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vertently fell. We stated, on the authority of a review of Mr. Macaulay, written in 1840, that no copy in the Italian language,— in which this book was written, and in which so many thousands of copies were published,-was known to be in existence,-so thoroughly did the Inquisition do its work of destruction. It is well known, however, that, since Mr. Macaulay made this statement, several copies in the Italian language have been discovered, in different libraries; and, according to the latest intelligence, the work of Paleario has already been reissued in Pisa and Florence.
DR. BUSHNELL'S "CHARACTER OF JESUS."*-When Dr. Bushnell's book, "Nature, and the Supernatural," was published, the desire was universally expressed that the tenth chapter, the title of which was "The Character of Jesus forbids his possible classification with men," might be given to the public, in a separate volume. We are glad to see that Mr. Charles Scribner has gratified the friends of the author by publishing it as was suggested, and in very handsome style. We are confident that it will now meet with wide circulation among a class of persons who would, perhaps, have been deterred from reading it, as a chapter, in the larger volume.
SCHAFF'S MORAL CHARACTER OF JESUS.-The substance of this tract was delivered before the Porter Rhetorical Society, at Andover, in August, 1860, and was afterwards repeated as a sermon, before the meeting of the Synod of the German Reformed Church. It is now given to the public, in a form somewhat altered and enlarged. We have perused it with care and great interest. The argument is candid, sober, and learned. The points are clearly and cautiously taken. Each one is supported by appropriate evidence, and they are all wrought together into an argument of convincing power. The literature of the subject is also given, and a brief, yet instructive sketch of the modern theories of the person and claims of Christ, is appropriately supplied.
The Character of Jesus; forbidding his possible classification with men. By HORACE BUSHNELL, New York: Charles Scribner. 1861. 24mo. pp. 173.
The Moral Character of Christ, or the perfection of Christ's Humanity, a proof of his Divinity. A Theological Tract for the people. By PHILIP SCHAFF, D. D., Professor of Divinity at Mercersburg, Pa. Chambersburg: H. Kieffer & 1861. 8vo. pp. 52.
But though the argument is clear and convincing, and though the learning is solid and copious, the treatise glows with a subdued earnestness and power, which now and then breaks out into fervid eloquence. Taken as a whole, it is the best single monograph on this subject which we have, that is at once brief, learned, and eloquent. It seems equally fitted for German and English readers. It ought at once to be distributed by thousands, among the multitudes who are skeptical in respect to the claims of our Divine Redeemer.
MISS BREMER'S LIFE IN THE OLD WORLD.*-These two thick volumes before us-recently published in Philadelphia, by Messrs. T. B. Peterson & Brothers-in which Miss Bremer gives an account of the two years she lately spent in Switzerland, Belgium, France, and Italy, are among the most entertaining and instructive of the books of European travel which we have read for some years. The authoress is so well known to the reading public in this country, that it is not necessary to speak here of her style as a writer, or of her qualifications as an observer of men and things. Most persons who take up these books, and follow her course from city to city, will feel as if they were looking over the journal of an old and well known friend. One thing, however, we were hardly prepared to expect. It is the animation and enthusiasm which Miss Bremer displays at every step in her progress. She was no youthful traveler, setting out for the first time from her Northern home. She had already had her first impressions of continental travel. Thirty years before, she had had, with all her father's family, the experience of a six months' residence in Paris; and since then, few of her sex have seen more of society and of the world. It should be borne in mind, also, that she set out on this journey just after death had invaded her home, and left her the last of six children, without father or mother, utterly "desolate," and feeling, as she says, that she was "solitary" in the world. Yet what cheerfulness, what vivacity, what enthusiasm
*Life in the Old World; or Two Years in Switzerland and Italy. By FREDERIKA BREMER. Translated by MARY HOWITT. Two Volumes. Philadel phia: T. B. Peterson & Brothers. 1861. 12mo. pp. 488, 474.
are revealed on every page! Everything is sought out, and examined, and enjoyed; and everything seems as fresh to her, as if it was the young girl of thirty years ago that was giving us her impressions. It is delightful to know that it is possible for so old a traveler to have so keen a sense of enjoyment.
As might be expected, from what we know of Miss Bremer, she was by no means contented with seeing the outside of things during her travels. While she enjoyed to the full the grandeur of the Alps, and the loveliness of Italy, she felt, wherever she was, in city or in village, that it is the inner life of a people, their homes, their customs, their institutions, their men of note, and, above all, their religious characteristics, which are the things of highest importance and interest. And it is in its details respecting just these things, about which it is so difficult for most persons to obtain information, that the book has its chief value.
When at Lausanne, for instance, which was one of the first cities she visited, she tells us about Vulleimin, the Professor of History; about M. Hirzel, the Superintendent of the Blind Asylum, whom we remember to have seen a few years ago in the United States; about M. Haldeman, a well known gentleman of fortune whose beautiful grounds on the shores of the Lake of Geneva many American travelers remember doubtless with pleasure; about the widow of Professor Alexander Vinet. She gives us accounts, too, of the little social gatherings she attended; of the religious services in the churches where she worshiped; she tells us of the condition of things in the National church; and the whole history of the Free church movement in the Canton Vaud, going quite back to the political revolution, in Lausanne, in 1845.
