As matters of fact, however, it may be stated that an examination of some hundreds of these mounds justifies the drawing of two conclusions, first, that the creatures point or head, with a very few exceptions, in a southerly direction; second, that when situated near a stream the feet of the quadrupeds are towards the water.

At intervals, between Guttenberg and Yellow River, there are mounds and embankments which occur either singly or in groups, but there are only two other points in that stretch where effigies occur. About one mile south and east of the group described in this article there is a single bird-effigy. Near Sny McGill, about three miles above Clayton, there is a group of 92 mounds; two of them represent animals, and two birds; the remainder are round mounds and embankments. While I was surveying this group, Mr. Frank Hodges of Clayton opened one of the larger tumuli, and found a number of skeletons in it. T. H. LEWIS. St. Paul, Minn., Nov. 2.

Coleoptera of America.

The note in Science (vi., 382) conveys a very erroneous idea as to the result of recent studies upon the number of species of North American beetles.

The number given in Austin's supplement is 9,735 (not 9,704, as stated in Science); but as the supplement was to be used in connection with Crotch's list, it was numbered continuously wtih it, and no allowance was made for the reduction and duplication of numbers. Taking these into consideration, the supplement contains but little over 8,850 species.

The list just issued by the American entomological society contains over 260 unnumbered names which should be added to the 9,238 when this list is compared with previous ones. Recent studies have increased, not reduced, the number of species of North American beetles. SAMUEL HENSHAW.

Boston, Nov. 7.

Marsh's Dinocerata,

In my review of Professor Marsh's work on the Dinocerata occurs a blunder for which I wish to apologize (Science, June 12, 1885, p. 489). This error is as follows: "In the figure of Dinoceras, however, the humerus is incorrectly drawn (compare plate 28, fig. 2)." The figure here referred to is the humerus from the inside, that in the restoration is of course seen from the outside, and the two are in no sense comparable. I cannot explain how such an oversight came to be made, but now that my attention has been called to it, it is only proper to make the correction. This is, however, a very non-essential part of my criticism, which in other respects I do not wish to modify. THE REVIEWER.





THE attitude of the English government toward the land question has undergone a thorough revolution within the last generation. Thirty years ago all propositions to reform the abuses which had grown up under the present system of land laws were uniformly met by loud protests about the sacredness of vested interests, the naturalness' of the existing order, and the danger to society and the government of disturbing it in any way whatever. It was insisted that it would be a violation of all sound principles of political economy for the government to go beyond its province so far as to interfere with the relation of landlord and tenant, or that of tenant and laborer, or that existing between these classes as a whole and the public. So vigorous was this protest, and so in accordance with the prevailing views as to the true sphere of government interference, that reformers were usually content to withdraw their proposi


But this attempt to delay or prevent muchneeded reforms in governmental policy was destined to bring with it the usual penalty. The disease, which might have been modified, if not entirely cured, by mild remedies rightly applied at an early stage, became more and more deep-seated and serious with every passing year. The movement for reform, too long delayed, and gathering force with every rebuff, has finally proved irresistible, and in its onward sweep has carried the government and the people far beyond what would have been necessary if legitimate demands had been satisfied in the first place.

The evidence of this is seen very plainly in the changed attitude and policy of the government, which has recently given most unmistakable evidence of its determination to take up the question in earnest, and to leave no stone unturned in order to secure a permanent settlement. In this endeavor, limited thus far chiefly to one phase of the Irish land question, it does not propose to be checked by any theoretical considerations as to the true limits of government interference. It stands ready to do any thing which promises to afford permanent or even temporary relief. If necessary, it will declare martial law. It will

confiscate landed estates by the wholesale. It will change a tenant at the will of the landlord into a tenant at his own will. It will convert a tenant into a proprietor. It will lend money, to those wishing to buy land, at low rates of interest and on insufficient security. It will destroy all freedom of contract in regard to the use of land. It has, indeed, already done all these things.

The proof of these statements is to be found in the history of recent acts of parliament on the land question. It is impossible to convey a clear idea of such a complicated problem as the Irish land question in a brief space, but one or two of the most important points may be set forth which will illustrate the far-reaching sweep of recent legislation.

