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though it appeals to reason rather than to feeling. The universal sentiment of sympathy for others of our nation, even for others of the human race, has inspired the great work of practical philanthropy, the noblest passion of the nineteenth century, and finds continual expression in modern literature. The novels of Mrs. Humphry Ward are among the most striking examples of literary works. inspired by this motive. They could have been written at no other time. Possibly the spirit of democracy and brotherhood may find embodiment in great works of art in the coming generation.

QUESTIONS

In what writer of this period are its social ideals best portrayed? Commencing with Scott, name three other great English writers of the century who were strongly influenced by German literature and philosophy. How did this influence manifest itself in different cases?

Comment on Ruskin's theories about art, and show wherein they differ from those of modern school, taking Véron, Taine (or any other critics), as examples.

Examine carefully Walter Pater's prose, and see if you can ascertain in what lies its peculiar distinction.

Wherein does the excellence of Macaulay's style consist, and wherein is he peculiarly English?

What progression of thought (or development of mood) can be traced in "In Memoriam"?

Does Browning's "Lord Roland to the Dark Tower Came " derive its power from graphic description merely, or is it an apologue of life as related to aspiration and failure?

Point out the true ballad quality in Rossetti's "Rose Mary" and "Bride's Prelude "; also obscurity (not indefiniteness).

Examine Stevenson's “Master of Ballantrae” for descriptive touches. Compare with Kipling in "The Light that Failed."

LITERARY REFERENCES

GENERAL REFERENCES

DIXON, W. M. English Poetry from Blake to Browning.

OLIPHANT, Mrs. M. O. W. Victorian Age of English Literature. 2 v. Essays in English Literature, 1780-1860.

SAINTSBURY, G.
SCUDDER, V. D.
STEDMAN, E. C.

Social Ideals in English Letters. Part II.
Victorian Poets.

ARNOLD, M.

Letters of M. Arnold, 1848-1888. Edited by G. W. E. Russell. 2 v. HUTTON, R. H. Poetry of Arnold. (In his Literary Essays.)

WHIPPLE, E. P.

nent Men.)

Matthew Arnold. (In his Recollections of Emi

BROWNING, R.

BERDOE, E. Browning Cyclopædia.

CORSON, H. Introduction to the Study of Browning's Poetry.

DOWDEN, E. Tennyson and Browning. (In his Studies in Litera

ture.)

HUTTON, R. H.

ORR, Mrs. A. L.

Mr. Browning. (In his Literary Essays.)

Handbook to the Works of Robert Browning.

CARLYLE, T.

LOWELL, J. R. Carlyle. (In his My Study Windows.)
NICHOL, J. Thomas Carlyle. (E. M. L.)

MASSON, D. Carlyle Personally and in his Writings.

STEPHEN, L.

raphy.)

Article on Carlyle. (In Dictionary of National Biog

TAINE, H. A. L'Idéalisme Anglais : Étude sur Carlyle.

DICKENS, C.

FORSTER, J. Life of Charles Dickens. 3 v.

MARZIALS, F. T. Charles Dickens. (G. W. S.)

WARD, A. W. Life of Charles Dickens.

(E. M. L.)

ELIOT, G.

BROWNING, O. Life of George Eliot. (G. W. S.)

COOKE, G. W. George Eliot: A Critical Study of her Life, Writings,

and Philosophy.

CROSS, J. W. (Ed.). George Eliot's Life as related in her Letters and

Journals. 3 v.

COLLINGWOOD, W. G.

RUSKIN, J.

Life and Work of Ruskin.

RITCHIE, Mrs. A. T.

Records of Tennyson, Ruskin, and Browning.

SCUDDER, V. D. Introduction to the Writings of John Ruskin.

TENNYSON, A.

Tennyson: His Art and Relation to Modern Life.

BROOKE, S. A.

Life. By his son.

VAN DYKE, H. J.

2 v.

The Poetry of Tennyson.

WAUGH, A. Lord Tennyson: A Study of his Life and Work.

THACKERAY, W. M.

Bagehot, W. Thackeray and Sterne. (In his Literary Studies.) RITCHIE, Mrs. A. T. Introductions to the Biographical Edition of his Works.

TROLLOPE, A. Thackeray. (E. M. L.)

ROSSETTI, D. G.

KNIGHT, J. Life of Dante G. Rossetti. (Great Writers Series.) SHARP, W. D. G. Rossetti; A Record and Study. (1882.) ROSSETTI, W. M. D. G. Rossetti as Designer and Writer. (1889.)

CHAPTER XI

AMERICAN LITERATURE

COLONIAL PERIOD

Historical References

ADAMS, H. History of the United States [1801-1817]. 9 v.
ADAMS, B. Emancipation of Massachusetts.

BANCROFT, G. History of the United States [1492-1782].

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FISKE, J. Critical Period of American History, 1783–1789.

FISKE, J. Beginnings of New England.

Last

CHANNING, E., and HART, A. B. Guide to the Study of American History. [A bibliographical guide to all periods and topics. Indispensable.]

JOHNSTON, A. American Politics.

LODGE, H. C. Short History of the English Colonies in America. WINSOR, J. (Ed.). Narrative and Critical History of America. 8 v.

THE migration to America, beginning with the voyages to Virginia in 1608 and continuing down to our day, is the greatest western movement of the human race of which we have any record. Its effect on the progress of

Historical Sketch. civilization is second only to that of the migration of the Germanic tribes into the island of Britain. Thus far the character of the United States has been determined by the first settlers, who, coming from England, built the legal, social, and religious framework of the colonies according to English models, and made the English language the national speech of a great community. They gave us our rights of inheritance in English literature. Therefore, though the Huguenot, Hollandish, and Germanic elements in the seventeenth-century emigration are by no

means negligible in a general survey of the sources of our nation, they may be overlooked in so brief an examination of American literary expression as it is possible for us to make.

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The impulses to early immigration into America were twofold, commercial and religious. The desire to acquire land in a new country, and the love of adventure, combined with the political ambition to extend the realm of England, led to the early colonization of Virginia. The Catholic colony of Maryland was partly based on the desire to escape from Protestant persecution. The Hollandish settlement at the mouth of the Hudson River was originally a trading post. The Puritan settlements at Hartford, New Haven, Plymouth, and Boston were intended to be refuges for those who made a certain fashion of religious worship a matter of conscience, and had been tyrannically persecuted by the ecclesiastical authorities in England. The motives of the original settlers determined the characters of the original communities, and these characters are still distinct, though intermingling, and the dominance of the national idea has tended to reduce all to a common type.

It will be readily understood that the settlement of the new country was no holiday work. The long voyage was made in very slow and small sailing vessels. The landing in the North was in a rocky and sterile country, and everywhere on a soil covered with forests. As a rule more than half of those who first landed, died within a year or two of exposure and privation. The Pilgrims, who settled at Plymouth, understood pretty well the risks they ran, and we are lost in admiration of their indomitable courage and resolution. Even in the milder climate of the South, the first colony nearly perished, and it was not till after in

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