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HISTORICAL SUMMARY OF EVENTS-NO 3.
FROM MARCH 4TH, TO APRIL 15TH, 1861.
March 4.-Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as President (the sixteenth) of the United States until March 4th, 1865. An immense concourse in attendance upon the ceremony. A large military force is distributed thronghout the city to suppress any outbreak. No violence offered. After the Inauguration, Mr. Lincoln is driven to the White House, ac companied by Mr. Buchanan, and installed by the retiring President. The retiring President immediately departed for his home in Pennsylvania.
-The Texas State Convention proclaims the Act of Secession. Governor Houston submits to the authority of the Convention, and issues his proclamation declaring Texas to be no longer one of the States of the Federal Union.
-A dispatch from Montgomery announces the unfurling from the Capitol of the flag of the Confederate States of America. It consists of three broad bars, red, white, and red, with a blue field and The stars to increase in number as the
-The Message of Mr. Lincoln is received at Montgomery, and is pronounced a war declaration."
strength to take part in the momentous struggle impending.
-Dispatches from every section of the Union indicate that the Inaugural Message of Mr. Lincoln is favorably regarded by the great majority. It is looked upon as a peace offering. The Secessionists in the South, and their allies in the North see war in its views regarding the duty of the Executive to enforce the laws.
-Drafts drawn by Mr. Dix and Mr. King (Postmaster-General) on the New Orleans Assistant United States Treasurer, in payment of work done on the New Orleans Custom-house, and for requiting mail-contractors in the Seceded States, are returned unpaid. Over five hundred thousand dollars in gold belonging to the United States was in the Treasurer's
hands at the time.
-Martin J. Crawford and John Forsythe, two of three Commissioners from the Confederate States to Washington, arrive in Washington.
March 6.--Fort Brown, Texas, surrendered by Captain Hill to the revolutionists, by special agree
ment. The garrison is to be sent North.
March 7.-The Louisiana State Convention transfers the money seized ($536,000) belonging to the -Arkansas State Convention meets. Elects United States Government to the Confederate "Union" officers, by six majority.
-Salutes are fired in many Northern cities in honor of the Inauguration. People, generally, congratulate themselves on the peaceful result of the ceremony, and the character of the Inaugural Address.
-Brigadier-General Beauregard commissioned and ordered to the chief command of the troops in and around Charleston, South Carolina.
-The slaver Bonita, at Savannah, is "taken" by Governor Brown, and armed, as the first ship of Georgia's navy.
-The Richmond (Va.) papers state that the most active military preparations are going forward in that city. The State Armory is in full operation, turning out from seven to eight thousand rifle and musket cartridges per day. At the Tredegar IronWorks cannon of the best description are being rapidly cast, together with great quantities of shot
March 5.-A dispatch from New Orleans to Washington announced that the United States revenue-cutter Dodge had been seized in Galveston Bay, by the Texan authorities.
-General Twiggs receives a public reception in New Orleans, in honor of his treason. He makes a speech, in which he remarked that he prayed for
-Braxton Bragg commissioned Brigadier-General in the service of the Confederate Government, and dispatched to Pensacola to assume chief command of operations there. Wm. J. Hardee was also confirmed as Colonel. Both were officers in the United States Army.
-The Louisiana Legislature passes a resolution approving the conduct of General Twiggs.
March 8.-The Army bill passed by the Confederate Congress. It calls fifty thousand troops into the field for immediate service.
-It is announced from Raleigh, North Carolina, that the late vote in that State resulted in a majority of six hundred and fifty-one against holding a Convention.
-The Missouri Senate passes resolutions instructing Senators in Congress, and members of the House still at Washington, to oppose the passage of all acts granting supplies, men, and money to coerce the Seceding States into submission or subjugation; and that, should such acts be passed by Congress, Missouri's Senators be instructed and its Representatives be requested to retire from the halls of Congress.
March 9.-Alabama State Convention turns over all arms, forts, munitions, &c., seized from the
United States Government, to the Confederate Government.
March 10.-It is reported at Washington that such word has been received from Major Anderson as to render the evacuation or the reprovisioning of Fort Sumter a necessity. Great excitement exists in consequence. General Scott is willing to assume the responsibility of the withdrawal, considering it impossible to throw in reenforcements and provisions, except at great cost of life.
March 12.-The Southern Commissioners, Messrs. Crawford and Forsythe, communicate their mission to Secretary Seward, pronounce their Government an independency de facto et de jure, and request a day to be named when they may present to the President their credentials.
March 13.-The Georgia Convention turns over all forts, arsenals, arms, &c., seized from the Federal Government, to the Confederate Government.
