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of,

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of, under the Divine Govern-

ward A. Walker,

323
ment, Article, by C.W. Clapp, 63 Scientific Discovery,

Annuai
Puritan llistory, Article, by Leon- for 1861, edited by David A.
ard Bacon,
126 Wells, noticed,

534
Puritans, The History of the, by Scotland, Rise of Congregational-
Daniel Neal, reviewed, by Leon-

ism in, Article, by A. Geikie, 269
ard Bacon,

126 Scottish Life and Character, Rem-
Puritans, The, during the reigns of iniscences of, by E. B. Ramsay,
Edward VI, and Queen Eliza- noticed,

245
beth, by Samuel Hopkins, re- Secession, Southern Apology for,

viewed, by Leonard Bacon, 126 Article, by T. D. Woolsey, 731
Putnam. (George P.) Ten Years of Sermons by Horace Mann, noticed, 760

the World's Progress, noticed, 782 Sermons, R. C. Trench, noticed, 190
Pujol and Van Norman's French Sermons by W. B. Weed, noticed, 759
Class-Book, noticed,

952 Sewall, (J. S.) The Pulpit, Article, 401
Quitinan. (Gen. John'A.) Life of, Siberia, Oriental and Western, by

by J. F. H. Claiborne, not'd, 213, 770 T. W. Atkinson, reviewed, 352
Railway Property, by J. B. Jervis, Sin, Original, Wesley's views on, 621
noticed,

248 Sin, Prof. Park's interpretation of
Ramsay, (E. B.) Reminiscences of

Emmons's theory in regard to
Scottish Life and Character, not'd, 245 the origin of, considered, by
Randall's, (Henry S.) Life of Jeffer- George P. Fisher,

719
son, reviewed, by E. 0. Dunning, 648 Sinaiticí, Notitia Editionis codicis
Rawlinson, (George), The History Bibliorum, ed. Tischendorf,not'd, 177
of Herodotus, noticed,

214 Slavery, Duty of the Pulpit on the
Rebellion of 1861, Duties to their subject of, Article, by L. Bacon, 140

Country of those who remain at Smith, (William), Dictionary of the
Home, Article, by S.W. S. Dutton, 674 Bible, noticed,

186
Rebellion Record, by Frank Moore, Solomon's Song, Commentary on,
noticed,
778, 959 by L. Withington, noticed,

758
Recreations of a Country Parson, Soule and Wheeler's Manual of
noticed,

250 English Pronunciation and Spell.
reviewed,

882 ing, reviewed, by W. D. Whitney, 913
Reid, (Capt

. Mayne), Bruin, nota, 259 Spencer, (Herbert), Education, not'd, 242
Richardson, (John F.) Roman Or. Sprague, (W. B.) Annals of the
thoëpy, reviewed,

102 Methodist Pulpit, noticed, . 762
Riggs, (L. G.) Edition of the Anar- Squier, (Miles P.) Reason and the
chiad, noticed,
779 Bible, noticed,

171
Rostrum, The Pulpit and, not'd, 254,842 Star Spangled Banner, The, notd 953
Rowe, (George S.) Life of John Strickland, (W. P.) Old Mackinaw,
Hunt, noticed,
209 noticed,

226
Russell, (W. H.) Letters to the Struggle for Life, noticed,

258
London Times, noticed,

960 Sturtevant, (J. M.) Lessons of our
Russian acquisitions upon the National Conflict, Article,

894
Amoor, Artiele, by Burdett Ilart, 352 Sun, The Phenomena of the, Arti-
Safford, (D.) Memoirs of, noticed, . 949 cle, by Daniel Kirkwood,

51
Salisbury, (E. E.) Sketch of the Sûrya-Siddhanta, Translation of
Life and Works of Michael the, noticed,

198
Angelo, Article,

785 Taylor, (Isaac), Logic in Theology,
Sandeman, (David), Memoirs of, noticed,

168
by Andrew A. Bonar, noticed, 524 Taylor's. (n. w.) Views with
Sargent, (Winthrop), Life of An- gard to the Divine. Permission of
dré, noticed,

783, 946 Evil, Originality of, disclaimed, 634
Schaff, (Philip), Moral Character Tefft, (B. F.) Methodism Success-
of Christ, noticed,

519
ful, noticed,

193
Science, Does it tend to Material- Terry, (Rose). Poems, noticed,

ism? Article, hy J. P. Thompson, 84 Thacher, (T. A.) Latin Pronuncia-
Science, Present attitude of the tion, Article,

102
Church towards, Article, by Ed- Thackeray, (W. M.) The Four

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re-

.

231
939

Georges noticed,

206 : War of 1861, The Duties to their
Theology. Recent Inquiries in, ed.

Country of those who remain at
ited by F. II. Hedye, noticed, 84, 161 1 Home during the, Article, by
reviewed,
323, 541 S. W. S. Dutton,

674
Thessalonica, by H. L. Ičastings, War for Suppression of Rebellion
noticed,

762 in 1861, and the Lessons to be
Tholuck, (A.) Commentary on the learned from it, Article, by J. J.
Sermon on the Mount, noticed, . 181 Sturtevant,

891
Thompson, (J. P.) African Civiliza- Warren, (W. F.) Parkerism, not'd, 193

tion and the Cotton Trade, Art., 829 Weed. (W. B.) Sermons, noticed, 759
Thompson,(Joseph P.) Does Science Wells, (Pavid A.) Annnal of Sci-

tend to Materialism? Article, . 81 entific Discovery for 1861, not'd, 534
Thomson, (William H.) Maronites Wesley, Reply to the Methodist
and Druzes, Article,

32 Quarterly Review, upon the
Thornton, (J. W.) Pulpit of the Theology of,

621
American Revolution, reviewed, 140, Wharton, (Grace and Philip), Wits
Thornwell, (J. H.) National Sins: and Beaux of Society, noticed,

A Fast-Day Sermon, reviewed, 110 Wheeler and Soule's Manual of
Thrale, (Mrs. Piozzi,) Autobiogra- English Pronunciation and Spell-
phy of, noticed, .

