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credible hardships that a foothold was obtained and a scanty living wrung from the soil. The natural apparatus of civilization-houses, roads, fields, churches were

all lacking, and the community that had to provide these prime necessaries out of nothing could find little time for literary expression.

As time went on, the communities in Virginia tended to the feudal ideal of large landholders each with a considerable body of dependents. Tobacco was found to be an exportable product. Land was abundant and fertile, and numerous navigable rivers made it accessible. Cultivation by slave labor was early introduced. There was little or no urban life. Manufactures and diversified industries were not fostered, and during the seventeenth century no towns or cities of any size were built. The planter sent his tobacco to Europe, often directly from his own wharf, and procured from there, in return, furniture, clothes, and even the bricks of his dwelling. He sent his children to be educated in Europe. An isolated life developed executive ability and power to handle practical affairs in individuals rather than the life of the community. The Englishman in Virginia was far less interested in questions of the invisible life of duty and destiny than was the Englishman in New England. Among the Virginians were some scholarly men from England (Sandys, who wrote here a very acceptable translation of Ovid, for instance), but their relations were to the mother country. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the growth of the Southern settlements was the extension of the system of large detached plantations with few centers of intellectual life. The College of William and Mary was not founded till 1693, and for some time was little more than a boys' boarding school.

The first settlement in New England was made at Plymouth, in 1620, by a congregation of Separatists or Brownists, a sect of Independents, who had been forced from England to a refuge in Holland in 1608. They sailed as a body or church in the little ship Mayflower from Southampton. Their sufferings were so great that more than half of their number died during the first year. In 1628 began the Puritan emigration to Massachusetts Bay, in consequence of the harshness of Archbishop Laud. In the following decade some twenty thousand English people crossed the Atlantic to settle in the New World. They came with ministers, wives, and children, and usually settled together, and at once established their church organization. Among them were men of education and position at home. Their first ministers were usually clergymen of the Church of England unwilling to conform to the regulations of the ecclesiastical authority, who, on coming to this country, were forced to adopt the Congregational order. In the beginning the embryo communities allowed great power to the church and restricted citizenship to church members. Greater liberality prevailed in the Hartford colony, and by degrees was adopted in other Puritan communities. But everywhere provisions were made for education. Harvard College was founded in 1636, and Yale College in 1701. These, though intended as seminaries for the production of ministers, slowly became secularized as time went on. Religion was based on the Old Testament, and the weekly sermon familiarized the people with abstract reasoning. There was at least intellectual training in this, and although their thought seems to us crude, it was not materialistic, nor were their interests confined to worldly matters.

The necessity of protection against the Indians, and the

civil questions raised by the government of rapidly increasing communities, gave the Puritans exercise in military affairs and in broader questions of government. The illdefined boundaries of the patents, or charters, were in time settled as those of the present states. The French and Indian wars, which ended in the cession of Canada by the French in 1763, was a matter of great moment to the colonies, and their militia and seamen were largely instrumental in bringing about the successful issue. Soon the important question of the relation of the home government to the colonies, precipitated by the arbitrary interpretations of George III., absorbed the interest of all the colonies, forced them into a confederation, the prototype of our own Union, and brought about a war with the mother country which resulted in the independence of the United States. In 1787 the Constitution was drawn up and after some months of discussion ratified by nine states and the career of our country as an independent nation began.

Periods of
American

History.

American history naturally divides itself into the Colonial and the National periods, the first extending from the landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth in 1620 to the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and the second from that date to the death of President Lincoln in 1865. There are, of course, subsidiary phases, and there is also the distinction between the Northern and the Southern colonies, the Puritans and the Cavaliers, with the Dutch colony of New York and the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania lying between them. These minor differences we cannot note in our limits, and students are fortunate in having in Professor Tyler's "American Literature" an admirable examination of the entire field with sufficient illustrative extracts to

give an idea of all subdivisions. The most convenient authorities for the lives of the prominent writers are the volumes of the "American Men of Letters" series.

THE COLONIAL PERIOD

Captain John Smith was a soldier adventurer of wonderful nerve and courage and something of a boaster, but as full of energy as Shakespeare's FaulconCaptain John Smith, bridge. In 1608, the year of Milton's birth, 1579-1631. he published in London a "True Relation" of the events connected with the settlement of Virginia. This is of course of great interest to us because it was the first manuscript produced in this country and also by reason of the subject matter, but it is a book written by an Englishman who founded a colony and returned home. He wrote nine works based on his adventures, and three of them were composed in Virginia. He returned to England and died there, and his writings belong rather to the Elizabethan literature of adventure than to American literature.

Strictly speaking, there cannot be a national literature till the national consciousness is evolved or at least till

William

Bradford, 1588-1657.

colonists have taken a firm root and become a distinct body. Bradford's "History" narrates the fortunes of the Pilgrims who came to America in the Mayflower in 1620, and formed the Plymouth Colony. Elder Brewster was their minister, and William Bradford was governor or head man of the embryo state from 1620 to nearly the close of his life. He kept a "Journal" which is of the greatest interest to us Americans. His earnestness and simplicity inform his straightforward narrative with dignity and sweetness.

The manuscript had a very singular fate. After the amalgamation of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies in 1690 it was kept in the pastor's library of the Old South Church, Boston, where it was frequently consulted and excerpts made from it by subsequent annalists. During the Revolution the church was occupied by a British regiment, and the manuscript was taken away. In 1855 it was discovered in the library of the Bishop of London at Fulham, attention having been called to the similarity in a quotation from the Bradford document in one of our early colonial historians and an extract printed in an English publication. The English librarian allowed a copy to be made and printed in this country, and in 1897 the manuscript was courteously presented to the Massachusetts Historical Society, in whose custody it remains, a document to be regarded with reverence by every American.

Bradford's style is marked by a sober, simplicity that sometimes reminds us of John Bunyan. Some of the well-known passages rise to a dignified Elizabethan eloquence. The writer is evidently a man without any of the ecclesiastical pride and intellectual hardness so frequently considered a necessary attribute of the early Puritans. Of the departure from Leyden he writes:

"So being ready to departe they had a day of solemne humiliation, their pastor taking his text from Ezra 8-21 And then at ye river by Ahava I proclaimed a fast that we might humble ourselves before our God and seek of him a right way for us, and for our children and for all our substance.' Upon which we spent a good parte of the day very profitably and suitablie to the present occasion. The rest of ye time was spent in powering out prayers to ye Lord with great fervencie mixed with abundance of tears. And ye time being come when they must departe they were accompanied with most of their brethren unto a towne sundrie miles off, called DelfesHaven, where the ship lay ready to receive them. So they left that

JOHNSON'S LIT. - 28

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