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years in legal practice and in mercantile pursuits before he began his literary career. Randolph " and Seventy-Six," the most notable of his fiction, followed the production of several novels, some poems, and some historcial work. In 1824 he went abroad, where, under the guise of an Englishman, he appeared in "Blackwood's Magazine" and other British quarterlies, to correct prevailing opinion of social and political conditions in the United States. He is said to have been one of the first Americans to write on American topics in England, an originator of the woman's suffrage movement, among the first to establish a gymnasium in this country, and one of the earliest to encourage Poe's talents. "Wandering Recollections of a Somewhat Busy Life," 1869, was his last volume.

NEGRO SPIRITUALS.—The editor has thought it well to represent the most characteristic folk-songs which this country has produced by a few of those "universal

among

the colored population of the Southern States. They have the tunes and words, the essential melody and import that constitute original "themes." The text is chiefly that adopted for Stedman and Hutchinson's Library of American Literature" from the collection edited by W. F. Allen, E. P. Ware, and Lucy McKim Garrison, 1867, and from the Hampton "Cabin and Plantation Songs" arranged by T. P. Fenner, 1875. Colonel Higginson's article entitled Negro Spirituals can be found in the "Atlantic Monthly," 1867.

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NESMITH, James Ernest, artist, b. Mass., 1856; d. 1898. Mr. Nesmith resided in Lowell, Mass., and published "Monadnoc, and Other Sketches in Verse," 1888; "Philoctetes, and Other Poems and Sonnets," 1894. His poetry is refined and scholarly, with a thoughtful undertone, the second collection containing some vigorous" Later Sonnets.'

NEWELL, Robert Henry, "Orpheus C. Kerr," b. New York, N. Y., 1836. He was on the staff of the N. Y." Mercury," 1858-62, and of the N. Y. "World," 1869-74. Edited "Hearth and Home," 1874-76, and published "The Orpheus C. Kerr Papers," a famous satirical series during and after the Civil War, 1862-68; "The Palace Beautiful, and Other Poems," 1865; The Cloven Foot," story, 1870; several other romances, and Studies in Stanzas," 1882. A resident of Brooklyn, N. Y., where he died 1901.

NORTON, Andrews, Unitarian clergyman, b. Hingham, Mass., 1786; d. Newport, R. I., 1853. He was graduated at Harvard, and was professor of sacred literature in that institution from 1819 to 1830. Besides numerous theological works, he was the author of several cherished hymns and of other poems.

O'BRIEN, Fitz-James, b. Limerick, Ireland, 1828; d. Cumberland, Md., 1862. Was educated at Dublin University, came to America in 1852, and lived in New York City till

1861, when he enlisted in the United States army; a year later he was fatally wounded. The facts that his literary career was chiefly in America, and that he gave his life for this country, eminently warrant his representation here. He was a frequent contributor to "Harper's Magazine." His story "The Diamond Lens" appeared in an early number of "The Atlantic Monthly." His most successful play was "A Gentleman from Ireland," produced at Wallack's Theatre. The Poems and Stories of Fitz-James O'Brien; Edited, with a Sketch of the Author, by William Winter," appeared in 1881; and a collection of his stories in 1887.

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O'CONNOR, Joseph, journalist, b. Tribes Hill, N. Y., 1841. Graduated at the University of Rochester. Entered journalism in 1870, and became editor of the Rochester" Post-Express" in 1886. His "Poems were published in 1895.

O'CONNOR, Michael, brother of the preceding, b. Eastchester, N. Y., 1837; d. Potomac Station, Va., 28 Dec., 1862. Sergeant of volunteers in the Civil War.

O'HARA, Theodore, soldier, b. Danville, Ky., 1820; d. near Guerryton, Ala., 1867. He served in the U. S. army during the Mexican War, and in the Confederate army during the Civil War, and at one time practised law in Washington. His oft-quoted poem, "The Bivouac of the Dead,' commemorates the Kentuckians who fell at Buena Vista.

