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BRIDGES, Robert," Droch," b. Shippensburg, Penn., 1858. Graduated at Princeton. He was assistant news-editor of the N. Y. "Evening Post" from 1881 until his appointment as assistant editor of "Scribner's Magazine" in 1887. Has been literary editor of "Life" since 1883. Author of Overheard in Arcady," 1894; "Suppressed Chapters and Other Bookishness," 1895; and of various poems.

BRISTOL, Augusta (Cooper), b. Croydon, N. H., 1835. Has chiefly been occupied as an educator and lecturer. Was married in 1866 to Louis Bristol of New Haven, Conn., removing to Vineland, N. J., in 1872. She is the author of several books on social topics and of a volume of poems, "The Web of Life," 1895.

BROOKS, Francis, lawyer and physician, b. Memphis, Tenn., 1867; drowned, Lake Geneva, Wis., 1898. Entered the class of 1889 at Harvard, but left before graduating; and subsequently obtained a degree from the Chicago College of Law; and later studied at the University of Virginia. For a few months a lawyer; then a doctor of no mean distinction; and always devoted to literature, Francis Brooks died at what seemed to be the beginning of his true career. His initial volume, "Margins," appeared in 1897, and a posthumous edition of his complete poems, edited, with a prefatory memoir, by Wallace Rice, was issued in 1898.

BROOKS, Maria (Gowen), "Maria del Occidente," b. Medford, Mass., about 1795; d. Matanzas, Cuba, 1845. Of Welsh descent. Her father, a man of refinement, died when she was young, and she was educated by Mr. Brooks, a merchant of Boston, to whom she became engaged at the age of fourteen. Her "Judith, Esther, and Other Poems," appeared in 1820. Became a widow in 1823; went to live with an uncle in Cuba; and at his death inherited his property. Returned to the United States and lived at Hanover, N. H. Visited Europe in 1830; met Southey; finished writing " Zophiël, or the Bride of Seven," while at his home in Keswick, the first part having been completed in Cuba, and published in 1825. Southey edited the complete poem published in London, 1833, where it excited much attention. In 1843 she issued for private circulation a semi-autobiographical prose romance, Idomen, or the Vale of Yamuri." The "Ode to the Departed" was written in Cuba, 1844.

BROOKS, Phillips, Protestant Episcopal bishop, b. Boston, Mass., 1835; d. there, 1893. A graduate of Harvard, he was ordained in the Episcopal ministry, 1859. He became rector of Trinity Church in Boston, 1869, and bishop of Massachusetts, 1891, and was honored for his

gifts and beloved for the beauty and sincerity of his nature. He published many volumes of sermons, and was the author of several favorite hymns.

BROTHERTON, Alice (Williams), b. Cambridge, Ind., 18. Since her marriage, 1876, to William E. Brotherton, she has lived in Covington, Ky., and near Cincinnati, O. She has published: Beyond the Veil," poems, 1886; "The Sailing of King Olaf, and Other Poems," 1888; and has delivered lectures on literature.

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BROWN, Joseph Brownlee, b. Charleston, S. C., 1824; d. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1888. Graduated at Dartmouth. One of the younger transcendentalists who wrote for "The Atlantic Monthly." He was prevented by ill-health from fulfilling the promise of his youth.

BROWN, Phoebe (Hinsdale), b. Canaan, N. Y., 1783; d. Henry, Ill., 1861. Daughter of George Hinsdale, the composer. She resided in Connecticut and Massachusetts until her removal in 1849 to Illinois. Her famous hymn, beginning "I love to steal awhile away," was written in 1818.

BROWN, Theron, clergyman and author, b. Willimantic, Conn., 1832. Graduated at Yale, 1856. Entered the Baptist ministry, 1859. Editorially connected with "Youth's Companion" since 1870. Besides much work in prose, Mr. Brown has published "Life Songs," a volume of poems, 1894.

BROWNE, Francis Fisher, b. South Halifax, Vt., 1843. Before enlisting as a volunteer in the U. S. army, he worked in his father's newspaper office at Chicopee, Mass. At the end of the war he went to Chicago, where, in 1880, he founded his critical semi-monthly, "The Dial," which he has invariably maintained at a high standard. Author of "The Every-Day Life of Abraham Lincoln," 1886; "Volunteer Grain," poems, 1895, and editor of several excellent collections of verse.