918 ing, reviewed, by W. D. Whitney, 913
Tiffany (C. C) George Müller and

Whitney, (Wiliiam D.) China and
the Life of Trust, reviewed, 429 the West, Article,

1
Times, The London, Russell's Letters Whitney, (William' D.) Reviw of
to, noticed,

960 Soule and Wheeler's Manual of
Tischendorf,'(A, F. c.) Notitia edi.

English Pronunciation and Spel-
tionis codicia Bibliorum Sinaitici, ling, .

913
poticed,

178 Whitney, (William D.) Translation
Trench, (R. C.) On the 'Study of of the Sürya-Siddhanta, noticed, 198
Words, noticed, .

237 Whiton, (James Morris), First Les-
Trench, (R. C.) Westminster Ser:

sons in Greek, noticed,

950
mons, noticed.

199 Whittier, (John G.) Home Ballads
Turner, (S. H.) Essay on our
Lord's I and Poems, •noticed,

228
Discourse at Capernaum, not'd, . 512 Wilson, (George), The Five Senses,
Turner, (Samuel II.) The Gospels noticed,

249
according to the Ammonian Sec- Wilson, (John). Life of Robert
tions and the Tables of Euse-

Burns, noticed, .
bius, noticed,

512 Wightman, (Mrs. Charles E. L.)
Turner, (Samuel H.) Origin, Char: Annals of the Rescuel, noticed, 535

acter, and Interpretation of Serip- Wilder, (R. G.) Mission Schools in
tural Prophecy, noticed,

511 India,
Twining, (K'insley), Ancient Chris. Withington, (Leonard). Comment-

tian Liturgies and Worship, Art., 685 ary on Solomon's Song, noticed, 758
Tyler, (W. S.) Plato's Apology and Wits and Beaux of Society, not'd, . 959
Crité, noticed,

210 Woman's Right to Labor, by Marie
Un tarian, Claims of the North E. Zakrzewska, noticed,

209
American Review that Thomas Woolsey, (T. D.) Guizot's General

Jefferson was a, considered, 665 Ilistory of Civilization, review.
United States, Eighty Years' Pro- ed,

409, 871
gress of the noticed, .

957 Woolsey (T. D.) Southern Apology
Van Norman’s and Pujol's French for Secession, Article,

731
Class-Book, noticed,

952 Wood, (A.) Class- Book of Bota-
Waddington, (John). John Penry, ny, noticed,

952
the Pilgrim Martyr, reviewed, 437 Words. The Study of, by Richard
Walker, (Edward À ) The Present C. Trench, noticed,

237
attitude of the Church towaril Zachos, (J. C.) Analytic Elocution,
Critical and Scientific Inquiry, noticed,

952
Article,

323 Zakrzewska, (Mrs: Marie €) Á
Walker," (Edırard A.) 'The Firsi Practical Illustration of Wo.

Document of Genesis, Article, . 541 man's Right to Labor, noticed, • 209

949

959

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THE

NEW ENGLANDER.

No. LXXIII.

Ꭻ ,
JANUARY, 1861.

ARTICLE 1.-CHINA AND THE WEST.

In a former Number of this Journal * we presented to our readers a sketch of the history of China, and a brief and comprehensive view of Chinese institutions. Our design was, by thus exhibiting the character and culture of the Chinese nation in their whole historical development, to lead to more intelligent and juster views of their value, and so to help in solving one of the great questions which must suggest itself to every one who takes even an ordinary interest in the historical events of the day-namely, what is to become of China now, when she is no longer left to work out her own destiny undisturbed, but is forced to feel the potent influence of Western ideas, commercial, social, and religious, backed by Western arms and diplomacy? It is in fulfillment of a half-promise made at the close of the former Article and which circumstances have prevented us from fulfilling earlier—that we revert at present

* See Volume XVII, p. 111, etc., Feb., 1859.

1

VOL. XIX,

to the general subject, and take up a portion of the evidence affecting it which we then purposely left untouched—the history of the intercourse hitherto carried on between China and the West, and the influence already exerted by the latter upon the former.

It is only with the nations of the West that we have now to do. Toward the North, the East, and the South, China has always maintained the position of an acknowledged superior, in arms, in culture, or in both. We have seen, while review

, ing the annals of Chinese history, that the irruptions of the northern and northwestern barbarians into the Great Central Flowery Kingdom have indeed repeatedly led to their political supremacy, but have also always ended in their intellectual and social subjection. As for Japan and Farther India, they have borrowed from their powerful and enlightened neighbor letters and arts, and have given little or nothing in return. None of these nations stands now in any such relation to China as should lend importance to the history of their former dealings with her. With the remoter West, the case is far otherwise; it has become a matter of no small moment to trace downward, through more than twenty centuries, the successive steps of that intercourse by which the races of our own Indo-European stock-beginning with its most eastern representative, the Indian, and ending with its most western, the Englishhave affected, and are threatening yet more powerfully to affect, the fates of the great Oriental empire.

The determining motives of intercourse between the West and the extreme East have been from the earliest times, as they are even now, of two kinds, commercial and religious. There was the exhaustless wealth of the empire to be shared in by the rest of the race; there were the teeming millions of its population to be converted to a new faith and a better life. The two motives have operated, sometimes together, more often independently of each other; we shall, in treating of them, follow simply the order of time, tracing their joint and separate workings from the beginning down to the present age.

As commerce has ever been wont to serve as the pioneer of missionary effort, so was it with respect to China also. The

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