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medicine in Newark, N. J., and he represented his district in the U. S. House of Representatives, 1891-95. The controversy of this literary veteran with Edgar Allan Poe is well remembered, but more recently Dr. English did generously by Poe's memory in contributions to the press. His popular ballad," Ben Bolt," appeared in the New Mirror," 1843. Among his books are "American Ballads," 1882; The Boy's Book of Battle Lyrics," 1885; Jacob Schuyler's Millions," novel, 1886; Fairy Stories and Wonder Tales," 1897. His "Select Poems," edited by his daughter, were published, 1894. D. Newark, N. J., 1 April, 1902.

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ERSKINE, John, Columbia University, Class of 1900.

FABBRI, Cora Randall, b. New York, N. Y., 1871; d. San Remo, Italy, 1892. Daughter of Ernesto G. Fabbri, Florence, and of Sara Randall, New York. The tender verses of this young girl, upon whom many fair hopes centred, are in a volume of "Lyrics," 1892, published just before her death.

FATHER EDMUND of the Heart of Mary, C. P.-See Benjamin Dionysius Hill.

FENOLLOSA, Ernest Francisco, educator and art connoisseur, b. Salem, Mass., 1853. Graduated at Harvard. In 1878 was appointed professor of political economy at the Imperial University in Tokio, Japan, and also began his studies of Japanese art. He was made imperial commissioner of fine arts, 1886, and has held similar positions in the United States. Is now professor of English and English literature in the Higher Normal School of Tokio, and is making a special study of Chinese and Japanese poetry.- East and West," poems, 1893.

FENOLLOSA, Mary (McNeil), (Mary McNeil Scott), b. Mobile, Ala., 18-. Wife of E. F. Fenollosa. Author of Out of the Nest: A Flight of Verses," 1899. Her charming stories and poems, since her brief sojourn, 1890, in the province of Satsuma, have related mostly to Japanese themes.

FIELD, Eugene, journalist, b. St. Louis, Mo., 3 Sept., 1850; d. Buena Park, Chicago, Ill., 4 Nov., 1895. He received his schooling at Amherst, Mass., and later at Williams and Knox Colleges and the University of Missouri. In 1873 he began newspaper work at St. Louis, which he continued in St. Joseph, Kansas City, and Denver until 1883, when he was called by Melville E. Stone to the Chicago" Daily News." with which paper he was connected until his death. His Denver Tribune Primer" peared in 1882. Soon after his arrival in Chicago, he began the composition of more serious work in prose and verse than the light contributions which had secured him recognition. Material of both kinds is found in "Culture's Garland," published in 1887. It was followed by "A Little Book of Western Verse," 189; A Little Book of Profitable Tales," 1889; "With Trumpet and Drum," poems about children, 1892; Second Book of Verse," 1893;


"Echoes from the Sabine Farm," with Roswell M. Field, 1893; "The Holy Cross and Other Tales," 1893; and "Love Songs of Childhood," 1894. "The Love Affairs of a Biblioma niac," "The House," "Songs and Other Verse," and "Second Book of Tales" (posthumous volumes) were included in the complete edition of "Works of Eugene Field," published in 1896. This rare and original minstrel of the West was the Yorick of American poetry, childhood's born laureate, and no less a scholar by nature than a man of infinite humor, and of inimitable, if sometimes too eccentric, jest.

FIELDS, Annie (Adams), b. Boston, Mass., 1834. She attended George B. Emerson's school in Boston. She was married to Mr. James T. Fields, 1854, and has published: "Under the Olive," poems, 1880; ** How to Help the Poor," 1883; The Singing Shepherd, and Other Poems," 1895; Authors and Friends," 1896; "A Shelf of Old Books," 1896. She has also written biographies of Whittier, Harriet Beecher Stowe, and James T. Fields.