The same course is followed wherever she goes, with full as great particularity. Everywhere Miss Bremer gives us accounts. of her conversations with the most distinguished and best informed people she met. Everywhere she gives us information respecting the religious and political condition of the people. Her own reflections are not always of the most profound character. Not unfrequently we differ from her views as she expresses them. But, as a whole, we are inclined to think that the majority of readers will feel that these volumes are not only very entertaining, but that they are a valuable contribution to their knowledge of the countries she visited.
We will bring our notice, which is altogether too short, to a close, with an extract from an exceedingly interesting conversation which Miss Bremer had with the Pope, to an interview with whom she was admitted when she was in Rome.
"I entered, attended by Monsignore di Merode, who knelt at the door, and then left me alone with 'His Holiness.'
"I saw at the farther end of an oblong, light, and very simply furnished room, a man of a stout but handsome figure, standing at a writing-table, dressed in a long white garment, with scarlet lapels and cap. I made one low courtesy at the door, another in the middle of the room in obedience to the Pope's sign to me to advance, and yet a third as I approached him and took my stand on the same little carpet with him, which I did in accordance with his friendly indication of his will. (For such persons as do not kneel to the Pope, are required by the ceremonial to make three courtesies or bows).
"The portraits of the Pope are in general like him, but his full, short and broad countenance has, when seen more nearly, less expression of kindness, and considerable more of self-will and temper than the portraits exhibit. The glance of the blue eye is lively, but not profound, and is deficient in earnestness. The complexion and physique generally indicate the best of health, a good appetiteand a good cook.
"The Pope cast his eye on a written paper which he held in his hand, and having inquired about my country and place of residence, added, 'You have written somewhat?'
Myself. Yes, your Holiness; novels of domestic life-more properly descriptions of life, but in the form of novels.
"The Pope.-But you are a Catholic?
'Myself. No, your Holiness, not a Roman Catholic.
"The Pope.-Then you must become one. There is no completeness or consequence out of the Catholic church.
'Myself.-Permit me, your Holiness, to ask a question?
The Pope.-Yes, ask it.
'Myself.-I love, with my whole heart, our Lord and Master, Jesus Christ. I believe in His divinity: in His redeeming efficacy for me and the whole world; I will alone obey and serve Him. Will your Holiness not acknowledge me as a Christian?
The Pope.-For a Christian! Most Certainly. But "Myself.-And as a member of the church of Christ?
"The Pope.-Ye-s, in a certain sense; but-but then the people must acknowledge as true everything which this church says and enjoins. You ought not in the mean time to believe that the Pope sends to Hell all who do not acknowledge the infallibility of the Catholic church. No, I believe that many persons of other creeds may be saved, by living according to the truth which they acknowledge. I believe so, most certainly.
"Myself. It delights me infinitely, to hear this from your Holiness. Because I have cherished the hope of finding in your Holiness a more righteous judge, as regards these questions, than in many other Catholics, who say, 'You are not a
Christian; you cannot be saved, if you do not, in all respects, believe as we and our church do.'
"The Pope.-In this they are wrong. But you see, my daughter, people should be able to give an account of their Christian belief; not believe alone in generals, but believe in the separate parts of a doctrine. It is already something to believe in the second person of the Godhead, and in His incarnation; but it is necessary also to believe in the institution which He founded on earth, otherwise there can be in reality no faith in Him. And people must believe in the Pope. The Pope is Christ's representative on earth."
"The Pope.-But you have not either confession nor absolution; you do not believe in the mass, nor in the seven sacraments, nor upon those things and ordinances which the church of Christ appoints. He who believes the one must believe in all. There is but one God in heaven, and but one church on earth, in which he lives, by his representative, and by regulations which he has appointed. This you must understand, and, in order to become a perfect Christian; not do it by halves-make an open confession thereof.
"Myself.-Loving the Lord Christ, and living according to his commandments, are, according to our belief, the essentials of the Christian!
"The Pope.-Very good. I will tell you something. Pray!-pray for light from the Lord,--for grace to acknowledge the truth,-because this is the only means of attaining it. Controversy will do no good. In controversy is pride and self-love. People, in controversy, make a parade of their knowledge,—of their acuteness,—and, after all, every one continues to hold his own views. Prayer alone gives light and strength for the acquirement of the truth and of grace. Pray every day, every night before you go to rest, and I hope that grace and light may be given to you; for God wishes that we should humble ourselves, and he gives his grace to the humble. And now, God bless and keep you, for time and eternity!
"This pure, priestly, and fatherly admonition, was so beautifully and fervently expressed, that it went to my heart, and humbly, and with my heart, I kissed the hand paternally extended towards me. That it was the hand of the Pope, did not embarrass me in the slightest degree, for he was to me, really, at this moment, the representative of the Teacher, who, in life and doctrine, preached humility, not before men, but before God; and taught mankind to pray to him. The Pope's words were entirely true and evangelical. I thanked him from my entire heart, and departed more satisfied with him than with myself. I had stood before him in my Protestant pride; he had listened with patience, replied with kindness, and finally exhorted me, not with papal arrogance, but as a true gospel teacher. I parted from him with more humility of spirit than I had come." pp. 178-184.