The act which really introduced the new policy was that of 1870, which declared whole classes of contracts hitherto in vogue between landlord and tenant to be void both in law and equity, and established the novel principle of compensation for disturbance or damages for eviction. It took from the landlord the right to dismiss a tenant so long as he paid his rent. It secured to the latter a just compensation for all improvements, whether made with or without the consent of the landlord, and conferred on him the power to sell his tenantright, with all the privileges pertaining thereto. This act was in form, therefore, a great encroachment on the control of the landlord over his property. But as it did not regulate the amount of rent which the latter might exact, it left him, after all, in practical control of his property, since he might raise the rent at will, and evict the tenant if he did not choose to pay it. It rather aggravated than lessened the difficulty. The act of 1881, which was the most important act relating to Ireland, was the logical outcome of the act of 1870. It finished the work which the latter had begun by establishing a series of optional courts for regulating rents. They are optional in the sense that either landlord or tenant may resort to them in case he is not contented with the terms of a lease. The court, in case of a resort to it, fixes the rent which the landlord may exact. When the rent is thus judicially fixed, it is to hold good for a period of fifteen years, when, by a similar process, it may be modified to suit altered circumstances during another period of like duration. As long as the tenant pays the rent

1 Economic aspect of recent legislation. By WILLIAM WATT. London, Longmans, Green, & Co., 1885.

thus fixed, he cannot be disturbed in possession by the landlord, except on the payment of a fine known as 'compensation for disturbance.' The tenant may sell his tenant-right to another, who has then all the privileges as against the landlord which the original tenant enjoyed. In this way are secured the three F's,' - Fair rents, Fixity of tenure, and Free sale. In this way, also, the landlord is almost completely deprived of any real control of his property.

The act has not been, by any means, a dead letter. Eighty-five sub-commissioners were, in 1883, engaged in the work of determining 'fair rents,' and the number was afterwards somewhat increased. As a result a general reduction in rent was effected, amounting on the average to about twenty per cent, and in some cases to thirty per cent and upwards. This virtually amounts to a confiscation of from one-fifth to one-third of the capitalized value of landed estates in Ireland. Its moral effect may lead to a still further reduction in value for who can be sure that a government which has confiscated one-fifth of the estate will not subsequently confiscate it all if peace and quiet shall not follow as a result of the present


Both acts above mentioned contained provisions intended to favor the growth of a class of peasant proprietors. The purchase of holdings by tenants in the case of estates which fell under the jurisdiction of the encumbered estates court, was favored by the authority given to the Irish board of works, in 1870, to advance two-thirds (increased in 1881 to three-fourths) of the purchase-money at three and a half per cent interest, to be repaid at intervals during a period of thirty-five years. It has already been proposed to extend this authority so as to let them advance all the purchase-money at a lower rate of interest, for a longer time.

He would be a bold man indeed who would assert that these acts, sweeping as they are, constitute any real contribution to the actual solution of the Irish problem. Such a statement could only be made by one who had a political point to gain, or who had given but little attention to the actual investigation, even at second hand, of the social and economic conditions which prevail over a large part of Ireland. The difficulty lies deeper than any mere landlordism, and it will not be long until the Irish land question will be again to the front, and that, too, whether Ireland be under English or Irish rule.

These acts, however, mark a new era in English legislation on this subject. They indicate (and herein lies the hopeful feature of the case) that the English people are now ready to take up this and similar questions in earnest. They are now

willing to throw to the winds all doctrinaire theorems of laissez-faireism, to disregard alarmist speeches about approaching communism or socialism, and to close their ears to the old song about the supreme sacredness of private property. They are now determined, after getting all the light they possibly can from economic and historical science, to make use of the only means which promises any solution whatever, viz., that of actual experimentation. The outcome of the recent experiments in Ireland, to which the late acts have been practically limited, will afford great assistance in the solution of the Scottish and English land questions, which must soon come to the front. E. J. JAMES.


AT the late meeting of the British association for the advancement of science, a committee of the anthropological section presented a report (prepared by Mr. Horatio Hale) on the tribes of the noted Blackfoot confederacy. The report comprises many particulars relating to the origin and history of the tribes, the character of the people, their mythology, languages, and mode of government, and their present condition. The facts have been mostly derived from correspondence with missionaries now residing among the people, and from official documents, with some memoranda made by the author of the report during an exploring tour in Oregon. Only a brief abstract of the information thus brought together can here be given.


The tribes composing the confederacy are, or rather were, five in number. Three of these, forming the nucleus of the whole body, are the original Blackfoot tribes, who speak the same language, and regard themselves as descended from three brothers. These are the Siksika, or Blackfeet proper; the Kena, or Blood Indians; and the Piekane, or Piegans (pronounced Peegans),—a name which is sometimes corrupted to Pagan Indians.' To these were added, when the confederacy was at the height of its power, two other tribes,— the Sarcees, who joined them from the north; and the Atsinas, who came under their protection from the south. The Sarcees are a branch of the great Athabascan or Tinneh family, which is spread over the northern portion of the continent, in contact with the Eskimo. The Atsinas, otherwise known as Fall Indians and Gros Ventres, are shown by their language to be akin to the Arapohoes, who once wandered over the Missouri plains, but are now settled on a reservation in the Indian Territory.

The dividing line between the United States and

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