O'REILLY, John Boyle, b. Dowth Castle, Co. Meath, Ireland, 28 June, 1844; d. Hull, Mass., 10 Aug., 1890. Son of the master of Nettleville Institute at Dowth Castle. He did some journalistic work in Drogheda, near his birthplace, but was sent to England as an agent of the Fenian society. He was arrested and condemned to death, but his sentence was commuted, and he was sent to Australia. After a year of penal servitude he escaped in a boat, was rescued by an American whaler, and landed at Philadelphia, Penn., 1869. He became editor and joint owner of the Boston "Pilot," and published "Songs of the Southern Seas," 1873; 'Songs, Legends, and Ballads," 1878; Moondyne," novel, 1879; "Statues in the Block," poems, 1881; "In Bohemia," 1886; The Ethics of Boxing," 1888; "Stories and Sketches," 1888. At the time of his death he was preparing a work on Ireland. In 1896 a statue of Mr. O'Reilly by Daniel French was unveiled in Boston. Below the statue, which is fourteen feet tall, is a group of symbolic fig

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"O'REILLY, Miles." - See Charles Graham Halpine.

OSBORNE, (Samuel) Duffield, novelist, b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1858. He graduated from Columbia College, taking the degrees of A. B. in 1879, LL. B. in 1881, and A. M. in 1882. Has con

tributed extensively to magazines. His books, The Spell of Ashtaroth," 1888, and "The Robe of Nessus," 1890, are historical romances.

OSGOOD, Frances Sargent (Locke), b. Boston, Mass., 1811; d. Hingham, Mass., 1850. When a child she contributed verses to Lydia Maria Child's "Juvenile Miscellany." In 1834

the artist S. S. Osgood won her heart while painting her portrait. Soon after their marriage they went to London, and while there she published "A Wreath of Wild Flowers from New England," poems. Her play," The Happy Release, or the Triumphs of Love," written at Sheridan Knowles's request, was accepted but never produced. During a residence in New York she formed a friendship with Poe, and her influence over him lasted till his death. Her "Poetry of Flowers" appeared in 1841, her "Poems," 1846, and "The Floral Offering," 1847.

OSGOOD, Kate Putnam, b. Fryeburg, Me., 1841. Sister of the late publisher, James R. Osgood. She has spent a number of years in Europe, and lives in Boston, Mass. Her poem "Driving Home the Cows" appeared in Harper's Monthly," 1865.

PAGE, Thomas Nelson, b. Oakland, Va., 23 Apr., 1853. He was educated at the Washington and Lee University, and graduated in law at the University of Virginia. Practised law at Richmond from 1875 to 1893, when he removed to Washington, D. C. Some of this leading Southern novelist's books of fiction are In Ole Virginia," 1887; "Two Little Confederates." 1888; On New-found River," 1891; "Red Rock." 1899. He has also published "The Old South Essays, Social and Political," 1892; and, with A. C. Gordon, "Befo' de War," verse, 1888.

PAINE, Albert Bigelow, b. New Bedford, Mass., 1861. Early removed to Illinois, where he was educated in the public schools. Engaged in business in the West until the success of his contributions of fiction and verse led him to make his home in New York. Joined the staff of "St. Nicholas," 1899. Author of Rhymes by Two Friends," with W. A. White, 1893; "The Arkansaw Bear," fiction, 1898; The Bread Line," fiction, 1900; etc.

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with the "Century Dictionary." His ballad "Stonewall Jackson's Way' was written at Oakland, Md., on the 17 Sept., 1862, while the battle of Antietem was in progress. Collected poems are published in "For Charlie's Sake, and Other Ballads and Lyrics," 1901. (D. 1906.)

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PALMER, Ray, Cong, clergyman, b. Little Compton, R. I., 1808; d. Newark, N. J., 1887. Pastor at Bath, Me., and Albany, N. Y. His hymn My Faith Looks up to Thee" has been translated into twenty languages. He published several volumes of hymns. His complete poetical works appeared in 1876.

PARADISE, Caroline Wilder (Fellowes), b. East Orange, N. J., 186-. She was married, in 1890, to the Rev. Frank Ilsey Paradise, of Boston, Mass. Her poetry is uncollected.

