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exhibited to her Gracious Majesty, and the High Court of Parliament, in the behalf of the country of Wales, that some order may be taken for the preaching of the Gospel among those people; wherein is also set down as much of the estate of our people as without offense could be made known; to the end (if it please God) we may be pitied by those who are not of this assembly, and so they may be drawn to labor on our behalf." In an introductory address "to all that mourn in Zion until they see Jerusalem in perfect beauty, and namely to my fathers and brethren of the Church of England," he said:

"It hath been the just complaint of the godly in all ages, that God's eternal and blessed verity, unto whom the very heavens themselves should stoop and give obeisance, hath been of that small reckoning and account in the eyes of the most part of our great men, as they valued it to be but a mere loss of time to yield any attendance thereupon. Hence it cometh to pass that the truth being at any time to be countenanced, none very often are found in the train thereof, but the most contemptible and refuse of men; and because these also, being guilty unto themselves of great infirmities (and foul sins, many times) and not ignorant that affliction is the sequel of earnest and sincere profession, do pull their necks from the yoke, and their shoulders from the burthen, the Lord is constrained very severely to deal with them before they can be gotten to go on his message. And (which is far more lamentable) inasmuch as the drowsy and careless security, the cold and frozen affections of the godly themselves, in most weighty affairs, is never wanting the Lord suffereth his own cause to contract some spot from their sinful hands. These considerations, beloved, but especially the latter, kept me back a great while from this action, which I have now, by the goodness of God, brought to this pass you see. It would be a grievous wound unto me, all my life long, if the dignity of a cause worthy to have the shoulders of all princes under the cope of heaven for its footstool, should be any whit diminished by my foul hands-which, notwithstanding, I profess to have washed, as far as their stains would permit."

With such feelings did Penry enter on his life-work, protesting that God had thrust him upon that work almost against his will, yet comforted by the thought that "the honor of Jesus Christ" was involved in that work. "My silence, though to the danger of my life, shall not betray his honor. Is not he a God? Will he not be religiously worshiped? Will he not have their religion framed according to his own mind? Hath he not regard whether his true service be yielded him, or not? If he have, woe be unto that conscience that knoweth this, and keepeth it secret, or is slack in the promoting thereof."

The one aim of the Treatise in which the young Welshman made his first appearance before the public, is sufficiently represented in the title. He described the moral and religious condition of his countrymen in Wales, "whose state," said he, "is so miserable at this day that I think it were great indiscreetness for me to spare any speech that were likely to prevail. Nay, I would to God my life could win them the preaching of the gospel. Our sickness is at the heart; it must not be dallied with,—either present remedy, or undoubted perdition." He challenged the pity of all the godly for the "scars of spiritual misery" which his book described. He protested that "a conscience must be wrought in the people;" and that, in order to this, the gospel must be preached to them in their mother tongue, by men who know and have experienced what the gospel is. He presented the details of a plan for the evangelization of Wales. To the coast, and to the border towns, where English was spoken, preachers should be sent from the Universities. Three hundred, he thought, might be found for that service, who would be competent, after a little practice. Of these, perhaps a dozen would be Welshmen, capable of preaching in the districts where the Welsh was the only spoken language. Beside these, he would have all Welsh ministers who were serving in England, sent home to preach in their own. language. The effect in Wales would be, (in his anticipation), that "a number of the idle drones," the non-preaching incumbents of livings, would learn to preach. But his great scheme of evangelism was still more comprehensive. It included something of lay agency, and something, even, of what is now known as "the voluntary principle."

"There be many worthy men in the Church of England that now exercise not their public ministry; these would be provided for among us. I hope they will not be unwilling to come and gain souls unto Jesus Christ. Private men, that never were of University have well profited in divinity. These, no doubt, would prove more upright in heart' (as the Levites in like distress, 2 Chron. xxix, 34) than many learned men. As for their maintenance, they whose hearts the Lord hath touched, would thresh to get their living, rather than the people should want preaching. Our gentlemen and people, if they knew the good that ensueth preaching, would soon be brought to contribute." p. 14.

Such was the scheme for preaching the gospel to his brethren, the Cymbric Britons, which Penry proposed to bring before the Queen and the Parliament in a "Humble Supplication." His petition was in due time presented to Parliament by a member, who affirmed that the representations in the petition, concerning the condition of Wales, were true. No objection was made to the petition, and nothing came of it in the House. But the book in which the bold scheme of evangelization had been laid before the public, was an inexpiable offense to the Archbishop. "Orders were issued immediately for the seizure of the book, and the apprehension of its author. Penry was thrown into prison, and the strictest injunction given to the jailer to keep him safely. For a month he remained in doubt of the charge that would be preferred against him. At the expiration of that term he was brought up for examination, or rather to receive a bitter reprimand." (p. 17.) His proposal was resented by the Archbishop as "intolerable." The basis of the plan was, "How shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?" Having this conception of the way to save men, the author had intimated that the non-preaching clergy were not really ministers; and that idea, the primate said, was "heresy." The prisoner's answer was, "I thank God that I ever knew such a heresy, as I will, by the grace of God, sooner leave my life than leave it." The Bishop of Winchester replied, "I tell thee it is a heresy; and thou shalt recant it as a heresy." "Never," said the prisoner, "God willing, so long as I live." After some farther imprisonment, he was, for that time, set at liberty. It was evident enough that such a man was likely to appear again before the Queen's High Commis

sioners for causes ecclesiastical..

