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ply. But this statement by no means represents the total productiveness or capacity of other cotton-raising countries, nor the ratio of increase in their export of the raw material during a series of decades.

To begin with India-for the above five years, the export of cotton, from India to Great Britain, was as follows: 1855, 143,486,672 lbs. ; 1856, 178,378,592 lbs. ; 1857, 248,301,312 lbs.; 1858, 129,398,752 lbs.; 1859, 190,520,400 lbs. In 1860 India exported to Great Britain 204,141,168 lbs., against 118,872,742 lbs. in 1850. But India exports cotton to China and to Continental Europe, and for the decade from 1850 to 1860, her total export of raw cotton has averaged more than 251,000,000 lbs. per annum, which is a larger quantity than was exported from the United States to Great Britain in any year prior to 1834. But this is barely one-tenth part of the whole amount of clean merchantable cotton estimated as the yearly product of the East Indian peninsula, which Mr. Mann puts in round numbers at 2,400,000,000 lbs. The price of land in India is about the same as in Texas, and the old, long-worked soil of India yields only about half as much clean cotton to the acre as the average lands of our cotton-growing states. But native free labor in India is eighty per cent. cheaper than slave labor in the South, and therefore, "with facilities of cheap transit, India can, even under the present system of cultivation, sell cotton in Liverpool at a price which, making allowance for inferiority of quality, is more advantageous to the manufacturer than other kinds, for employment in about seventy per cent. of his business." But the want of facilities of cheap transit, and the bad financial management of the cotton trade in India, keep back the great bulk of the crop, for home consumption. To follow Mr. Mann's reflections:

"If it be correct that upwards of 24,000,000 of acres are at present under cotton cultivation, in India, and which, it may be remarked, is nearly four times the area of that under cotton cultivation in the United States, it must be remembered that this immense area is scattered over, in a more or less degree, the whole of the great Peninsula, and yet hardly a single district throughout the whole extent of this magnificent territory is developed to one-third of its capabilities, or rendered sufficiently productive. The Bombay Presidency, containVOL. XIX.


ing 76,841,600 acres, and a population of 11,109,067, is calculated, by Mr. Chapman, to contain 43,000,000 acres of land, admirably adapted to the growth of cotton, greater by nearly one-tenth than the extent of such land in the whole of the United States, as estimated by their government; but if only onefourth of this extent were cultivated, and each acre produced, on an average, one hundred pounds of clean cotton, (which, by improvements, it is reasonable to expect may be doubled), we should have 1,075,000,000 pounds, or equal to the quantity at present imported into the United Kingdom from all countries; and it is said this quantity might be sold to a profit in Liverpool at 34d. per pound."

But the Indian cotton now sent abroad is carelessly prepared, and often adulterated.

"Under the present order of things. the systematic adulteration of Indian cotton will always exist; the poverty of the native growers, and the absence of English agents, to make reasonable advances to them on the spot, compels them to borrow money at a ruinous rate of interest, and to sell their cotton much below its real value; the consequence is, they become indifferent as to its quality or condition, in fact as to everything pertaining to it except mere quantity. Ignorant, and a prey to the native money-lenders, improvement with them in the art of cultivation, is entirely out of the question; they are unassisted, incapable of progress, and bound as in fetters of iron, to the imperfect modes of culture pursued by themselves and their forefathers. Under more favorable circumstances, however, they would make greater advances in improvement, and by the aid of knowledge, and implements and machines of European or American construction, speedily and successfully compete, in favored localities, with their rivals on the banks of the Mississippi."

Mr. Mann proposes to remedy this evil by dispensing, as far as possible, with "middlemen," and establishing direct relations between the East Indian cotton grower and the British manufacturer.

"As the Indian cultivator shall be freed from this unnatural incubus, the production will increase-he will be able to compete with his American competitor, and his position will then be doubly improved, when the success or failure of his own crops shall impart the tone to the market, and influence our prices accordingly. That it is possible for them, with facilities of cheap transit, to com pete with the Americans, as cotton growers, cannot, I think, admit of a reasonable doubt, but in order to do so, they must have immunity from the tyranny of the middlemen;' in short, they must be so elevated and enlightened as to be able to triumph over, or resist the machinations or impositions of the money lender; and there is every probability that, ere long, European houses, one and all, will find it to their advantage to advance to the grower all his requirements, on a moderate charge, and furnish machines, and instruct him in their use."

But beside this improved financial arrangement between

the cultivator and the manufacturer, the means of transit must be greatly increased, in order that Indian cotton may be brought to market in large quantities under favorable conditions. Transportation by bullocks is tedious and expensive, and it exposes the cotton to damage from rain and mud. The railway map of India shows a very extensive and comprehensive system of railroads already projected, and in part completed. Mr. Mann favors a system of canals, as cheaper in itself, and as contributing to enrich the country by irrigation.