The

PARKER, Theodore, the eminent Unitarian clergyman and abolitionist, b. Lexington, Mass., 1810; d. Florence, Italy, 1860. poem "Jesus," given in the Anthology, is taken from his lecture, "Mistakes about Jesus." His complete works, edited by Frances Power Cobbe, appeared in London, 1863-65, and a Boston edition in 1870. Among his biographers are Weiss and Frothingham.

PARSONS, Thomas William, b. Boston, Mass., 18 Aug., 1819; d. Scituate, Mass., 3 Sept., 1892. He received his education at the Boston Latin School and at home. Visited Europe in 1836, and pursued in Italy the studies which culminated in his metrical translation of the first ten cantos of Dante's "Inferno," 1843, reissued in extended form in 1967 and 1893. He studied dentistry, and practised in Boston and London, residing in the former city after 1872. Dr. Parsons's noble lyric "Lines on a Bust of Dante first appeared in the Boston " Advertiser and Patriot," 1841. His books of original poetry are "The Magnolia, and Other Poems," 1867; "The Old House at Sudbury," 1870; "The Shadow of the Obelisk, and Other Poems," 1872; and " Poems," definitive edition, 1893. Cp. Poets of America," p. 55.

"PAUL, John.” Webb.

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See Charles Henry

PAULDING, James Kirke, early novelist, b. Pleasant Valley, N. Y., 1779; d. Hyde Park, N. Y., 1860. Associated with Washington and William Irving in the publication of "Salmagundi," 1807-08. Secretary of the navy under President Van Buren, 1837-41. His works, chiefly fiction, include "The Diverting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan," 1812; "The Backwoodsman," a poem, 1818; “Königsmarke," 1823; "The Dutchman's Fireside," 1831; "The Puritan and His Daughter," 1849; "Letters on Slavery," 1835; "Life of George Washington,” 1854.

PAYNE, John Howard, matist, b. New York, N. Y., d. Tunis, Africa, 9 April, 1852. College, which he left for his

actor and dra9 June, 1791; Entered Union first appearance

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on the stage at New York in 1809. He had already gained attention as the editor of a juvenile paper, the "Thespian Mirror." Was successful as an actor in America and England. His best known plays are Brutus Charles II." The song "Home, Sweet Home" is contained in Payne's opera "Clari, the Maid of Milan," produced at Covent Garden Theatre in 1823. He was U. S. consul at Tunis from 1841 until his death. In 1883 his remains were removed, under the supervision of John Worthington, U. S. consul at Malta, and at the expense of W. W. Corcoran, to Washington, D. C., and were interred in the Oak Hill Cemetery.

PAYNE, William Morton, educator and critic, b. Newburyport, Mass., 1858. He assisted Dr. Poole in the Chicago Public Library, 1874-76, and since 1876 has been a professor in the high schools of that city. Became associate editor of "The Dial," 1892, and is its leading reviewer. Author of Our New Education," 1884; "Little Leaders," 1895; and translator of Norwegian classies. Mr. Payne is an authority upon modern Scandinavian literature, and prominent among American scholars and critics.

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PEABODY, Josephine Preston, b. New York, N. Y., 187-. Resident in Cambridge, Mass. Instructor in English Literature, Wellesley College, 1901-03. Author of "The Wayfarers," 1898; "Marlowe," 1901;"The Singing Leaves," etc. (In 1906 m. Lionel Marks.)

PEABODY, William Oliver Bourne, D. D., b. Exeter, N. H., 1799; d. Springfield, Mass., 1847. Graduated at Harvard. Pastor of the Unitarian Church at Springfield, 1820-47. Edited The Springfield Collection of Hymns," 1833; wrote the report on "Birds of the Commonwealth," 1839. A prominent contributor to the North American Review" and "* Christian Examiner." The selection from Dr. Peabody relates to a passage in which Thomas Hope's Anastasius laments the death of his child Alexander. His "Literary Remains " appeared in 1850. Dr. Peabody's twin brother, Oliver William Bourne Peabody, wrote an eloquent lyric," Hymn to the Stars," which may be found in "A Library of American Literature," vol. v.

