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the antecedents of their authors than they are with regard to their influence upon later ages.

Here Professor Harrington acquits himself well; but, in avoiding Scylla, he falls into Charybdis. Far from lacking material for the chapters on the Middle Ages onward, he has to apologize frequently for failure to incorporate all that is available. Yet, even so, numerous pages will appear to the general reader as a mere medley of unfamiliar names and titles; and to many the imitations of Catullus in French, German, or other foreign tongue will be little more luminous.

Students of literature may find here much to interest them; but for the general reader the chief attraction of the book will lie in the first two or three chapters.

H. C. NUTTING.

A History of the Pharaohs. Vol. 1. The First Eleven Dynasties. By WEIGALL, ARTHUR. New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., 1925.

Mr. Weigall has undertaken to solve the knotty problem of a reconstruction of the chronology of Egyptian history on the basis of the Palermo Stone fragments with the additional help of the Turin Papyrus and other King-lists.

The problem was approached with two considerations in mind: the space-lengths of each year as recorded on the Palermo Stone fragments; and the fact that the variance of the size of the yearspaces seemed to imply that the scribe had intended to fit a definite amount of material into each register, and not to allow one reign to run on from one to the next register, and the further fact that the Annals began with the second register (the first register giving only the names of the predecessors of Menes). Operating at first on the assumption that Manetho's figures for the reign of Menes and his successor were correct (i.e., 62 and 57 years, respectively), the author also assumed that the second register comprehended the total length of these two reigns, i.e., 119 years. The Palermo Stone, moreover, marks on its obverse the end of a reign, which Weigall took for that of Menes. Experimenting at first on this somewhat mechanical basis he arrived at results which seem to the reviewer perfectly sound and which are fitting in well with the other material we possess for a reconstruction of the Egyptian line of kings for the first 750 to 770 years of Egyptian history after Menes.

The reconstruction also attests the correctness of the Turin Papyrus as against the Manethonian figures (except for the latter's

total of the First Dynasty and in regard to the lengths of the reigns of some of the earlier kings). Other important results are the outflow of Weigall's intensive chronological studies. Menes' accession date is now fixed at 3407 B.C. as against Breasted's figure of 3400, the Cambridge History's 3500, and Petrie's 5546. Where previously much uncertainty has reigned, Weigall's keen and penetrating investigations have established certainty, and we are now able "to look to the history of the Nile Valley, as a clear uninterrupted line, carrying our vision straight back through the confused ages of the remote Past, without hindrances and without serious uncertainties, to the very beginning of written records."

It is interesting, in this connection, to turn our attention to Babylonia and to the state of affairs in regard to chronology in this country prior to the Amorite Dynasty. Later Babylonian tradition fixes the date of Naram-Sin as 3750 B.C., which figure modern scholars have reduced by a thousand years. The date of what to us at present marks the beginning of the historical period in Babylonia, i.e., the dynasty of Ur, according to later Babylonian tradition, is fixed at about 3900 B.C. Yet it is not until ca. 3250 B.C., according to the chronology recently adopted by Assyriologists, that we meet with a real historical figure which has flesh and bone for us, namely, Mesilim of the second dynasty of Kish. Prior to him, all is still hazy, and contains, no doubt, much legendary material. In view of the present situation in the extremely complicated chronology of Babylonia, scholars will probably, if only for pedagogical reasons, follow Weigall's results, and "the long and astonishing sequence of fixed dates will have the immediate effect of causing Egyptian chronology to be regarded as the firm backbone of the study of all the ancient civilizations of the Eastern Mediterranean."

While Weigall's successful accomplishment of his task of establishing the chronology of Egypt on a firm basis receives the reviewer's unrestricted praise, on many details he is out of agreement with the author, especially in respect to the reconstruction of the period before the First Dynasty. Of course, most of this reconstruction is based on combinations which often amount to no more than guesses. But if the author had approached his subject from a wider angle, sketching the activities of paleolithic and neolithic man in the Near Eastern area in general and of Egypt in particular down to the formation of the various city-states which at the dawn of history had merged into a restricted number of

kingdoms, a more comprehensive background would have been secured for his subsequent discussion. He would, at the same time, have been impressed by the fact that his own reconstruction of this period is not quite so well founded as his presentation would make the reader believe.

The comprehensive treatment of each individual reign, for which the author marshals all the known data (historical, archeological, and otherwise) makes the book a treasure-house of quickly available information and a valuable reference work for students engaged in the study of the history of Egypt, or of the Near East as a whole.