BROWNE, Irving, b. Marshall, N. Y 1835; d. Buffalo, N. Y., 1899. He practised law in Troy, N. Y., edited the Albany Journal," and finally made his home in Buffalo, Wrote and edited numerous legal treatises, and was a collector of rare books. Among his works are: "Law and Lawyers in Literature, 1883; "Iconoclasm_and Whitewash," essays. 1885; "Our Best Society," comedy; "The The House of the Heart," poems, 1897; and Track of the Book-Worm," an essay, with bal lads on books.

BROWNELL, Henry Howard, b. Provi. dence, R. I., 6 Feb., 1820; d. Hartford, Conn.

1872. Graduated at Trinity College. Was admitted to the bar in 1844, but practised only five years. Early in the civil war, a poem of his on Farragut attracted that commander's attention, and led to Brownell's appointment as acting ensign on board the Hartford. He witnessed the battle of Mobile Bay, and at the close of the war accompanied Farragut on his cruise to the European ports, resigning in 1868. His poetical works are "Poems," 1847; " Lyrics of a Day, 1864; "War Lyrics, and Other Poems," with an appreciative preface by T. B. Aldrich, 1866.

BRUCE, Wallace, lecturer, b. Hillsdale, N. Y., 1844. Graduated at Yale. After extensive travels in Europe, began work as a lecturer in 1870. Was U. S. consul at Edinburgh, 1889-93. Author of many poems on occasions, and of "The Land of Burns," 1879; "Old Homestead Poems," 1887; "Wayside Poems," 1895; etc.


BRYANT, William Cullen, journalist and poet, b. Cummington, Mass., 3 Nov., 1794; d. New York City, 12 June, 1878. His first published poem, on the Progress of Knowledge, appeared in the "Hampshire Gazette," 1807. In 1808 his philippic" The Embargo," a political satire, was published in Boston and attracted much attention. He seems, however, to have received little commendation from his father for his efforts in versification, and often oversevere criticism, but was apparently undiscouraged. In an autobiography of his early life, it appears that his education was rather elementary, until his fourteenth year, when he began his preparations for college. He entered Williams College, October, 1810, as a sophomore, and left, May, 1811, intending to go to Yale. In this he was disappointed, and forced to give up all hope of a thorough college education. From 1814-15 he studied law. During this period his work assumes a morbid tone, which, following considerable amatory verse, suggests an happy attachment. In 1815 he was admitted to the bar. It is interesting to observe that it was in this year, when he attained his majority, he struck the poetic note which became most characteristic with him, for he began here to interpret nature, and his verse shows a marked improvement in sincerity of tone. It was not until 1817 that " Thanatopsis was published in the "North American Review," though written in his eighteenth year. Shorter poems followed, and in respouse to a request from the Phi Beta Kappa Society, he delivered a poem, "The Ages, at Harvard, 1821, published in the same year with other poems. It was in this year that he married Miss Frances Fairchild, at Great Barrington. In 1825 he went to New York, and, abandoning the law, devoted himself to literature. After a rather depressing service on the staff of a literary review, he became assistant editor of the "Evening Post." Later, in 1828, he became editor in chief, a position he held for fifty years, until his death. During his connection with the "Post," he took

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many trips abroad and into the East, described in letters to the paper, and afterward published in book-form: Letters of a Traveller," 1852; "Letters from Spain and Other Countries,' 1859; "Letters from the East," 1869. "The Fountain and Other Poems" appeared in 1842; The White-Footed Deer, and Other Poems, in 1844. Editions of his "Poems were published in 1832, 1846, 1855, and 1876, "Orations and Addresses" appeared in 1873;" Thirty Poems" in 1864; blank verse translations of the Iliad " and "Odyssey " in 1870-72. A comprehensive edition of The Poetical Works and Prose Works of William Cullen Bryant,' edited by Parke Godwin, was published in 1884. Mr. Bryant was often called "the first citizen of the republic," and his death, from sunstroke and a fall, was regarded by all classes as a national calamity. Cp. "Poets of America," chap. iii., and Nature and Elements of Poetry," p. 252. [B. D. L.]