PECK, Harry Thurston, L. H. D., educator and critic, b. Stamford, Conn., 1856. He graduated at Columbia, and afterward became professor of Latin in that university. Since 1895 he has been the American editor of The Bookman," and is also literary editor of the New York" Commercial Advertiser." Author of "The Semitic Theory of Creation," 1886 "Latin Pronunciation," 1890; The Personal Equation," essays, 1897; "What is Good English, and Other Essays, " 1899; "Greystone and Porphyry," verse, 1900. Editor of "The International Cyclopædia," 1892, and of classical text-books and reference works.

PECK, Samuel Minturn, b. Tuscaloosa,

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PELLEW, George, b. Cowes, Isle of Wight, England, 1859; d. New York, N. Y., 1892. He was a grandson of John Jay. Gradnated at Harvard, 1880, and at the Harvard law school, 1883. Although admitted to the bar, he devoted himself to literary work. A trip to Ireland resulted in his book "In Cabin and Castle," 1888, commended by John Morley. Also author of Women and the Commonwealth," 1888; "John Jay," in American Statesmen" series, 1890; Poems," edited by W. D. Howells, 1892.

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PERRY, Nora, b. Dudley, Mass., 183-; d. there, 1896. Her early life was passed in Providence, R. I. She was Boston correspondent of the Chicago Tribune," and later of the Providence "Journal." Among her writings are: After the Ball, and Other Poems," 1875; "Her Lover's Friend, and Other Poems," 1879; A Book of Love Stories," 1881; "For a Woman," novel, 1885; "New Songs and Ballads," 1886; Legends and Lyrics," 1890; and numerous stories for girls.

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PETERSON, Henry, publisher, b. Philadelphia, Penn., 1818; d. 1891. For twenty years assistant editor of the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post." He published "Poems," 1863 and 1883; "The Modern Job, and Other Poems," 1869; Faire-Mount," poem, 1874; Confessions of a Minister," 1874; Bessie's Lovers," 1877; "Cæsar, a Dramatic Study, 1879. His drama Helen, or 100 Years Ago," was produced in 1876. The "Ode for Decoration Day," from which an extract is given on pp. 180, 181, was one of the earliest poems of its class and is memorable for the line, Foes for a day and brothers for all time."

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PHELPS, Charles Henry, b. Stockton, Cal., 1853, but belongs to the distinguished Phelps family of Eastern Massachusetts. Educated at the University of California and the Harvard law school. He practised law in San Francisco, edited "The Californian" (afterwards "Overland Monthly "), 1880-82; and published "Californian Verses," 1882. Is still an occasional writer for the Atlantic Monthly " and other magazines. Now a leading member of the New York bar, and an authority on copyright law.

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PIATT, John James, b. James Mill, now Milton, Ind., 1 March, 1835. He studied at Kenyon College, and became private secretary to G. D. Prentice, of the Louisville "Journal." During the Civil War he was in the Treasury Department, Washington, having gained the friendship of Mr. Chase. In 1871 he became librarian of the House of Representatives at Washington, and in 1882, U. S. consul at Cork, Ireland, where he remained till 1894. With W. D. Howells he wrote "Poems of Two Friends," 1860 (now and valuable as a first book" of each author); and with Mrs. Piatt, The Nests at Washington, and Other Poems," 1864, and "The Children Out of Doors," 1884. He has also published "Poems in Sunshine and Firelight,' 1866; "Western Windows, and Other Poems," 1869; "Landmarks, and Other Poems," 1871; Poems of House and Home," 1879; Idyls and Lyrics of the Ohio Valley," 1884, 1888, 1893; 'At the Holy Well," 1887; "A Book of Gold, and Other Sonnets," 1889; "Little New-World Idyls, and Other Poems," 1893; Pencilled Fly-Leaves," and "A Return to Paradise" in prose. He has edited "The Union of American Poetry and Art." Mr. Piatt is a representative poet of the middle West. His wife was Sallie Bryan, of Kentucky, and the two, like the Stoddards, often receive the appellation, once bestowed upon the Brownings, of "the wedded poets." Cp. "Poets of America," p. 453.