FIELDS, James Thomas, publisher, b. Portsmouth, N. H., 31 Dec., 1816; d. Boston, Mass., 24 April, 1881. His father was a shipmaster, and died when James was four years old. The latter graduated at the Portsmouth High School at thirteen, and the next year obtained a clerkship in the bookstore of Carter & Hendee at Boston. In 1832, William D. Ticknor bought the business, and Fields remained with him, becoming a partner in 1845, when the firm was reorganized. In 1854 the house assumed the afterward famous name of Ticknor & Fields, associated with the publication of the works of Emerson, Hawthorne, Longfellow, Whittier, Lowell, Holmes, and the remainder of the great Boston group of authors. Of all of these, Mr. Fields, himself an author of repute, and a still better editor, was the personal associate and adviser. He took the editorship of "The Atlantic Monthly," on Mr. Lowell's retirement in 1861, and held it until his own retirement from the publishing house, then Fields, Osgood, & Co., on Jan. 1, 1871. After his retirement from business, Mr. Fields became a favorite lecturer upon literary subjects. He married Miss Annie Adams, 1854. (See Annie Fields.) He published: "Poems," 1849; "A Few Verses for a Few Friends," 1858; "Yesterdays with Authors," 1871 (20th edition, 1881); "Hawthorne," 1876; "In and Out of Doors with Charles Dickens," 1876; "Underbrush," 1877; "Ballads and Other Verses," 1880.

FINCH, Francis Miles, jurist, b. Ithaca, N. Y., 1827. Graduated at Yale, 1849. Was the Class Poet and delivered a memorable Class Poem. He practised law at Ithaca until 1881, when he was elected a justice of the N. Y. Court of Appeals. From 1892 he was dean of the law school of Cornell University. The Blue and the Gray," which appeared in "The Atlantic Monthly for 1867, has become a national classic. (D. 1907.)

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FLASH, Henry Lynden, b. Cincinnati, O., 1835. Graduated at the Western Military Institute of Kentucky. He was an officer in the Confederate army, and after the war made his home in New Orleans until 1886, when he removed to Los Angeles, Cal. Besides his **Poems," 1860, he wrote several pieces popular in war-time.

FLEMING, Maybury, journalist, b. Boston, Mass., 1853. Was educated at the University of New York, and afterwards joined the editorial staff of the N. Y. "Mail and Express." A contributor to the magazines.

FOOTE, General Lucius Harwood, b. Winfield, N. Y., 1826. His father, a Congregational clergyman, made his home in Ohio and later in Rockford, Ill. The son was educated at Adelbert College, Cleveland, O. In 1861 President Lincoln appointed him collector of the port of Sacramento. He has also been adjutant-general of California; U. S. consul at Valparaiso, Chile; and U. S. minister to Corea. Author of "A Red Letter Day, and Other Poems," 1882; "On the Heights," 1897.

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FOSTER, Stephen Collins, composer, b. Pittsburg, Penn., 1826; d. New York, N. Y., 1864. He was the earliest and chief member of the school of composers of that idealized negro melody which characterizes a fourth of the 125 or more songs, for which he wrote both music and words. His "Old Folks at Home was written before he was twenty and was published in 1850. Other well-known pieces are The Suwanee River," "My Old Kentucky Home," Nellie Bly," etc.

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"FOXTON, E."-See Sarah Hammond Palfrey.

FRENEAU, Philip, mariner, journalist, and patriot, b. New York, N. Y., 1752; d. near Monmouth, N. J., 1832. The true pioneer of our national poets, and the first to display a notable though irregular lyrical gift. Freneau and Hugh Brackenridge, while students at Princeton, wrote, and delivered at their graduation, in 1771, a metrical dialogue, “The Rising Glory of America." During the Revolu

tionary War, Freneau's pen was most active and satirical. Between 1770 and 1790 he made many sea-voyages to the West Indies and other ports, often in command of mercantile vessels.

The British Prison-Ship," in four cantos, records the capture, in 1780, of a vessel in which he and all on board were taken prisoners. Many of his poems were published in "The Freeman's Journal," with which he was connected in Philadelphia. He edited the "Daily Advertiser," New York, 1790; and the "National Gazette," Philadelphia, 1791. After an interval of sea-life, he made, in 1812, his permanent home in New Jersey. Author of

Poems of Philip Freneau, Written chiefly dur ing the Late War," 1786; Poems Written between the Years 1788 and 1794," 1795; "Poems Written and Published during the American Revolutionary War," 1809; and "A Collection of Poems on American Affairs," 1815. The edition of 1795 came from the author's own press at Monmouth, N. J. Cp. "Poets of America," pp. 35, 36.

