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several weeks he remained with them preaching to crowded audiences.

This was in reality the first church formed upon Congregational principles in Scotland, though only preceding that in Edinburgh by a few months; both, however, sprang from the one movement that was stirring the general community.

As Mr. Ewing took a leading part in putting in operation the first Congregational church in the metropolis, and the example set by the brethren there stimulated others elsewhere, he was always consulted in the preliminary steps they took, and his advice guided them in their adoption of a similar church polity; hence he has been generally regarded as the actual founder of Congregationalism in Scotland. Having adopted these views, it was to be expected that he would set them forth and enforce them upon his students, and how successfully he imbued them with his principles in this respect, the following testimony shows. The writer was the Rev. Mr. Munroe, of Knockando. "Some of us" (i. e. the students) "belonged to the national establishment, others to the relief, and not a few were burghers and antiburghers. The only qualifications for admission to the seminary were genuine piety, talents susceptible of cultivation, and a desire to be useful to our fellow sinners by preaching and teaching the words of eternal life. The grand object proposed by the zealous originator of the scheme, was to qualify pious young men for going out literally to the highways and hedges to preach the gospel, unconnected with the peculiarities of any denomination. Such were the materials placed under Mr. Ewing's tuition, but before the termination of our prescribed course of study we found ourselves decided and intelligent Congregationalists." Memoirs, p. 228.

But amid all this activity on the part of these zealous friends of the truth, their opposers and enemies were not idle. Some of the ministers of the Relief Body having given the use of their pulpits to Mr. Simeon, and to Messrs. Haldane and Aikman, the Synod of that denomination passed an act forbidding ministers to give their pulpits to any save those who agreed to their standards. The Cameronians went a step further, and

excommunicated some of their people for going to hear the greatly beloved Dr. Balfour of Glasgow, preach a missionary sermon; and the Synod of the Secession Body deposed, as we said, one of their brightest preachers for countenancing the labors of the two latter itinerants, who were denounced as intruders on the sacred office of the ministry.

The kirk, too, had long meditated some strong measures with the view of crushing these disturbers of the peace. Accordingly, in May, 1799, the Assembly on Overtures being presented from the synods of Aberdeen, and of Angus and Mearns, complaining of "vagrant preachers," passed an act "debarring all persons from preaching in any parish, who had not been duly licensed, and also those who came from England." A committee was also appointed to prepare a pastoral admonition warning their people against all vagrant preachers, denouncing them, and all who were associated with them, as mischievous men who sought to sow dissatisfaction, dispeace and division throughout the kingdom, and who were strongly suspected as acting on an understanding with the infidel revolutionary party in France. The same committee gave in another report condemnatory of Sunday Schools; and an address to the people on the subject founded upon that report was adopted, ordered to be printed, and to be circulated in every parish.

Many timid friends of the movement were alarmed by these vehement fulminations, and foreboded evil from them to the cause which had so signally prospered; but they fell powerless upon those against whom they were more particularly directed; they rather stimulated them to greater exertions, as demonstrating conclusively how much their efforts were needed. To rescue souls from the leadings of such blind guides, Mr. Robert Haldane, who had not as yet itinerated like his brother, now set out on such a mission in company with Messrs. Rowland Hill and Slatterie, but the rupture of a blood-vessel in the throat put an end to his labors as a preacher for some time.

In 1800, the projected seminary for young men intended for the ministry was opened at Glasgow, under the charge of Mr. Greville Ewing, who also became minister of the congregation

assembling in the recently purchased Circus. The arrangement under which he undertook the double charge was peculiar, his salary of £200 as a minister was, in this case, to be drawn from the rents of pews,-Mr. Robert Haldane, by bond, agreeing to make up any deficiency if the rents did not realize that sum. He was also to receive a further salary of the same amount as tutor in the seminary, which was secured also by bond; but out of this sum he was to provide a library for the use of the students, (nearly forty in number,) and also all the text-books they required.