-The Charleston (South Carolina) Courier of today says the batteries bearing on the ship channel are of the heaviest kind, and that they are now in a high state of preparation, and ready for any force that may be sent against them. It believes the reenforcement of Fort Sumter an impossibility. It estimates that three thousand highly-disciplined troops
are in the various fortifications.
--Seats of United States Senators from the Seceded States declared vacant, and their names stricken from the roll.
March 15.-Mr. Seward, Secretary of State, answers the communication of the Southern Commissioners, Messrs. Crawford and Forsythe, by a "mem. orandum," without signature, refusing to recognize the agents in any public capacity, &c. This memorandum" was not called for by the Commissioners until April 8th-understanding it to be a refusal of recognition.
-By proclamation of General Bragg, all vessels are prohibited to furnish supplies to war vessels off Pensacola or to Fort Pickens, under penalty of forfeiture to the Confederation.
-A long list of the Confederate army and navy appointments is published. Nearly all of them were formerly Federal officers.
March 22.-The Missouri Convention adjournshaving passed no ordinance of secession.
-A dispatch from New Orleans says: "The Commissioners of the Confederate States to EuropeMessrs. Yancey, Mann, and Rost-will leave here on the 31st inst. for Havana, and connect with the British steamer of the 7th of April for England."
-Alexander H. Stephens makes a speech at Savannah, (Georgia,) expounding the principles and purposes of the new Confederacy. He argued that negro slavery was the "chief corner-stone of the new edifice." [See History of Rebellion, Vol. I., pages 30, 31.]
March 26.-The South Carolina State Convention reassembles.
March 27.-Colonel Lamon, Mr. Lincoln's special messenger to Fort Sumter returns and reports favorably upon the condition of the garrison, but is fully
satisfied that reenforcements cannot be introduced without a serious collision, and that the attempt to introduce them would be of doubtful success with the force now at the command of the Administration. He describes the military preparations of the rebels as of great magnitude, and very skilfully made.
April 2.-Gov. Houston sends a message to the Texas Legislature protesting against the Convention, appealing to the Legislature to sustain him, and claiming still to be Governor. The Legislature took not the slightest notice of it.
March 16.-The Montgomery Congress adjourns, Convention still in session. Proceedings are highly to meet again the 2d Monday in May.
-The Texas State Convention passes an ordinance declaring, on the refusal of Governor Houston to take the oath under the State Constitution, the office of Governor vacant, and appointing Lieutenant-Governor Clark Governor. The office of Secretary of State is also declared vacant.
-A" Convention" of about twenty persons held a session at Mesilla, in Arizona, and voted that Territory out of the Union. An election for Congressmen to the Confederate Congress was ordered.
March 18.-The Texas Legislature met. The members of the House and Senate took the oath of allegrance to the new Government, a few of them under protest. Governor Houston and the Secretary of State have retired from their offices and surrendered the archives. Governor Houston had issued an appeal to the people denouncing the State Convention. March 20.-The Arkansas Convention adjourns, after having rejected an ordinarce of secession. It was decided, however, to take a vote of the people, in August, on the question of "secession" or secession."
-The Texas Legislature passes a resolution approving of the Convention act deposing Governor Houston.
March 21.-A resolution passes the Ohio State Legislature, asking Congress to call a National Convention.
April 4.-Virginia Legislature adjourns. The exciting. The Secessionists evidently have the upper hand.
-A dispatch from Washington reads: "The Administration has determined to reenforce Fort Pickens, at all hazards. This determination has not yet been officially announced, but there is reason to believe that active measures will be taken at once for the relief of Lieut. Slemmer's command. The troops of the Confederate States are rapidly concentrating at Pensacola, under command of General Bragg, and preparations are making for a decisive movement. Bragg has nearly four thousand troops under his command, all well armed and in a state of efficiency. Lieut. Slemmer is prepared for the worst, and will sustain the honor of his flag to the last.
April 5-8.-The steamers Atlantic, Baltic, and Illinois, load at New York with Navy stores, munitions, &c. Much excitement prevails as to their destination. The frigate Powhatan is hurriedly put into commission, at New York, and sails south, April 6th. Great activity at the Brooklyn, the Phila delphia, and the Charlestown (Mass.) Navy-yards. Every Government vessel of war, it is understood, is ordered out of ordinary, to be fitted for commission.
April 5.-Kentucky Legislature adjourns. No action taken looking to secession, or resistance to the Federal Government.
April 6.-Great excitement prevails throughout the South in consequence of the great naval move
ments announced. Gen. Beauregard announces to | ed orders from Norfolk. She mounts 10 guns and Major Anderson that no further communications will carries 200 men. be allowed with the hand-thus placing him in a state of siege.