FROTHINGHAM, Nathaniel Langdon, clergyman, b. Boston, Mass., 1793; d. there, 1870. A graduate of Harvard. He was pastor of a Unitarian church at Boston from 1815 to 1850. Besides various theological writings, he was the author of "Metrical Pieces," 1855 and 1870. His poem, "The Crossed Swords," was written on seeing the swords of Col. Prescott and Capt. Linzee, now crossed through a carved wreath of olive leaves, in the hall of the Massachusetts Historical Society."

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FULLER, Margaret Witter, b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 187-. Daughter of James Ebenezer Fuller, of Norwich, Conn., in which city she has resided since her childhood.

FURNESS, William Henry, clergyman, b. Boston, Mass., 1802; d. Philadelphia, Penn., 1896. He was a graduate of Harvard and of the Harvard Theological school, and in 1825 became pastor of the Unitarian church in Philadelphia. He wrote many theological works. His Verses: Translations and Hymns," was issued in 1886. His son, Horace Howard Furness, is the most eminent Shakespearean scholar living, and editor of the Variorum Edition of Shakespeare's plays.

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GALLAGHER, William Davis, b. Philadelphia, Penn., 1808; d. Louisville, Ky., 1894. Associate editor Cincinnati "Gazette" and Louisville "Courier." Delegate to the convention of 1860 that nominated Lincoln. Private secretary to Thomas Corwin and to S. P. Chase. President Ohio Historical Society. He strove to diffuse a taste for letters, and compiled the earliest anthology of Western poetry: "Selections from the Poetical Literature of the West," Cincinnati, 1840. His "Erato," poems, appeared in 1835-37; his “ Miami Woods, A Golden Wedding, and Other Poems," in 1881.

GARDNER, William Henry, song-writer, b. Boston, Mass., 1865. Has devoted himself

chiefly to verse-writing for music. His lyrics have been interpreted by both American and English composers. Author of "Work and Play Songs," 1899.

GARLAND, Hamlin, novelist, b. West Salem, Wis., 1860. Graduated at Cedar Valley Seminary, Osage, Ia. Taught school in Illinois, 1882-83, and preempted a claim in Dakota, 1883, but in the following year removed to Boston, Mass., where he devoted himself to study and literary work, at the same time teaching in the School of Oratory. Has resided in Chicago and West Salem since 1891, with the exception of trips northwest, and to the East and Europe, in connection with his literary and historical researches. He has published "Prairie Songs," 1893; Crumbling Idols," essays, 1894; Ulysses Grant: an Interpretation," 1898; "The Trail of the Gold-Seekers," 1899. Mr. Garland's books of fiction include "MainTravelled Roads," 1890; "A Little Norsk," 1891; A Spoil of Office," 1892; "Rose of Dutcher's Coolly," 1895.


GARRISON, Wendell Phillips, b. Cambridgeport, Mass., 1840; d. Orange, N. J., 1907. Graduated at Harvard. A son of William Lloyd Garrison, and literary editor of the New York "Nation" from its foundation in 1865 till 1906. Among other works, he published, in collaboration with his brother, Francis J. Garrison, "William Lloyd Garrison: The Story of His Life, Told by His Children,' "four volumes, 1885-89. An exquisite private edition of his "Sonnets and Lyrics of the Ever-Womanly," printed in 1898, contains "The Post-Meridian" sonnets. The book itself was examined by the editor of this anthology too late for the insertion, heretofore, of the following beautiful



Here was the ancient strand, the utmost reach,
Of the great Northern ice-wave; hitherto
With its last pulse it mounted, then withdrew,
Leaving its fringe of wreckage on the beach:
Boulder and pebble and sand-matrix - each
From crag or valley ravished; scanty clue
To its old site affording in its new,
Yet real, as the men of science teach.
Life hath not less its terminal moraine:
Look how on that discharged from melting snows
Another rears itself, the spoil of plain
And mountain also, marked by stones in rows,
With legend meet for such promiscuous pain:
Here rests - Hier ruhet, or Ici repose.

