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which pertain to infancy and childhood. The plan is somewhat different from that of the work we have just noticed above. There are many charming little lyrics here, a few of which are contained in the collection of "Hymns for Mothers and Children ;" but the author has introduced in addition many detached portions of well known poems, which enhance very much the interest and value of the book. Although in typographical appearance this collection is quite inferior to the other, it will make a very good companion for it, on the tables of those who are interested in the literature of chidlhood.
DWIGHT'S MODERN PHILOLOGY.-It will be remembered by the readers of the New Englander that on the apppearance, in 1859, of this valuable work on Modern Philology, we gave our views respecting its merits at some length in the November number. One of the most popular of the essays included in the volume had previously appeared in this Quarterly, in August, 1858. It is with real pleasure that we learn that the first edition of the work, which was of a thousand copies, has been exhausted, and that a second edition has now been given to the public by Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Burr of New York. We deem it a very fortunate thing that the science of philology has obtained so enthusiastic an expounder. No person can read Mr. Dwight's work without finding his interest awakened and a strong desire springing up to pursue such studies further.
PROF. HADLEY'S GREEK GRAMMAR.*-The progress of modern scholarship is better marked in this country by the advance, from time to time, of our manuals of Greek Grammar and of Greek Lexicography, than in any other way. The appearance of Buttmann in English, and next of Kühner, and now of this work, which represents the most recent advanced state of Greek grammatical knowledge among the best scholars here and in Europe, mark, each, a distinct era of upward progress in our system of classical instruction. The discoveries of modern philology are
* A Greek Grammar. For Schools and Colleges. By JAMES HADLEY, Professor in Yale College. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1860. 12mo. pp. 366.
quite reformatory, in their tendencies, of all arbitrary uncritical and superficial modes of studying both Greek and Latin. What noble minds also have wisely and effectively spent their strength, within a short period, in elaborating the science of grammar: Buttmann, Thiersch, Rost, Kühner, Krüger, Madvig, Curtius, Bekker and others. Whatever general or specific advantage has been thus obtained in the study of Greek Grammar, should be carefully afforded to American scholars, that they may avoid the errors into which their predecessors fell, and resolve the many difficulties which they, from want of the light now enjoyed, could not master. How many remember well the pleasure that Thiersch and Kühner gave them by their analyses of the verb-forms, which were then seen, for the first time, to possess within themselves a clearly developed mechanism, instead of being a mass of mere accidental or conventional accretions! That same higher linguistic analysis is carried in Prof. Hadley's book into all the forms of the language, substantive and adjective, as well as verbal. What we would briefly say of this scholarly work, may be perhaps best arranged under two leading heads: its general and its special peculiarities.
I. Its general peculiarities.
1st. The new and improved logic of its method in the noun and verb, based on the analyses of comparative philology.
2d. Its euphonic solutions of variations, exceptions, and supposed abnormal difficulties, scattered through the entire etymology of the language.
The idea of a mere traditionary, prescriptive, dogmatic mode of learning or teaching Greek, is very properly ignored, or rather displaced everywhere by the elements of clear philosophic insight into the structure and pathology of the language. Results are, of course, given rather than processes; and no waste of words is made in learned allusions to sources of discovery. Phonetic analysis is applied to all classes of forms, as they occur. Exemplifications of rules and statements abound, and are brief and conclusive. While occasional allusions occur,-and we wish that they were more, to kindred Latin forms, the most rigid self-restraint is evidently imposed by the author upon himself everywhere, not to diverge from the one object of explaining and clarifying the Greek as much as possible, without indulging in any of the manifold con
tributions, which would have been easy, to the curiosity of a student in comparative philology.
II. Its special peculiarities.
1st. The careful exhibition of the stems of words in all cases. The stem of each word is its very essence; and whatever else is connected with it is an addition, designed for some specific purpose, which should be, as it is, clearly explained.
2d. The greatly improved classifications of the verb.
(a.) The grouping of the different tenses of each verb into nine "tense-systems." This is, in our view, merely a new name for an old thing; but, in another and true sense, it is, in its very terms, a valuable logical description of the structural relation of its different parts to one another. The novelty of the designation will soon disappear, in the felt advantage of its use.
(b.) The classification of all verbs (including those usually called "anomalous ") into nine classes, according to the varied formation of their present tense-system, in reference to the verb-stem itself, as the unit of comparison. This arrangement is well calculated to bring out to view the essential fact, that most of those peculiarities, which have been heretofore described as irregular, conform to certain fixed analogies of structure, and thus belong to the proper system of the language.
3d. A multitude of minute, incidental analyses and explanations of word-forms, scattered everywhere through the work.
