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his crude theories in respect to the history and chronology of the Old Testament, the results of which would disarrange the whole of its History, annihilate its Prophecy, and destroy entirely its Messianic character, and with scarcely a critical objection or reserved misgiving, commits himself to the whole of Bunsen's destructive eclecticism and disorganizing rearrangement of the Hebrew Scripture, we have said enough in its dispraise.

The essay on the Evidences, by Baden Powell, after a long and somewhat rambling discourse on the various opinions concerning the possibility of miracles, their value as evidences of a divine communication, and the evidence by which they are proved to the mind of the believer, in which there is much interesting but somewhat inexact information, concludes as follows: "The 'reason of the hope that is in us,' is not restricted to external signs, nor to any one kind of evidence, but consists of such assurance as may be most satisfactory to each earnest individual inquirer's own mind: and the true acceptance of the entire revealed manifestation of Christianity will be most worthily and satisfactorily based on that assurance of 'faith' by which, the apostle affirms 'we stand,' (2 Cor. II, 24), and which, in accordance with his emphatic declaration, 'must rest not in the wisdom of men but in the power of God,' (1 Cor. II, 5)." This is so vaguely expressed that at the first aspect it might seem to be a conclusion in which nothing is concluded, but on a nearer view it shows itself to be identical with that which Hume reaches in his famous essay on Miracles, with this difference, that the Faith of which Hume speaks in scoffing irony, Powell regards as a mystical work of supernatural power. But the fatal similarity between Hume and Powell is, that both contend with equal earnestness that Reason and Faith have no common relations, that on grounds of science a miracle is impossible and incredible, and can only be admitted on grounds of faith. It is singular that this zealot for the preëminent authority of science should laud in such extravagant terms "Mr. Darwin's masterly volume 'On the Origin of Species' by the law of 'natural selection'-which now substantiates on undeniable grounds the very principle so long denounced by the first naturalists,-the origination of new species by natural causes; a work which must soon bring about an entire revolution of opinion in favor of the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature."

The essay on the National Church is an ingenious, we do not quite like to say Jesuitical, attempt to show that a National Church has striking advantages over the Independent or Congregational communions, among which this is preeminent, that it admits of almost every possible variety of belief among its ministers. He contends, by much detail, that the Church of England presents no obstacles in its Articles to allowing an almost indefinite comprehension of all sorts of creeds. "Speculative doctrines should be left to philosophical schools. A national church must be concerned with the ethical development of its members, and the wrong of supposing it to be otherwise is participated by those of the clericalty who consider the Church of Christ to be founded, as a society, on the possession of an abstractively true and supernaturally communicated speculation concerning God, rather than upon the manifestation of a divine life in man." "Jesus Christ has not revealed his religion as a theology of the intellect, nor as an historical faith; and it is a stifling of the true Christian life, both in the individual and in the church, to require of many men a unanimity in speculative doctrine which is unattainable, and a uniformity of historical belief, which can never exist."

We forbear to characterize the remaining essays, for the reason that any brief criticism or separate extracts must fail to do justice either to their merits or defects. We sympathize with the freedom and love of truth which the writers of all of them seem to manifest; we commiserate the narrow spirit and the traditional jealousy of new speculations and new expositions, with which they seem to be environed, and by which they are grievously hampered and embarrassed. But we cannot but protest against the destructive spirit which seems to animate them all,-with unequal measure, it is true,-toward every form of positive truth, and their utter incapacity to express or to defend what they would substitute in place of what they discard and reject. It is sad that men so accomplished as these writers should know only what they reject and deny, and therefore be able only to combat and assail what is held and affirmed by others, without being able to displace it by what they themselves positively receive. Negative Theologians are always vague and indefinite, and such, each in different degrees, are these writers, and all their well chosen phraseology, their abundant illustrations and their happy utterances of secondary truths, cannot conceal the poverty and

the impotence of their own Faith. The Church of England and the scholars of England have long and bigotedly resisted the demands which two generations have been making upon them to bestir themselves in order to stand abreast with the great thought-movements of the age. It would not be strange if they should rue their indolent neglect and their luxurious sloth in seeing many of their finest minds led astray by the dazzling theories which break upon them in such novel bewildering glare, now that they have been forced to begin to think without those able and competent guides which the Church and the Universities should have long ago trained for the defense of the truth.

We must confess our surprise that an American scholar so accomplished as the editor of this volume should have prefixed no word of caution to a book that, with all its ability and merits, suffers under such capital defects. Baptized Infidelity is rife enough among us already, without needing any additional stimulus from works like this, of which the positive assertions of truth are so vague and so few, and the positive denials are so numerous, and so bold, and, we add, so unsupported by argument. If our Theological men receive such books as these as their guides, they will not only risk the chance of making shipwreck of their faith, but they will be likely to befool their understandings, and to render obtuse their power to discriminate truth from error. To lose one's cherished Faith, is bad enough; to throw away with it a manly habit of reasoning and interpretation, aggravates the folly, if not the sin.