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His "Sonnets and Poems," chiefly devoted to freedom, appeared in 1843.

GEORGE, Margaret Gilman. See M. G. Davidson.

GILDER, Joseph B., journalist, b. Flushing, N. Y., 1858. Brother of Richard Watson Gilder. Entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., 1872, but resigned two years later. Engaged in journalism until 1881, when, with his sister, Miss Jeannette L. Gilder, he organized "The Critic," and with her has edited it ever since. Mr. Gilder is also the editor of the life and speeches of Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, and of an edition of Lowell's "Impressions of Spain."

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GILDER, Richard Watson, editor and reformer, b. Bordentown, N. J., 8 Feb., 1844. He studied at Bellevue Seminary, the college founded in Bordentown by his father, Rev. William H. Gilder. During the Confederate invasion of Pennsylvania he served in Landis's Philadelphia Battery. His father's death put an end to his law studies, and he joined the staff of the Newark, N. J., "Daily Advertiser," 1864. In 1868 he established and edited with Newton Crane the Newark Morning Register," and afterwards was editor of the New York Hours at Home." Was associate editor of "Scribner's Monthly" (afterwards "The Century") from its foundation in 1870; and on the death of Dr. J. G. Holland, 1881, became editor-in-chief. His volume of poems, "The New Day," 1875, was followed by several others afterwards included in "Lyrics, and Other Poems," 1885; "Two Worlds, and Other Poems, 1891; The Great Remembrance, and Other Poems," 1893; "Five Books of Song," complete to date, 1894; "For the Country, poems, 1897; "In Palestine, and Other Poems," 1898. For some years past, Mr. Gilder, always a sincere humanitarian, has been prominent in social and political reform, and especially successful as chairman of the Commission for the Inspection and Betterment of the Tenement House System in New York City. He gave effective aid to the cause of International Copyright. The Authors Club was founded at his home. He is married to the artist, Helena De Kay, sister of Charles De Kay, and granddaughter of Joseph Rodman Drake. His influence has been propitious in many directions taken by our literary and artistic movements of recent years. From the first, the growth and excellence of the "Century Magazine" have been largely due to Mr. Gilder's editorial sense, tact, and unenvious appreciation. His poetry is of a pure cast, finished in the extreme, and often notably lyrical. Cp. "Poets of America," P. 442. His complete Poems appeared in 1908.

GILLESPY, Jeannette Bliss, Barnard College, Class of 1900.

GLYNDON, Howard. - See L. R. Searing. GLYNES, Ella Maria (Dietz), b. New York, N. Y., 185-. She made her début as an

actress in New York, 1872, but played chiefly in England for some years. In 1881 ill-health compelled her to leave the stage. Her first husband was Edward Clymer, a merchant. In 1899 she was married in London to Webster Glynes, barrister. Mrs. Glynes was a founder of the Sorosis Society and its fifth president. She also helped to form the Church and Stage Guild, 1880. Author of "The Triumph of Love," 1878; "The Triumph of Time," 1884; The Triumph of Life," 1885.

GOETZ, Philip Becker, Harvard University, Class of 1893.

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GORDON, Armistead Churchill, b. Albemarle Co., Va., 1855. A graduate of the Virginia University, founded by his grandfather, General W. F. Gordon. While in college he contributed to the New York magazines, and in 180 published, with Thomas Nelson Page, "Befo' de War," poems. This was followed by Echoes in Negro Dialect," 1888, and "For Truth and Freedom," 1898. Mr. Gordon is a lawyer and ex-mayor of Staunton, Va.

GOULD, Hannah Flagg, b. Lancaster, Mass., 1789; d. Newburyport, Mass., 1865. She was a sister of Benjamin Apthorp Gould, the classical scholar, and resided at Newburyport for the greater part of her life. Her three volumes of "Poems appeared in 1832, 1836, and


GOURAUD, George Fauvel, lawyer, b. New York, N. Y., 1872. Studied at Harrow, England, and the Polytechnicum, Hanover, Germany. Graduated at the Yale Law School, and was admitted to the New York bar, 1896. -"Ballads of Coster-Land," 1897.