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BUNNER, Henry Cuyler, journalist, b. Oswego, N. Y., 3 Aug., 1855; d. Nutley, N. J., 11 May, 1896. Entered a business firm in New York, and was afterwards a reporter. He became assistant-editor of Puck" in 1887, and some years later its editorial chief. Well known as a writer of fiction and verse, whose early death was deplored. Author of "A Woman of Honor," 1883; "Airs from Arcady and Elsewhere," poems, 1884; "The Midge," 1886; "The Story of a New York House," 1887; "Zadoc Pine, and Other Stories," 1891; " Rowen," verse, 1892; Jersey Street and Jersey Lane," 1896. A collection of his poems was edited by Brander Matthews and published in 1896.



BURROUGHS, John, essayist, b. Roxbury, N. Y., 3 April, 1837. A close student of nature, notably of bird-life in the northern seaboard States. He grew up on his father's farm. and received a common-school education. Was in the Treasury Department at Washington, 1863-72. In 1874 he removed to the fruit-farm still his home, at West Park, N. Y. In some


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respects a pupil of Emerson, and for years the most effective and high-minded eulogist of his friend Walt Whitman, his habit of thought is original, and he is recognized as a naturalistphilosopher, whose writings have wholesome sentiment and poetic charm. He has published Notes on Walt Whitman as Poet and Person," 1867; "Wake Robin," 1871; " Winter Sunshine, 1875; "Birds and Poets," 1877; "Locusts and Wild Honey," 1879; " Pepacton," 1881 ;, Fresh Fields," 1884; Signs and Seasons 1886; "Indoor Studies," 1889; Riverby," 1894; Walt Whitman, A Study," 1897; The Light of Day," 1900; "Literary Values," 1902; "Far and Near," 1904; "Ways of Nature," 1905; "Bird and Bough" (his only book of poems), 1906; "Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt," 1907; "Leaf and Tendril," 1908.

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BURTON, Richard, educator, b. Hartford, Conn., 1859. Graduated at Trinity, 1883, and Johns Hopkins, 1887. He was literary editor of the Hartford "Courant," 1890-97, and in 1898 was made professor of English literature at the University of Minnesota. His books of verse are "Dumb in June, and Other Poems," 1895; "Memorial Day, and Other Poems," 1897; " Lyrics of Brotherhood," 1900. BUSHNELL, Frances Louisa, b. Hartford, Conn., 1834; d. 1899. A daughter of Horace Bushnell, the eminent divine. She has contributed thoughtful and refined verse to The Atlantic Monthly" and other magazines.

BUTLER, William Allen, son of Benjamin F. Butler, b. Albany, N. Y., 1825. Graduated at the University of New York, 1843. For many years a distinguished member of the New York bar. His society poem, "Nothing to Wear," published anonymously in" Harper's Weekly," 1857, and afterwards in book form, took the town, and gave him a wide reputation. He has written other successful satires; "Domesticus," a story; besides legal and biographical works. His poems were collected in 1871, and again in 1899. (D. Yonkers, N. Y., 1902.)

BUTTERWORTH, Hezekiah, editor and balladist, b. Warren, R. I., 1839. Connected with the Youth's Companion," Boston, since 1871. Author of the series "Zig-zag Journeys," for children, 1876-90; "Poems for Christmas, Easter, and New Year's," 1883; 66 Poems and Ballads upon Important Episodes in American History," 1887; "The Wampum Belt, or the Fairest Page of History," 1896. (D. Warren, 1905.)

BUTTS, Mary Frances (Barber), b. Hopkinton, R. I., 183-. Married in 1865. Has done much journalistic work, and has written many books for children. "A Fence of Trust," verse, 1898.

CABLE, George Washington, novelist and humanitarian, b. New Orleans, La., 1844. This distinguished romancer, whose exquisite and most poetic stories of life in the French quarter of his native city, and of plantation life in Louisiana, gave him his first fame, has printed little, as yet, in verse-form.