"The question of the relative abilities of the United States and India to compete for the supply of our great staple manufacture, is in the main contingent on the facilities of cheap labor and transit. For the immeasurable superiority of the soil of Texas, with its 300,000,000 acres, as compared with our Indian possessions, which do not seem to be capable of producing a greater average yield, under the present careless system of cultivation, than one hundred pounds of clean cotton per acre, (although, as before said, where care has been employed, and particularly by the application of judicious irrigation, greatly increased results have been obtained), is only counterbalanced by the relative scarcity of labor in the former, and perhaps an almost equal rate of charges for transit, as compared with that of our India supply, which is now, for the most part, obtained from the coasts and spots having facilities of easy and comparatively cheap communication."

A new impulse is likely to be given to the building of railroads in India by the favor of Parliament; and when the gigantic net-work already projected shall cover and unite the whole peninsula, India will be second only to the United States in the magnitude and the serviceableness of its railway interest. Our author thus sums up his conclusions:

"We have seen that India embodies all the constituent qualities necessary to enable her to become the first cotton-producing country in the world. We have seen that means are being vigorously employed to assist her onward progress, in this and other respects, and there is great hope that before long she will rival America both in the quantity and quality of produce in the English market. The cloud which has so long overshadowed the vast Asiatic Continent, is quickly dissipating before the dawn of civilization, and in opening up the country, and developing its resources, our legislators will have followed the most certain road for securing its emancipation and forward march in the sure path of moral and material development."

But this development must be a work of time; and much as it is for the interest of Great Britain to improve the resources of her vast eastern dependency, the necessities of the

hour will lead her also to regard with favor other sources of cotton supply. Among these the most prominent are the British West Indies, and the continent of Africa. The Turkish Empire possesses a soil and climate well suited to the growth of cotton; but the insecure and burdensome tenure of landed property, the imperfection of agricultural implements, nd the oppressive taxation, are serious obstacles to its cultivation. The whole empire produces only from thirty-five to forty millions of pounds per annum, and exports of this about twenty millions. In the ten years from 1849 to 1859, the Mediterranean supplied the British market with an average of thirty million pounds of raw cotton per annum. In the same period, Brazil supplied about twenty-four million pounds per annum, which, however, is no higher average than that country yielded for the ten years from 1815 to 1825. Indeed, for nearly fifty years the yearly supply from Brazil to the British market has ranged at about twenty millions pounds. Forty years ago the British West Indies and Guiana shipped to England from seven to twelve millions of pounds of raw cotton per annum; but since 1825, this export has gradually declined until in 1850 it fell to the low figure of 228,913 lbs. Yet, in 1857, it rose again to 1,443,568 lbs., and in 1860, was 1,050,784 lbs. This fluctuation is owing to the deficiency of labor and the uncertainty of the market-in other words, to the want of a well-organized system of production and ex change. The Coolie immigration and the investment of British capital would soon enable the West Indies to produce cotton in large quantities at a low price. The soil and climate of the islands are well suited to its production, and the market is always accessible. Australia, as yet, has exported but little cotton to the parent country, but with an increase of population, and established means of transportation, would soon become a vigorous competitor of the South.

But to Africa, next to India, must Great Britain look for a supply of cotton that shall release her from her crippling and dangerous dependence upon the Southern states. In Africa, as we have seen, cotton is indigenous and perennial; labor is abundant and cheap, and in many parts the natives are well

disposed towards commercial intercourse with foreigners; in a word, nothing is wanting but a well-ordered and well-protected system of delivery and payment at the ports to secure from Africa an almost unlimited supply of this staple of British industry. Egypt fairly began the culture of cotton about the year 1820; and now the cotton plant is one of the most familiar sights in the valley of the Nile. During the last ten years about 49,000,000 lbs. per annum have been exported from Alexandria; in 1858, upwards of 38,000,000 lbs. were shipped to England alone. The ratio of increase in the export of Egyptian cotton to Britain, in decennial periods, is remarkable. Beginning in 1820, with a quarter of a million pounds, it had increased in 1830 to five million, in 1840 to eight, in 1850 to nineteen, and in 1860 to nearly forty million pounds. We are informed that even the poor fellahs of the Nile valley are keeping back their little store of cotton the present year in expectation of a higher price because of the troubles in America; and the same cause will lead to the planting of a much larger quantity for the next season. South Africa, especially the large region watered by the Zambesi and its tributaries, offers to British enterprise an inviting source of cotton supply. But the most promising field of cotton culture in Africa, is the western coast from Sierra Leone down to Lagos and the mouths of the Niger. At two or three points upon this coast, Agricultural Societies have been established which give special attention to the culture of cotton; the cotton gin has been extensively introduced, and regular marts have been opened for the cotton of the interior. Dr. Barth reports an extensive cotton trade among the tribes of Western Central Africa, who manufacture a coarse cotton cloth for native use. A few years since, a missionary in Western Africa proposed to purchase all the cotton which should be brought to him. On the first day he received a few pounds, on the second about one hundred pounds, on the third day over three hundred pounds, and was soon obliged to discontinue the trade for want of funds to carry it on. He had no doubt that if he had continued to purchase, the quantity of cotton offered would have continued to increase to an indefinite extent, and from a careful estimate

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