GRAY, David, b. Edinburgh, Scotland, 1836; d. Binghamton, 1888. In 1856 he joined the staff of the Buffalo, N. Y., "Courier," of which he afterward became editor, resigning on account of ill-health. His Letters, Prose Writings, Poems, etc., were edited by J. N. Larned in 1888.

GREENE, Albert Gorton, lawyer, b. Pro

vidence, R. I., 1802; d. Cleveland, O., 1868. Graduated at Brown University. Was for twenty-five years clerk of the Municipal Court at Providence, and its judge 1858-67. The original school bill of Rhode Island was drafted by his hand. He was conspicuous in the founding of the Providence Athenæum. For fourteen years president of the Rhode Island Historical Society. His poems have never been published in a collected form. Judge Greene was the founder of the "Harris Collection of American Poetry," bequeathed to Brown University by the late Senator Anthony. The editor of the present Anthology has frequently profited by the resources of this collection.

GREENE, Homer, lawyer, b. Ariel, Penn., 1853. A graduate of Union College, and now a resident of Honesdale, Penn., where he has practised law since 1879. Author of several books of fiction and of occasional poems. His winsome and melodious ballad, "What my Lover Said," fairly deserves its popularity.

GREENE, Sarah Pratt (McLean), b. Simsbury, Conn., 1858. Educated at Mt. Holyoke, Mass. Taught school near Plymouth, Mass., where she obtained the material for her "Cape Cod-Folks,' 1881. She was married to F. L. Greene, and removed to the West. Since his death she has resided in New England. Among her books are " Towhead," 1884, containing her best-known poem, "De Sheepfol';" "Last chance Junction," 1889.

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GRISSOM, Arthur, b. Payson, Ill., 1869. Well-known as editor of "Spirit," and a member of Mr. Munsey's staff. He was interested in the Kansas City Independent," and he was editor of The Smart Set." He published a volume of society verse entitled "Beaux and Belles," 1896. D. New York, N. Y., 1901.

"GROOT, Cecil de."-See Wallace Rice. GUINEY, Louise Imogen, b. Boston, Mass., 1861. Daughter of the late Gen. Patrick Robert Guiney. She graduated from Elmhurst Academy, Providence, R. I., and since has resided chiefly in and near Boston, engaged in literary pursuits. Her works include "Songs at the Start," 1884; "Goose Quill Papers,' 1885; "The White Sail," 1887; Monsieur Brownies and Bogies," 1888;

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HALE, Edward Everett, clergyman and author, b. Boston, Mass., 3 April, 1822. Dr. Hale has been identified with humanitarian projects for over half a century, and his influence as pastor, writer, and philanthropist will long be felt. His patriotic tale, "The Man Without a Country," the best short story of its time, is enough for one author's fame. The poem which represents him in this collection is a vivid expression of his striking personality, and of university traditions in which his record and bearing are an essential part. In addition to his prose works, Dr. Hale has published a volume of poems under the title of "For Fifty Years."

HALE, Sarah Josepha (Buell), b. Newport, N. H., 1788; d. Philadelphia, Penn., 1879. Editor of the "Ladies' Magazine at Boston, 1828-37, and of "Godey's Ladies' Book" until 1877. An early advocate of the higher education of women. It is said that the celebration

of Thanksgiving as a national festival was largely due to her influence. Her first publication was "Genius of Oblivion, and Other Original Poems," 1828. Her literary reputation rests upon the collection "Three Hours, or the Vigil of Love, and Other Poems."

HALL, Gertrude, b. Boston, Mass., 186-. She was educated in Italy. Her first volume, "Verses," appeared in 1890, and was followed by" Allegretto," 1894, and The Age of Fairy Gold," 1899. She has also written several books of short stories, and has made translations from Paul Verlaine, and one of Rostand's "Cyrano de Bergerac."