CARLETON, Will, b. Hudson, Mich., 1845. He was educated at Hillsdale College, Mich., and engaged in journalism in Chicago, but finally removed to Brooklyn, N. Y. A successful lecturer, and reader of his own ballads. He has issued "Poems," 1871; Farm Ballads," 1873; "Farin Legends," 1875; "Farm Festivals," 1881; "City Ballads," 1885; " City Legends," 1889; City Festivals," 1892; "Rhymes of our Planet; ""The Old Infant, and Similar Stories," 1896.

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CARPENTER, Henry Bernard, b. Dublin, Ireland, 1840; d. Sorrento, Me., 1890. Having graduated at Oxford, he took orders in the Church, and was chaplain to the Earl of Belmore. He came to America in 1874, and was pastor of the Hollis Street Unitarian Church, in Boston, Mass., from 1878 to 1887. Author of "Liber Amoris," 1886; and of a posthumous collection, "A Poet's Last Songs," with a memoir by J. J. Roche.

CARRYL, Charles Edward, b. New York, N. Y., 1841. Mr. Carryl has long been a suecessful member of the N. Y. Stock Exchange, while closely associated with the literary and artistic life of the metropolis, and devoting much time to bookish pursuits. Author of the delicately fanciful dream-stories Davy and the Goblin," 1885, and "The Admiral's Caravan, ,"1892; and of “ The River Syndicate, and Other Stories," 1899.

CARRYL, Guy Wetmore, b. New York, N. Y., 1873. Son of Charles E. Carryl. He was educated at Columbia, and has taken liter ature as a profession. Engaged in various editorial duties until he became the Paris representative of Harper and Brothers. Author of many poems and other contributions to the periodicals, and of the unique "Fables for the Frivolous," 1898. (D. New York, N. Y., 1904.)

CARY, Alice, b. Miami Valley, near Cincinnati, O., 1820; d. New York, N. Y., 1871. She came to New York with her sister in 1852, where their weekly receptions were soon a feature of artistic and literary life. "Poems by Alice and Phoebe Cary" appeared in 1850, and was followed by Alice's Clovernook," two series of prose sketches-1851-53; “Lyra, and Other Poems," 1853; "Pictures of Country Life," 1859; "Ballads, Lyrics, and Hymns,' 1866, and "The Lover's Diary," 1867.

CARY, Phoebe, sister of Alice, b. 1824; d. 1871. Author of "Poems and Parodies; "Poems of Faith, Hope, and Love."

CAVAZZA, Elisabeth. - See E. J. Pullen

CAWEIN, Madison Julius, b. Louisville, Ky., 1865. Since the appearance of his first book, "Blooms of the Berry," 1887, Mr. Cawein has devoted himself to poetic composition more assiduously than any other American writer of standing. His maturer volumes are his best, and have been received with favor. They comprise "Red Leaves and Roses," 1893; "Poems of Nature and Love," 1893; "Intimations of the Beautiful," 1894; "The Garden of Dreams," 1896; "Idyllic Monologues," 1898; "Myth and Romance," 1899.

CHADWICK, John White, b. Marblehead, Mass., 1840. A graduate of the Harvard Divinity School. He is pastor of the Liberal Second Unitarian Society of Brooklyn, N. Y., and a justly noted preacher. Some of the best critical and biographical papers in "The Nation" have been from his pen. His sermons, appearing in successive series for many years, constitute a noble body of ethical literature. Author of "A Book of Poems," 1876; "Thomas Paine, the Method and Value of His Religious Teaching," 1877; "In Nazareth Town, a Christmas Fantasy, and Other Poems," 1883; "A Legend of Good Poets," 1885; "A Few Verses," 1900; and other scholarly works in prose. (D. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1904.)

CHAMBERS, Robert William, artist and novelist, b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1865. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. Returned to New York in 1893. His first novel, "In the Quarter," 1894, was followed by "The King in Yellow," 1895; "The Red Republic," 1895; "Ashes of Empire," 1899. "With the Band," 1896, is a collection of military poems.

CHANLER, Amélie (Rives).- See Princess Troubetskoy.

CHANNING, Grace Ellery. - See Mrs. Channing-Stetson.