April 8.-A dispatch from Montgomery says: "The Cabinet here have just concluded a protracted session on the course to be pursued in the present serious crisis. Jefferson Davis strongly urged an aggressive policy towards the United States, and it was at length decided to instruct the Commissioners at Washington to present their ultimatum to President Lincoln, and if it should not be accepted, to declare war."
-A dispatch from Charleston says: "Vessels have been ordered from the range of fire between Fort Sumter and Sullivan's Island. The floating battery sails at 7 o'clock this evening for a point near Fort Sumter. A house has just been blown up near the five-gun battery. Business has been suspended, and fearful excitement prevails. Gen. Beauregard has ordered out 5,000 more troops. Companies of volunteers are constantly arriving and being put in position in the harbor. New batteries are also being
-More steamers chartered as transports at New York. Great amounts of stores, arms and munitions are being shipped. The armed revenue-cutter Harriel Lane puts to sea with sealed orders, followed by the steam-tugs Yankee and Uncle Ben. The frigate (steam) Wabash, the sloop Savannah, and the gun-boat Perry, at the Brooklyn Navy-yard, are being rapidly prepared for sea.
-Lieutenant Talbot arrives in Charleston, to say that Major Anderson would be supplied with provisions at every hazard. The messenger was denied access to Anderson. Immense preparations were immediately made to repel the reenforcement or supply, come in what shape it might. All Charleston was under arms, and the united defences of the harbor and city placed ready for action.
-The State Department at Washington replies
to the Confederate State Commissioners, declin
ing to receive them in their official capacity, but expressing deference for them as gentlemen. The Secretary expresses a peaceful policy on the part of the Government, declaring a purpose to defend only when assailed.
April 9.-Gov. Curtin sends a message to the Pennsylvania Legislature, recommending that the State be, at once, placed on a footing of military efficiency, and readiness. He also stated that Mr. Lincoln had informed him of a design to attack and seize the Capital.
-A dispatch from Washington says the designs of the Government are peaceful-that unarmed ships are to supply United States forts with required provision, troops, &c. If they are assaulted, the responsibility of inaugurating war would rest with the assailants.
-A requisition was made by Jefferson Davis upon the Confederate States for 3,500 troops from each, except Florida, which was required to furnish 1,500, all for immediate service.
-The Steam transports Illinois and Baltic get to sea-the first having 300 and the latter 160 troops on board. The Atlantic steamer sailed April 7th, with 358 troops.
-The Steam Sloop of War Pawnee sails under seal
April 10.-Sloop-of-war Jamestown and frigate St. Lawrence at the Philadelphia Navy-yard, ordered to be fitted for sea forthwith.
-Troops mustering in Washington from the militia. Adjutant-General McDowell is organizing them into regiments and preparing them for service. Additional forces of regulars ordered to the Capital: Sherman's Artillery from Fort Ridgely, in Minnesota, and two companies of cavalry ordered to report immediately at Washington. The active preparations are understood to result from the known presence, in the vicinity of Washington, of Colonel Ben McCullough, the Texan Ranger, who, having secured the United States forts in Texas, has hurried to the East to lead an attempt upon the Capital.
-A dispatch from Charleston says: "Troops are pouring in from the interior and all is ready for a collision. Fort Sumter will be attacked without waiting for the Abolition fleet. Eagerness for the conflict is unbounded. Messrs. Wigfall, Chesnut, Roylston, and others, have secured a place on Gen. Beauregard's staff. The floating battery, finished, mounted, and manned, was taken out of the dock last evening and moored in the cove near Sullivan's Island. The Convention has just adjourned, subject to the call of its President. A large number of its members, after adjournment, volunteered as privates. About 7,000 troops are in the defences, with as many more in reserve.'
-L. P. Walker, Secretary of War of the Confederate States, orders General Beauregard to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter, which demand he is to enforce by proceeding to reduce the fort.
April 11.-The Southern Commissioners, Messrs. Crawford, Forsythe, and Roman, left Washington today. Before leaving they transmitted [April 9th] to Secretary Seward a rejoinder, setting forth their reasons for departing, and replying to the positions assumed in his answers to their demands. It was
very severe in its tone, charging duplicity on the part of the Secretary. They take the ground that they have exhausted every resource for a peaceful solution of the existing difficulties, and that if civil war results, on the head of the Federal Government will rest the responsibility. They charge the Administration with gross perfidy, insisting that under the shelter of the pretext and assertion that Fort Sumter was to be evacuated, an immense armada has been dispatched to provision and reenforce that fort. They repeat they had almost daily indirect assurances from the Administration that Fort Sumter was positively to be abandoned, and that all the Government's efforts were to be directed towards peace. The Commissioners allege that the Government at Montgomery was earnestly desirous of peace; and that, in accordance with its instructions, as well as their own feelings, they left no means unexhausted to secure that much-desired end; but all their efforts having failed, they were now forced to return to an outraged people with the object of their mission unaccomplished; and they express the firm conviction that war is inevitable.