Penry's next publication was issued the next year. It was entitled "A view of some part of such Public Wants and Disorders as are in the service of God within her Majesty's country of Wales; together with an Humble Petition unto the High Court of Parliament, for their speedy redress." In its spirit and aim, as well as in its subject, it was a repetition of his former work. He had lost nothing of his ardor; and he

uttered his mind more freely and boldly than before. The close of his Petition to Parliament was in these words:

"Thus I have performed a duty towards the Lord, his Church, my country, and you of this High Court, which I would do, if it were to be done again, though I were assured to endanger my life thereby. And be it known that in this cause I am not afraid of earth. If I perish-I perish. My comfort is, that I know whither to go; and in that day wherein the secrets of all hearts shall be manifested, the sincerity of my cause shall appear. It is enough for me, howsoever I be miserable in regard of my sins, that yet unto Christ I both live and die; and I purpose by his grace, if my life should be prolonged, to live hereafter not unto myself but unto him and his Church, otherwise than hitherto I have done. The Lord is able to raise up those that are of purer hands and lips than I am, to write and speak in the cause of his honor in Wales. And the Lord make them, whosoever they shall be, never to be wanting in so good a cause; the which, because it may be the Lord's pleasure that I shall leave them behind me in the world, I earnestly and vehemently commend unto them, as by this last will and testament. And have you, right honorable and worshipful of this Parliament, poor Wales in remembrance, that the blessing of many a saved soul therein may follow her Majesty, your Honors and Worships, overtake you, light upon you, and stick unto you forever. The eternal God give her Majesty and you the honor of building his church in Wales; multiply the days of her peace over us; bless her and you so in this life, that in the life to come the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven may be her and your portion. So be it good Lord!

"By him that hath bound himself continually to pray for your honors and worships, JOHN PENRY."

The one thought ever present to Penry was the preaching of the gospel in his native mountains. His next pamphlet was an "Exhortation unto the governors and people of her Majesty's country of Wales, to labor earnestly to have the preaching of the gospel planted among them." Perhaps, as he advanced, his vehement zeal grew more unsparing in its censures on the existing order of things, and on those who were responsible for it. Yet he protested, "Let no man do me the injury to report that I deny any members of Christ to be in Wales. I protest I have no such meaning, and would die upon the persuasion that the Lord hath his chosen in my dear country, and I trust the number of them will be daily increased." At the same time he insisted on his principle, denounced by Whitgift as a heresy, that the non-preaching incumbents of livings were not ministers of Christ. "The outward calling," said he, "of these dumb ministers, by all the presbyteries in the world, is but a

seal pressed upon water, which will receive no impression." And in advising his countrymen how to apply and carry out this principle, he almost reached, unconsciously, the position of the Separatists.

"The word preached, you see, you must have. Live according to it, you must. Serve the Lord as he will, in every point, you must,- --or so be forever in your confusion. Difficulties, in this case, must not be alleged; for if you seek the Lord with a sure purpose to serve him, he hath made a promise to be fond of you. Away, then, with these speeches: How can we be provided with preaching?' 'Our livings are impropriated-possessed by non-residents.' Is there no way to

remove these dumb ministers but by supplication to her Majesty, and to plant better in their stead?' Indeed, you will seek none. Be it you cannot remove them. Can you bestow no more to be instructed in the way of life than that which the law hath already alienated from your possession? You never made account of your tithes, as of your own. For shame! bestow something that is yours, to have salvation made known unto you." pp. 31, 32.

It was not in a frenzied thoughtlessness of consequences that he made this appeal to his countrymen. But the thought of personal danger, though manifestly present to his mind, was overborne by higher considerations. "I know not," said he, "my danger in these things. I see you, my dear and native country, perish-it pitieth me. I come with the rope about my neck, to save you. Howsoever it goeth with me, I labor that you may have the gospel preached among you. Though it cost my life, I think it well bestowed."

These publications were the more odious to the party which upheld the existing order of things, because they proceeded from a secret press, the same which was employed in printing a series of satirical and jeering tracts bearing the name of "Martin Marprelate." The memory of John Penry has suffered under the imputation of his supposed complicity in the authorship of those pasquinades. Doubtless he had much to do with the press from which the Marprelate tracts proceeded; but nothing could be more unlike him than any participation in the authorship, or any sympathy with the style and spirit of those publications; and there is no evidence that he was in any way responsible for them. His work was wholly of another sort. The weapons of his warfare were of another temper. All the authentic indications of his character show us an intense earnest

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