LOGIC IN THEOLOGY.*-The time is fresh within the recollection of many of our readers when a new work from the pen of Isaac Taylor was greeted with a cordial welcome by a multitude of admiring readers on this side the Atlantic. He has shared his popularity somewhat with the many sensation writers for the religious public, and with other numerous religious authors of unquestioned merit and attractions, but his peculiar merits are neither superseded nor eclipsed by any. There

* Logic in Theology, and other Essays. By ISAAC TAYLOR. With a sketch of the life of the author and a catalogue of his writings. New York: William Gowans. 1860. 12mo. pp. 297. [For sale in New Haven by E. P. and R. J. Judd. Price $1.]

is the same comprehensive and catholic spirit ever spurning the names and limits of a single sect, the same extensive research, the same historic spirit, reasoning safely to the present from the lessons of the past, the same labored but always weighty and often felicitous style, and always the same honest Christian spirit, which have rendered his works the choice companions and the valued instructors to many thoughtful minds. Mr. Gowans seems to have taken Mr. Taylor into his keeping as an author for whom he has an especial regard, and this regard does honor to his own qualities of head and heart. We thankfully acknowledge our obligations to him for giving the American public this new volume. We trust he will not fail also to print Taylor's latest volume, "Ultimate Civilization and other Essays," a copy of the London edition of which has fallen into our hands and proves to be of rare interest.

The present volume consists of seven essays. Logic in Theology; The state of Unitarianism in England; Nilus:-The Christian courtier in the Desert; Paula:-High Quality and Asceticism in the Fourth Century; Theodosius :-Pagan Usages and the Christian Magistrate; Julian:-Prohibitive Education; "Without Controversy." The first of these essays is nearly the same which was originally published as an Introduction to Edwards on the Will, and with which all the admirers of Taylor are familiar. The second of them first appeared in the Eclectic Review, and was afterward published in a separate tract. It contains an exhibition. of the actual power and results of the Unitarian system, and is valuable both as history and argument. The four succeeding essays are four of those striking cabinet portraitures from the early history of the church, such as the author alone can furnish, each one of which has its moral for the present. The last two are of especial value for these times and especially for the English people as they bring up and discuss the proper position to be taken by the magistrate and the educator in that vast Indian empire over which England bears sway, and into which she is introducing the systems of government and education which involve inconceivable consequences of good and evil for uncounted millions. The author contends that the laws for India must be framed and administered as Christian laws, yet within the limits which Christianity ever prescribes to itself. On this subject the author expresses himself in the following language:

"Now as to such usages-such institutions, and such legalized crimes-abominable as they may be-this is to be noticed concerning them-and never should it be forgotten-that Christianity abstains from naming, or denouncing, or prohibiting them:-it is silent because it takes quite another course in ridding the world of them: it does at length rid the world of them: but this happy issue it brings about in its own manner. It becomes us to understand what this method is-for, if we mistake it, we shall be likely to fall into the impious practice of pleading the silence of the Gospel in behalf of the worst abominations.

"When a crime of any sort has passed into its fixed form as an INSTITUTIONwhen a sin has come to stand upon the fair side of a people's statute-bookswhen the Devil has been called in to prepare the rough draft of a liberal enactment, then-we shall look in vain for texts in which such crimes of a state are denounced, or are even named. The Gospel, as it addresses no offer of salvation to nations, so does it preserve an ominous silence concerning their sins.

"But this boding silence-is it approval? None will think so but those whose reason is fast going-where their conscience has long ago gone-to ruin. What then are these Pagan usages? What are these NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS which Christianity does not name, and does not denounce, but of which, at length, it rids every country where it gains the ascendancy: They are these nine following:I. Polygamy. II. Infanticide. III. Legalized Prostitution. IV. Capricious Divorce. V. Sanguinary and grossly immoral Games. VI. Infliction of Death or Punishment by Torture. VII. Wars of Rapacity. VIII. Caste. And, IX.


"Each of these immoralities was practised, and was more or less distinctly existing as a social Institution—a usage-of the neighboring nations in the time of Christ's ministry. In fact, each of them had then a place even in Palestine, so far as that it must often have come before Him;-and was an immorality perpetrated under His eye. Yet one only of the nine on this list did He name, and denounce that is the fourth: and the reason of the preference given to it we might easily find. But were the eight approved? It is madness to think soit were blasphemy to say it! With each of these non-mentioned immoral usages Christianity, in its progress among the nations, came into conflict at an early time; and then, in its own manner, by enlightening the individual conscience, it either abrogated them entirely, or greatly mitigated the evil of each of them. Some of these usages disappeared silently, very soon after the moment of the imperial conversion: others fell from their place as applauded customs, and quietly subsided into a position of tolerated evils-condemned, yet winked at. Each of them, among modern nations, vanishes wherever Christianity prevails, and is free to speak its mind. To this averment there is not-there never has been—an exceptive instance. Certainly the worst of the nine-SLAVERY-is not an exception: how could it be so, for it includes, and it gives its eager support to, at least, seven of these enormities out of the nine:-it does so as thus-Slavery has had its commencement in the most atrocious of all the forms of aggressive and lawless war: slavery perpetuates the most odious of the distinctions of caste:-slavery enforces its initial wrong by giving a brutal licence to punishment by torture. And as to that circle of crimes which are attendants of slavery, in vitiating the rela tion of the sexes-slavery is the soul of each of those abominations with which

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