Minor points that strike one as rather uncritical appear here and there, as for instance, the apodictic statement that the title of the king of Lower Egypt is to be read Bya, and, according to Weigall, was formerly misread Biti or Bati, while the title of the king of Upper Egypt is read Insi, where again Weigall makes the statement that it was formerly misread Suten or Seten. Such statements leave the impression that Weigall has discovered the correct pronunciation of these names. But the cuneiform renderings of these titles make it, on the other hand, more probable that the titles were pronounced enset-byati. The word "Pharaoh" is still explained as meaning "the Great House," but the explanation which Weigall gives is somewhat different from the customary one; he imports into it the sense of "the great hereditary proprietor." The explanation which I gave last year in the American Anthropologist (vol. 26, pp. 435 ff.) may, of course, not have been known to Weigall. My interpretation of the title as meaning "the great offspring, the great scion, the great son," in view of what is known from elsewhere in the Near East at a period more nearly contemporaneous with that when the title "Pharaoh" was for the first time used in Egypt, is more in harmony with the trend of development that kingship took in Egypt.

A little thought given to the actual conditions in which we find the dwellers of the Eastern Desert at a much later period would have excluded as quite improbable, the author's comments on the people of On or Heliopolis. To him it appears that the Trogodytes of Syria and of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are of Semitic stock, but this is most certainly wrong. The foundation of Heliopolis by Semitic peoples is generally accepted.

Nevertheless, though one may be at odds with the author on many questions discussed in the various reigns (as, for instance,

his discussion of Khenti Athuthi, pp. 109 ff.), he has written an interesting book, filled with valuable information. All in all, the volume is a serious work which is heartily to be welcomed, and to its author are due the thanks of all those who profit from its perusal.

H. F. LUTZ.

Robert Browning: Humanist. By ARTHUR COMPTON-RICKETT. The Dial Press, 1925.

This snug little volume proves to be "A Selection from Browning's Poetry, with an Introduction and Bibliographical Note." Since another Browning anthology is about the last thing the world is in need of, its superfluity must be justified by something new either in principle of choice or prefatory information and analysis. Mr. Compton-Rickett's offering wins on both these counts, besides being a member of a series, The Fireside Library. The system of presentation is, however, more interesting for its novelty than satisfying by its logic. As a topical outline, it provokes many a question as to inclusions, locations, omissions. Some of the biographical statements also prick one to retort. The poet's "insensitiveness to criticism," for instance!

But these are more than offset by one great virtue of restraint. There is no prating about Browning's optimism, robust or otherwise. The writer gives a shrewd diagnosis of Browning's buoyancy and lets it go at that.

The Introductory Essay is informal in style, sufficiently comprehensive for the general reader, and, with the illustrative verses, makes a cozy readable book. It is the best of its type for a gift book, and admirably fulfils its editor's design in being an entertaining fireside companion.

FRANCES THERESA RUSSELL.

China's New Nationalism and Other Essays. By HARLEY FARNSWORTH MACNAIR, Ph.D., Commercial Press Limited, Shanghai, China. 1925. xi and 398 pp. This is a volume of essays that had appeared at various times in the China Weekly Review and other periodical publications. Dr. MacNair speaks of them as "attempts at interpretation of certain aspects of old and new China." They were written, he tells us, "with two types of reader in mind; Chinese students and those foreigners who are not too well acquainted with modern. China." That use of the word, "foreigners," marks him as a resident of China, where Americans and Europeans are accustomed to designate themselves in this manner as distinct from the

native inhabitants. Dr. MacNair is in fact a professor in St. John's University at Shanghai, a missionary institution, maintained by the American Episcopal Church.

The chapters deal with a variety of topics and are written in a lucid and interesting style. Some were called out by events of only passing importance, yet in their treatment the author brings to our attention motives and conduct that show him to be a careful observer and possessed of a first-hand acquaintance with the racial traits of the Chinese. His attitude toward the New China is sympathetic, yet it is free from mushy sentimentalism. He is not blind to the faults of the Chinese, whether those of the old mandarindom or those of the returned students, but his criticism aims to be helpful. There are some Europeans and Americans who never see anything good in China. When the Manchus were in power, they complained that China was too conservative and would not be modernized. Now that China is a republic and modernized students are leading the way in an endeavor to make China a modern state, the same critics complain that the good old days are gone and sigh for the old-fashioned type of a Chinese mandarin. Dr. MacNair is very fair to old and new. The chapter that gives the volume its title, "China's New Nationalism," deals with the present condition of affairs in China that is causing so much grave concern to all the foreign offices of the world. The author recalls the well-known fact that patriotism as understood in the West was practically unknown in the China of the last century. Chinese in one part of the empire did not hesitate to assist the Europeans who were invading another part. In fact there was patriotism of a sort, but it was parochial or at most only provincial. Today a great change is evident; there is an intense feeling of nationalism that at times manifests itself in conduct that is quite offensive to the foreign resident. But, as Dr. MacNair observes, “even an aggressive and bumptious spirit of nationalism is preferable to a spineless and jellylike spirit of cowardly acquiescence, or hopeless pessimism." We are reminded, moreover, of a truth that we are apt to overlook, that "modern education introduced into and maintained in China almost exclusively by Westerners, chiefly missionaries, is responsible more than any other one factor for the development of the feeling of nationalism." Young China will make mistakes, no doubt, and the movement may be mistaken for "anti-Westernism, antiforeignism, anti-Christianism-all of which are likely to be phases

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