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PIATT, Sarah Morgan (Bryan), b. Lexington, Ky., 1836. She studied at the Henry female college of New Castle, Ky., and published her first verses in the Louisville "Journal." In 1861 she was married to John J. Piatt. Her works include "A Woman's Poems," 1871; "A Voyage to the Fortunate

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Isles," 1874; "That New World, and Other Poems," 1876; Poems in Company with Children," 1877; Dramatic Persons and Moods," 1880; An Irish Garland," 1884; "ChildWorld Ballads," 1887; "The Witch in the Glass, and Other Poems," 1889; An Enchanted Castle," 1893. For volumes issued in collaboration with her husband, see Piatt, J. J. Mrs. Piatt's verse has met with high favor both here and in Great Britain.

PIERPONT, John, Unitarian clergyman, b. Litchfield, Conn., 1785, thus antedating Bryant; d. Medford, Conn., 1866. Graduated at Yale, 1804. Occupied himself successively with teaching, business, and the law. Entered the Unitarian ministry in 1819, and was for twenty-six years pastor of the Hollis Street Church, Boston. Becoming embroiled with his congregation on account of his sympathy with the abolition and temperance movements, he resigned his charge in 1845. Preached for a time at Troy, N. Y., and at Medford, Mass. Volunteered at the age of seventy-six as chaplain in the Civil War, but was soon afterward, in consideration of his infirmities, transferred to the Treasury Department, where he retained a clerkship until his death. Author of Airs of Palestine, and Other Poems," 1816 and 1840; and Poems," 1845.

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PIKE, Albert, lawyer, b. Boston, Mass., 1809; d. Washington, D. C., 1891. Studied at Harvard. In 1831 he made Western explorations. Edited the Arkansas Advocate.' was an officer in the Mexican War, and afterwards as a Confederate general led Indians to battle in the Civil War. His nobly planned and classical "Hymns to the Gods," first published in "Blackwood's Magazine," 1839, were included in "Nugae," privately printed, 1854. General Pike rose to be at the head of Freemasonry in America. His "Morals and Dogma of Freemasonry" appeared in 1870. Editions of his "Poems were issued in 1873 and 1881.

PINKNEY, Edward Coate, b. London, England, 1802; d. Baltimore, Md., 1828. Son of William Pinkney, American minister to Great Britain. Entered the U. S. navy in 1816, resigning in 1824. Practised law at Baltimore, but without success, and fell into an early decline. His Poems," a tiny volume containing some exquisite songs, was published in 1825.

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POE, Edgar Allan, b. Boston, Mass., 19 Jan., 1809; d. Baltimore, Md., 7 Oct., 1849. In 1811, on the death of both his parents in the same week, Poe was received into the family of Mr. and Mrs. Allan, at Richmond, Va. He was sent to a small private school, and, being a child of great beauty and precocious talents, won his way in all hearts. He had a talent for declamation, probably inherited from his parents, who were actors by profession, and he often recited before company. In 1815 he was taken abroad with the family, and put to school near London. In 1820 the Allans returned to Richmond, where he was set to his studies

under a new master. He was an acknowledged leader among his schoolmates, and in 1824 became lieutenant of the Richmond Junior Volunteers. He was usually at the head of his classes, learning without effort, and constantly writing verses, sometimes in Latin. In athletics he was foremost of the boys, renowned especially for his feats of swimming. He entered, 1826, the University of Virginia, where his scholarship was satisfactory, but where a fondness for excitants seems to have taken hold of him never to relinquish its grasp. Mr. Allan refused to honor his debts, but started him in a commercial career. The prospect was not attractive to the young man, and he ran away to Boston, enlisting in the army, 1827, under the alias "Edgar Perry." He seems to have devoted his spare time to literature, and in the summer of the war published a pamphlet entitled "Tamerlane and Other Poems, by a Bostonian." In 1829 his second publication appeared, "Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems," under his own name. In 1830 he entered West Point, but within the next year brought about his own expulsion. At the same time, in 1831, obtaining subscriptions from his mates, he issued a volume of "Poems." After