CHANNING-STETSON, Grace Ellery, b. Providence, R. I., 186-. Daughter of Dr. William Francis Channing, the distinguished savant; and granddaughter of Channing, the divine. Since 1884 a resident of Southern California and at times of Italy. In 1894 she was married to the artist, Charles Walter Stetson, of Providence. Mrs. Stetson's published works are "Dr. Channing's Note Book," 1887; "The Sister of a Saint," 1895; "Sea Drift,' 1899; "The Fortune of a Day," 1900.


CHANNING, William Ellery, 2d, poet and essayist, b. Boston, Mass., 1818. Nephew of the great Unitarian divine. Studied at Harvard, but did not take a degree. Married a sister of Margaret Fuller Ossoli. Engaged in editorial work at New York City and New Bedford, Mass. Went to reside at Concord, Mass., in 1842. Author of "Poems," 1843 and 1847; "The Woodman," 1849; "Near Home," 1858; "The Wanderer," 1872; "Conversations in Rome," 1847; and "Thoreau: the PoetNaturalist" (prose), 1873. A true poet, though criticised by Poe as an exemplar of the transcendental school. (D. Concord, Mass., 1901.)

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CHENEY, John Vance, librarian, b. Groveland, N. Y., 1848. Son of the musician and author Simeon P. Cheney. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar, and practised law in New York City. In 1887 he took charge of the Free Public Library, San Francisco, Cal., and is now librarian of the Newberry Library, Chicago, Ill. He has written "The Old Doctor," prose, 1881; "ThistleDrift," poems, 1887; "Wood-Blooms," poems, 1888; The Golden Guess," essays, 1892; Ninette, a Redwoods Idyl," 1894; “ Queen Helen, and Other Poems," 1895, and That Dome in Air," essays, 1895; Out of the Silence, poems, 1897. Editor of "Wood Notes Wild," by Simeon Pease Cheney, 1892. Mr. Cheney's poem on p. 586 won the first prize in the competition for a rejoinder to Edwin Markham's The Man with the Hoe," 1900.

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CHILD, Lydia Maria (Francis), b. Medford, Mass., 1802; d. Wayland, Mass., 1880. Her first novel, "Hobomok," appeared in 1821. An Appeal for that Class of Americans called Africans," 1833, was the first Abolitionist volume published in the United States. With her husband, David L. Child, she edited the "National Anti-Slavery Standard" from 1840 to 1844. She published many works of fiction and general literature.

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CLARK, Willis Gaylord, journalist, b. Otisco, N. Y., 1810; d. Philadelphia, Penn., 1841. When about twenty years old engaged in newspaper work, and became owner and editor of "The Philadelphia Gazette.' contributor to his twin brother's "Knickerbocker Magazine," New York. After his death the brother, Lewis Gaylord Clark, edited his Literary Remains," 1844, and his complete poems, 1847.

CLARKE, Ednah Proctor.-See E. P. (C.) Hayes.

CLARKE, Joseph Ignatius Constantine, editor and playwright, b. Kingstown, Ireland, 1846. In 1868 he came to America, where he has since resided. Two years later he joined the editorial staff of the Ñ. Y. "Herald," and continued in its service until 1883, when he became managing editor of the N. Y. "Journal." Since 1898 Mr. Clarke has been the editor of theCriterion." Author of "Robert Emmet," a tragedy, 1888; "Malmorda, a Metrical Romance," 1893, and of various plays.

CLOUD, Virginia Woodward, b. Baltimore, Md., 186-. A favorite contributor to select periodicals.

CLYMER, Ella Maria (Dietz). - See E. M. D. Glynes.

COAN, Titus Munson, physician, b. Hilo, Hawaiian Islands, 1836; educated in Honolulu at the Royal and Punahou schools. He graduated at Williams College, 1859, and in medicine in New York City, at the College of Physicians

and Surgeons. Served as assistant surgeon in the U.S. army, and under Admiral Farragut in the West Gulf squadron, 1863-65. Subsequently took up literature as a profession. Established the New York Bureau of Revision in 1880. Author of many articles and poems in the magazines, and of" Ounces of Prevention," 1885.

COATES, Florence (Earle), b. Philadelphia, Penn., 185-. A granddaughter of Thomas Earle, the philanthropist. She received her education at the Convent of the Sacred Heart in Paris, and at Brussels. She was married, in 1879, to Edward H. Coates, president of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Mrs. Coates was elected president of the Browning Society of Philadelphia in 189-. Her "Poems were collected in 1898.