-A formal demand made by General Beauregard, of Major Anderson, for the surrender of Fort Sumter. Anderson refused compliance with this demand.
April 12.-At one o'clock, A. M., a second demand was made, or rather proposition, in which Beau
regard says, if Anderson will name a day for withdrawing, and will not use his guns, he [Beauregard] would abstain from firing on him. Anderson replied that he would evacuate [if means of transport were afforded him] on the 15th, if, in the meantime he was not controlled by instructions from his government, or if additional supplies were not sent him. He agreed not to open his guns if some hostile act was not committed against him.
-Beauregard, by his aids, James Chesnut, Jr., and Stephen D. Lee, at 3. 20 A. M., informed Anderson that the batteries would open fire on him in one hour from that time.
-Fire opened on Sumter from all the rebel batteries, fortifications, and the floating battery-the first gun being fired at 4. 30 A. M. turned the fire soon after daylight.
--The bombardment of Fort Sumter. The barracks in the fort on fire three times. Flames suppressed. Firing is furious on both sides.
-Walker, Secretary of War, in reply to a serenade in honor of the bombardment then going on, said that, by the 1st of May, the Confederate flag would float over the dome of the Capitol at Washington-it might, eventually, float over Faneuil Hall itself.
-The Legislature of Pennsylvania passes a bill for placing the State on a war footing. Five hundred thousand dollars are appropriated for arming and equipping the military.
entered one of the embrasures with a flag of truce. He said Beauregard wished the firing stopped, and asked upon what terms Anderson would evacuate. The answer was, "Upon the terms I proposed, and on those only." Wigfall disappeared with the answer. Soon another deputation from Beauregard came, proposing to treat for terms, when Anderson informed them of Wigfall's proceedings-at which the deputation marveled. Terms finally accepted as Anderson first proposed.
-Three Commissioners from the Virginia State Convention to the President of the United States call upon Mr. Lincoln, and demand to know what are his purposes in regard to the Confederate States. The President replies that if an unprovoked assault has been made on Fort Sumter, he shall hold himself at liberty to repossess it -to repel force by force. This the Commissioners [Messrs. Preston, Stuart, and Randolph] report to the State Convention, (December 14th,) when it is regarded as a Declaration of War, and immediate steps are taken to place Virginia in a state of preparation for secession
April 14.-Evacuation of Fort Sumter by Anderson. The men all march out with their arms. All individual and company baggage accompanied them. The flag is saluted with a salvo of fifty guns, and is borne away by the troops. The band plays "Yankee Doodle" and "Hail to the Chief" during the debarkation.
the Marine Artillery and one thousand Infantry for instant service, together with his own services. Other Governors were prepared to do likewise, when the news of a proclamation came.
-Profound excitement throughout the entire April 13.-The bombardment of Fort Sumter con- country. But one feeling seems to animate the tinued. The barracks again on fire. Flames obtain North-that the Government is right, and shall be control, and the conflagration becomes general in supported to the last extremity. Military compathe fort, consuming all wood-work. Magazine has nies, regiments, individuals, hasten to offer their serto be closed, and the men are stifled with the in-vices. Governor Sprague, of Rhode Island, offers tense heat and dense smoke. The bombardment continues with renewed vigor-hot shot and shell pouring into the fort. The upper service magazine explodes, tearing away the tower and upper portions of the building. Fire spread to the gates, which were consumed. Fort is fast becoming a mere ruin the shot and shell from the rebel batteries cutting away the walls freely. The flag-staff is shot down, when Lieutenant Hall, rushing through the appalling fire, brought it into the casemates. The flag was nailed to the staff and planted on the ramparts. Seeing the flag down, Wigfall, one of Beauregard's aids, passed over to the fortress and
April 15.-President Lincoln issues a proclamation, announcing a state of insurrection in the Seven Seceded States too powerful for suppression by the ordinary courts and marshals, and therefore calls out the militia, to the number of seventy-five thousand, to cause the laws to be duly respected. The proclamation also convenes both Houses of Congress, to assemble on the 4th day of July, to consider and determine such measures as the crisis demands.