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the death of his patroness, Mrs. Allan, and the remarriage of her husband, Poe had no hope of further assistance from the latter. He went to Baltimore, living with his aunt, Mrs. Clemm. His first bit of good fortune was in 1833, when the "Saturday Visitor" awarded him a prize of $100 for the "MS. Found in a Bottle." In 1835 T. W. White, the editor of "The Southern Literary Messenger," gave him some remunerative employment. In 1836 he married his cousin Virginia Clemm, a girl of thirteen. In 1837 he went to New York, and in the next year the Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym was brought out. He then removed to Philadelphia, contributed to many periodicals, and published "The Conchologist's First Book.' Shifting to New York again, he became associate editor of Burton's "Gentleman's Magazine," 1839. His connection with the paper lasted one year. His stories were collected, 1840, under the title "Tales of the Arabesque and Grotesque," and in 1843 "The Prose Romances of Edgar A. Poe " appeared, and met with favor. He continued to contribute to the periodicals, notably a succession of critical and personal sketches of contemporary American authors, and had intervals of energy and hopefulness, alternating with attacks of inebriation and despondency. In 1845 a volume of "Tales" and "The Raven and Other Poems" appeared. The "Raven was copied everywhere, and Poe suddenly found himself the most talked-of writer of the day. He seems never to have abandoned the hope of publishing a magazine of his own. In 1846 he moved to a cottage at Fordham with his wife, who was dangerously ill with consumption, and in January of the next year she died. In 1848 "Eureka; a Prose Poem " was published. In the summer of 1849 he revisited Richmond,

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where he lectured with success, was socially well received, and regained his vagrant hopefulness. He left in September, starting north, but did not get beyond Baltimore. There he was taken to the Washington Hospital in a stupor, and died after four days of delirium. From that time the world has mourned the untimely end of a man of genius, who struggled ineffeetually against the recurrent habits that destroyed him. His work, for all its charm and its wonder, is the uneven and unfulfilled suggestion of what might have been. Rufus Wilmot Griswold, whom the poet made his literary executor, promptly brought together his "Tales, Poems, and Essays" in three volumes, 1850; and a fourth volume, containing “ Arthur Gordon Pym and Miscellanies," was added in 1856, Since then Poe's writings have been repeatedly translated into French, German, Italian, etc., and many editions in English have been published. The definitive edition in ten volumes, edited and rearranged by Stedman and Woodberry, with memoir, bibliography, critical introductions, and variorum text of the poems, appeared in 1894-95. From the present condensed note, most important details of an exceptional career are necessarily absent. For an inclusive and critical review of the most famous Southern poet, essayist, and romancer, cp. "Poets of America," chap. vii. [B. D. L.]

POLLOCK, Edward, b. Philadelphia, Penn., 1823; d. San Francisco, Cal., 1858. When a child he worked in a cotton factory, and at fourteen became a sign-painter's apprentice. In 1852 he went to California, where he was admitted to the bar. He wrote for the "San Francisco Pioneer," and in 1876 his poems were collected posthumously.

PRATT, Anna Maria, b. Chelsea, Mass., 18-. For some years engaged in teaching. A resident of Cleveland, Ohio. Has written chiefly for children's periodicals. Author of 'Little Rhymes for Little People," 1895.

PRENTICE, George Denison, journalist, b. Preston, Conn., 1802; d. Louisville, Ky., 1870. After a brief experience as editor in Connecticut he removed to Kentucky, assuming charge of the Louisville Journal," which he edited until his death. "Prenticeana, or Wit and Humor," appeared in 1860. A volume of his "Poems was brought out in 1876.

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PRESTON, Margaret (Junkin) b. Philadelphia, Penn., 1820; d. Baltimore, Md., 1897. Her father, Rev. Dr. Junkin, was founder of Lafayette College. In 1848 he was made prosident of Washington and Lee University, Lexington, Va., which place became the daughter's home. She had written considerably when, in 1857, she was married to Col. John T. L. Preston. Her books of verse include Beechenbrook, a Rhyme of the War," 1866; "Old Songs and New, 1870; Cartoons," 1875; For Love's Sake," 1887; and "Colonial Ballads, Sonnets, and Other Verse," 1887. Among her

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