HALLECK, Fitz-Greene, b. Guilford, Conn., 8 July, 1790; d. there, 19 Nov., 1867. He was of Puritan and Pilgrim descent, and counted John Eliot, the apostle to the Indians, among his ancestors. Educated at the schools of his native town, he took a position as a clerk in the store of his relative, Andrew Eliot, of Guilford, when fifteen years old. Six years later, in 1811, he came to New York, and obtained a place in the banking house of Jacob Barker, with whom he remained until 1832. From 1832 to 1849 he was employed as an accountant by John Jacob Astor, receiving a pension on the latter's death, and retiring to Guilford, where the remainder of his life was passed. His friendship with Joseph Rodman Drake resulted in their series of satirical "Croaker" papers, published anonymously in the New York "Evening Post" in 1819 (see Drake, J. R.). The reputation gained by this work was further enhanced by the appearance of Halleck's poem "Fanny" in the same year, a travesty of the manners of the time. His bestknown poem, Marco Bozzaris," was printed by Bryant in the "New York Review," in 1825. Alnwick Castle, with Other Poems," his first volume, came out in 1827. The collective edition of his "Poetical Writings," 1869, and "The Life and Letters of Fitz-Greene Halleck," 1869, were prepared by General James Grant Wilson.

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HALPINE, Charles Graham, O'Reilly," b. Oldcastle, County Meath, Ireland 1829; d. New York, N. Y., 1868. He was graduated at the University of Dublin, and came to America about 1851. He joined the staff of the Boston "Post," and in 1857 became editor of the New York "Leader." Enlisting early in the Union army, he rose to the rank of brig adier-general of volunteers. After the war. in 1864, he returned to newspaper life and politics in New York. His "Life and Adventures, Songs, etc., of Private Miles O'Reilly," 1864, and Baked Meats of the Funeral," 1866, first appeared as papers in the New York "Herald.” The Poetical Works of Charles G. Halpine," . 1869, was a posthumous volume.

HANSBROUGH, Mary Berri (Chapman). b. Washington, D. C., 187-. A writer of prose and verse. She was married in 1897 to Henry Clay Hansbrough, senator from North Dakota. Her volume "Lyrics of Love and Nature' appeared in 1895.

HARDY, Arthur Sherburne, novelist and mathematician, b. Andover, Mass., 13 Aug., 1847. Graduated at West Point, and was made 2d lieutenant in the 3d artillery regiment, U. S. A., 1869. He resigned from the army the following year, and after a period of travel and study abroad was appointed professor of civil engineering at Iowa College. From 1878 to 1893 he was professor of mathematics at Dartmouth. After a brief connection with the Cosmopolitan " magazine, Mr. Hardy was made minister to Persia in 1897, and two years later was transferred to the ministry at Athens. Author of "Francesca of Rimini," poem, 1878; "But yet a Woman," 1883; "The Wind of Destiny," 1886; "Passe Rose," 1889; “Life and Letters of Joseph Hardy Neesima," 1891.

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HARNEY, Will Wallace, b. Bloomington, Ind., 1831. He studied at Louisville College and taught in the Kentucky State Normal School. He succeeded his father as editor of the Louisville "Democrat" in 1869, but soon removed to an orange grove in Florida. His contributions to different periodicals have not been collected.

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HARRIS, Joel Chandler, b. Eatonton, Ga 9 Dec., 1848. He learned the printer's trade in the office of the Georgia Countryman, and his early compositions appeared in that paper. In 1890 he became editor of the Atlanta Constitution," in which journal he had first published his Uncle Remus, His Songs and His Sayings," 1880, now a veritable classic. His works include "Nights with Uncle Remus," 1882; Mingo, and Other Sketches," 1884; Daddy Jake the Runaway," 1889; a biography of Henry W. Grady, 1890; “Balaam and his Master," 1891; "Little Mr. Thimble finger and his Queer Country." 1894; "Aaron in the Wildwoods," 1897; Tales of the Home Folks in Peace and War," 1898; Georgia from the Invasion of De Soto to Recent Times," 1899.

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