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Bishop Jewell, Defense of the Apologie,

Part 1. Ch. 10. Div. 1. p. 66.

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Touching the words of St. James, if M. Harding well considered the Equivocation, or double understanding, of this word Justification, he might soon and easily have espied his own error. For when St. Paul saith, Abraham was justified by faith without works of the law, he teacheth us, how Abraham was received into favour, and justified before God: of the other side, St. James, when he saith, Abraham was justified by works, and not by faith only, he speaketh of the works that follow justification, and of the fruits of faith; without which fruits Abraham's faith had been no faith."


HOOKER,-Discourse of Justification, §. 20.

"For except there be an ambiguity in the same term, St. Paul and St. James do contradict each the other; which cannot be. Now there is no ambiguity in the name either of Faith, or of Works, being meant by them both in one and the same sense. Finding therefore that Justification is spoken of by St. Paul without implying Sanctification, when he proveth that a man is justified by faith without works; finding likewise that Justification doth sometime imply Sanctification also with it; I suppose nothing to be more sound, than so to interpret St. James, speaking not in that sense, but in this."

HOOKER,-Discourse of Justification, §. 6.

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Only we distinguish it (the righteousness of Sanctification) a thing different in nature from the righteousness of Justification: we are righteous, the one way, by the faith of Abraham; the other way, except we do the works of Abraham, we are not righteous. Of the one, St. Paul, To him that worketh not, but believeth, faith is counted for righteousness: of the other, St. John, Qui facit justitiam, justus est; He is righteous, which worketh righteousness. Of the one, St. Paul doth prove, by Abraham's example, that

we have it of faith without works: of the other, St. James, by Abraham's example, that by works we have it, and not only by faith. St. Paul doth plainly sever these two parts of Christian righteousness one from the other. For in the 6th to the Romans thus he writeth : Being freed from sin, and made servants to God, ye have your fruit in holiness, and the end everlasting life. Ye are made free from sin, and made servants to God; this is the righteousness of Justification: ye have your fruit in holiness; this is the righteousness of Sanctification. By the one we are interested in the right of inheriting; by the other we are brought to the actual possession of eternal bliss; and so the end of both is everlasting life."


A Sermon, &c.

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ROM. III. 28.

Therefore we conclude, that a man is justified by faith, without the deeds of the law."

THE Text is the conclusion which St. Paul draws, from that train of reasoning which is contained in the three first Chapters of the Epistle to the Romans: it asserts, by way of consequence, what he had deduced by regular proof, the doctrine of Justification by faith only; "Therefore, he says, we conclude, that a man is justified by faith, without the deeds of the law."

WE should justly appreciate the importance, and the necessity, of this doctrine, could we

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