COCKE, Zitella, b. Perry Co., Ala., 186-. She is of English and Huguenot descent, and grew up on a plantation. Of late a resident of Boston, Mass. Her first literary ventures were translations from the French and German. Author of " A Doric Reed," 1895.

COLES, Abraham, LL. D., physician, b. Scotch Plains, N. J., 1813; d. Monterey, Cal., 1891. Graduated at Jefferson Med. Coll., Phila., 1835. He published "Dies Iræ, in Thirteen Original Versions," 1859; "Old Gems in New Settings," 1866; The Microcosm,' 1866; "Latin Hymns," 1868; "The Evangel of Verse," 1874; "The Light of the World,' 1884. Cp. "Poets of America," p. 300.


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COLLYER, Robert, clergyman, b. Keighley, Yorkshire, England, 1823. He learned the blacksmith's trade, and in 1850 came to America. For some years, without abandoning his trade, he had followed the calling of a Methodist minister, but in 1859 he founded a Unitarian church in Chicago. In 1879 he became pastor of the Church of the Messiah in New York, and finally pastor emeritus. The beautiful ballad "Under the Snow" is perhaps his best-known poem.

COLLYER, Thomas Stephens, b. New York, N. Y., 1842; d. New London, Conn., 1893. He served in the U. S. navy during the Civil War; became boatswain, 1866, and was placed on the retired list in 1883; after which he made his home in New London, Conn. He wrote "Song Spray," poems, 1889.

COLTON, Arthur Willis, b. Washington, Conn., 1868. Graduated at Yale, where he received the degree of Ph. D. in 1893, and taught English in the academic department for two years. A resident of his native town, and a contributor to the magazines.

CONE, Helen Gray, educator, b. New York, N. Y., 1859. Graduated at the Normal College of New York, where she was appointed instructor in English literature. Two volumes of her poems have appeared: "Oberon and Puck: Verses Grave and Gay," 1885; "The Ride to the Lady, and Other Poems," 1891. Miss Cone assisted Miss Jeannette L. Gilder in editing "Pen Portraits of Literary Women."

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COOKE, John Esten, b. Winchester, Va., 1830; d. near Boyce, Va., 1886. Brother of Philip Pendleton Cooke. He gave up the practice of law for literary work. His best-known tale, "The Virginian Comedians," 1854, was followed by other Virginian romances of colonial life, or relating to the Civil War, in which he served as a Confederate soldier. He wrote a life of Stonewall Jackson, 1863, and of Robert E. Lee, 1871; “Virginia, a History of the People," 1883, and numerous poems.

COOKE, Philip Pendleton, lawyer, b. Martinsburg, Va., 1816; d. near Boyce, Va., 1850. Entered Princeton at the age of fifteen, where he was specially distinguished for his love of outdoor sports. Wrote for the "Knickerbocker Magazine," when seventeen years old. Was admitted to the bar at Winchester, Va. His best-known lyric is "Florence Vane." Author of "Froissart Ballads, and Other Poems," 1847.

COOKE, Rose (Terry), b. West Hartford, Conn., 17 Feb., 1827; d. Pittsfield, Mass., 18 July, 1892. She lived at Hartford during the first half of her life, where she attended the Hartford Female Seminary. After her marriage to Rollin H. Cooke, in 1873, her home was at Winsted, in the same State. Her last years were spent in Pittsfield, Mass. "Poems by Rose Terry," 1860, attracted general attention to her literary talent, and she also gained reputation as a writer of notable short stories of New Eng land life. The latter were published in four volumes. "Poems," a collective edition, appeared in 1888.

COOLBRITH, Ina Donna, b. near Springfield, Ill., 184-. After a long residence in Los Angeles she removed to San Francisco, and in 1874 became librarian of the Oakland free library. She is a frequent contributor to magazines, and has published "A Perfect Day, and Other Poems," 1881, and "Songs of the Golden Gate," 1895. The last-named collection has met with just praise at home and abroad.

"COOLIDGE, Susan."-See Sarah Chauncey Woolsey.

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