4th. The arrangement of dialectic variations in foot-notes, on the same page with their Attic equivalents.
5th. In the syntax, the rules of concord and dependence are framed with philosophic clearness, and have specific titular designations, which are of great value in the class-room.
The book, although full of matter, is very condensed, and its statements are made in a clear and terse style. Analyses, when not made in full form, are indicated, in large numbers, by reference to general principles. Rare, indeed, is it that a book in any department is so thoroughly scientific, and at the same time so practical: it is full of learning and research, without the slightest attempt at display. The same excellencies, which have made Curtius's School Grammar so exceedingly popular in Germany, appear in this book, with copious additions of many kinds, swelling the work, although so compact in the method of presenting its great amount of materials, to a much larger size.
We welcome every such advance in our American helps to a higher style of classical study. May the day soon dawn, in which a similar contribution shall appear, from some competent hand, to the better study of Latin Grammar. There is no desideratum in clas
sical study, which is now so great. The young student of Greek will find himself introduced, in this book, while learning the rudiments of the language which it treats, to the elements of vital force and assimilation at work within it, as well as to its vital harmony with other kindred tongues.
PROF. GOODWIN'S SYNTAX OF THE MOODS AND TENSES OF THE GREEK VERB.*-The verb is by far the most important subject in the syntax of the Greek language: it may be regarded, indeed, as equal in importance to all other themes of Greek syntax, taken together. It deserves, therefore, to receive a special treatment as copious and thorough as that which is given to it in this volume. The author-who has just succeeded President Felton as Eliot Professor of Greek Literature in Harvard University-has made free use of Krüger, Madvig, Jelf, as well as other recent works on the subject which he treats. But his book shows everywhere the marks of independent thought and studious elaboration. Its value is much increased by its rich and wellchosen collections of illustrative citations from Greek authors. To students of the Greek language, who have passed beyond the elements, we recommend the work of Professor Goodwin, as an important addition to their means of study, and as a contribution to scientific grammar, which is not unworthy of the present advanced condition of philological science.
TRENCH ON THE STUDY OF WORDS.-The admirers of this most fascinating treatise of Dean Trench, which has already passed through twenty editions in this country alone, will be pleased to learn that the work has been revised and enlarged by
Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. By W. W. GooDWIN, Ph. D. Cambridge: Sever & Francis. 1860. 12mo. pp. 311.
On the Study of Words. Lectures addressed originally to the Pupils of the Diocesan Training-School, Winchester. By RICHARD CHENEVIX TRENCH, D.D., Dean of Westminster. Twenty-first American, from the ninth English edition. Enlarged and Revised. New York: W. J. Widdleton, (successor to J. S. Redfield). 1860. 12mo. pp. 248.
the author. There are few pages which do not show marks of the fresh labor which has been bestowed upon it. The chapters have been rearranged, and much new matter has been added. This new and enlarged edition is published by Mr. W. J. Widdleton, the successor of Mr. J. S. Redfield.
THE PRINCETON REVIEW.
THE PRINCETON REVIEW's REPLY TO THE NEW ENGLANDER.The Princeton Review for October, 1860, devotes some two or three pages to comments on our review entitled "The Princeton Review on Dr. Taylor and the Edwardean Theology." We should be most happy to transfer all these remarks to our pages, as a characteristic specimen of its methods of controversy-which would both explain and justify the description which we gave of them in our Article. But we have not the room.
The only part of these exceedingly civil remarks of our amiable critic which we care to notice, is the following:
'The word-practice, on pp. 754, 755, wherein the writer argues that, according to our statement, 'moral goodness is defined to be conformity to moral goodness,' is about as keen as it would be to say, when straightness is represented to 'mean not only conformity to a standard, but as often the very standard, idea, or law to which we must conform in order to be straight;' according to this straightness is conformity to straightness. Is this writer, whose exuberant airs of philosophic superiority are only matched by his contemptuous depreciation of the philosophic insight of his adversaries, ignorant that the same quality, idea, or conception, may be spoken of, now in the abstract, now in the concrete, now in idea, standard, rule or law, now in the actual experience or realization of it? If not, we commend to his attention the rudimental school books on Logic and Philosophy."
Upon this we observe, first, that we anticipated that the writer might be driven by the force of argument to take refuge in explaining his meaning in the way that he has now done. We so expressed ourselves on page 755, where it is thus written: "unless the reviewer might suggest, to escape from his difficulty, that what he meant by a standard, was, after all, but the quality of an action, i. e., the ideal of a virtuous action conceived as a standard by which to measure actual attainment."
Whether the failure of the reviewer to notice this passage and to understand its import, arose from a defect of "philosophic in