As before mentioned, the management of the seminary was to be under the superintendence of the two brothers Haldanes, and the tutor; but Mr. Robert Haldane, as he furnished the funds for their entire maintenance, took a prominent share in the control. This arrangement was unfortunate, for his influential position in regard to it, and his unfortunate domineering disposition frequently occasioned much irksomeness to the tutor, and made the students unpleasantly sensible of their obligations to him, and their absolute dependence on his will.*

Dr. Lindsay Alexander, in his Life of the Rev. J. Watson, who was one of the students, while bearing testimony to Mr. Robert Haldane's splendid liberality, in sustaining the seminaries, remarks, "The students assembled in these classes were from all parts of Scotland, and many of them were from Ireland. They were divided, according to their countries, into three bodies,-Highlanders, Lowlanders, and Irishmen,--and a student from each body was appointed to act as censor, to watch

* The late James Aikman, Esq., author of a history of Scotland, (brother of Mr. John Aikman, the associate of Mr. James Alexander Haldane, in his itinerancies), who had the materials for writing a history of the movement, and was intimately acquainted with its machinery and progress, mentioned to the writer one instance of Mr. Robert Haldane's harsh, ungracious manner of treating the stu dents. As he paid for their board, he prescribed a dietary for them, in which porridge was set down for breakfast and supper. To this many of them demurred, and resolved to remonstrate; but who would undertake to be the mouthpiece, and venture into Mr. Haldane's presence, with such a complaint? No one would. So a round robin was written, signed and sent to their lordly benefactor; and what answer was returned? A recipe for water-gruel!

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over the sayings, doings, and opinions of his fellows, and to report anything particular to Mr. Haldane."

"It is impossible in too strong terms to express reprehension of such an inquisitorial and unwise course of proceeding as this. Why should students of theology be subjected to the discipline of the workhouse or penitentiary? If there be any class of men, whose character and conduct should be held above suspicion, it is surely that of persons who have come with the sanction and approbation of Christian churches, of which they were members, to study for the work of the holy ministry. That among such there may be found hypocritical professors, it would be absurd to deny; that one sinner among such may destroy much good, is too amply proved by facts, to admit of question, and that it is the duty of all to whom the tuition of such is committed, to watch over them with paternal interest, and with unswerving fidelity to reprove whatever may be detected that is improper either in conduct or sentiment, is not only to be conceded, but earnestly contended for, as essential to the best interests of Christianity. But it is due to the profession and previous standing of the young men themselves, that they should not be subjected to any supervision which would lead them to feel as if they occupied the position of suspected parties; still more ought they to be exempted from the degrading and insulting annoyance of being dogged by formally appointed spies and informers from among their own number. Such a system is sure to lead to heart-burnings and jealousies, as well as to provoke ebullitions of fretful misconduct, which but for it never would have occurred.”*

Indeed, Mr. Robert Haldane's dictatorial interference with the general details of the first class, under the charge of Mr. Ewing, was so annoying that at the termination of the course Mr. Ewing refused to have any further connection with the seminary, which was transferred to Edinburgh. In short, it was impossible for any high spirited individual to coöperate intimately or long with Mr. Haldane, while depending in some measure upon his liberality; there was that in his man

*Life of Rev. J. Watson, pp. 30, 1.

ner which never allowed the party to forget their relative positions, and that he was looked to for concurrence, not for counsel. So unfavorable, in fact, was the impression made on Mr. Ewing's mind, that thenceforth he avoided all intercourse with Mr. Haldane, and declined several advances that were made for the renewal of their intimacy. Yet Mr. Ewing was one of the most lovable of men.

The compiler of these memoirs, as if conscious of his uncle's imperious temperament, dwells fondly on the friendship which subsisted so unbroken between Dr. Bogue and him, as an evidence that he was kind and courteous in his social intercourse with others; but he does not unfold the secret of the harmony which continued thus long. Dr. Bogue was never in any way dependent upon him, but stood in the relation of a private friend; one, too, from whom he had derived much benefit during his early years, when as yet unsettled in his religious opinions. No one could be more agreeable among his equals, or when dispensing his hospitality; few could be more unpleasant, when transacting with those who were his stipendiaries. It is a significant fact that though three hundred students (according to the compiler's estimate) were indebted mainly to Mr. Haldane for their theological education, there is not a line of grateful acknowledgment, nor an expression of affectionate regard, from one of them, to be found in these memoirs; the value of the favor was dashed by the hauteur with which it was imparted, and the repulsiveness of the treatment with which it was accompanied.

Shortly after the first seminary was put in operation in Glasgow, another was opened in Dundee, of which the Rev. W. Innes was appointed tutor, having, in addition, the ministerial charge of the Tabernacle there. A third was instituted at Elgin, and it was a part of Mr. Robert Haldane's plan to establish another at Gosport, under the superintendence of Dr. Bogue, but, after a short trial, he abandoned the idea, and resolved to restrict the effort to Scotland.*

* Old Mr. Cumming, rector of the Canongate High School, Canary street, himself a licentiate of the Kirk, told the writer that these seminaries were viewed

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