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suspension of judgment until a sufficient time be afforded me to collect the necessary proof, and show as I shall be able to do, most conclusively, that the destruction of the bridges was a part of the conspir
acy of those acting against the Government, and was known and proclaimed in other parts of the State before the destruction was consummated. But
Kane and Enoch L. Lowe, will at once admit that I would be very slow to assent to any proposition emanating from or endorsed by them. Their introduction into my chamber at the late hour of the night, to urge my consent to the perpetration of an unlawful act, was not calculated to convince me of the propriety or necessity of that act. Men do not readily take counsel of their enemies."
for a Maryland campaign, the necessity for | true position in the premises, I respectfully ask a the occupation and entrenching was apparent. Butler's proclamation (May 14th) was pervaded with the decision of a stern military commandant, but it brought a sense of security and of protection. His occupation of the city was welcomed by the great majority of its people. The entry of the troops any person who knows my opinion of George P. into the city was the occasion of much rejoicing. The Baltimore Clipper said: "On the route to the Hill the streets were thronged with people, who greeted the military with cheers at every step, the ladies at the windows and doors joining in the applause by waving their handkerchiefs." This reception came from the citizens, from householders, those who had all at stake in the preservation of law and order, and was, doubtless, all the more hearty from the experience of mob-law and violence which had so nearly ruined the city. From the date of that proclamation the cloud which had overshadowed the city began to dissipate, but it was long before the place recovered from the malign effects of its twenty days
of treason and rebellion.
Large Seizures of
Large seizures of arms followed the advent of Butler's forces. May 14th, it was ascertained that a vessel lay at the dock loaded ready for Virginia. Being boarded by an officer, she was found to contain a cargo of Minie rifles and about four thousand pikes, from Winans' machine shops. vessel was removed to the vicinity of Fort McHenry. The same day Butler relieved Marshal Kane of a large quantity of arms found stored in a warehouse, consisting of fifteen dray loads of carbines, flint-lock muskets and pikes, from Winans' shops. All were taken to Fort McHenry. The opposition of fered by this Superintendent of Police, Geo. P. Kane, and his complicity with treason, soon induced his arrest and incarceration in a military jail. Governor Hicks for some days rested under the odium of having ordered, or assented to, the destruction of the railway bridges. He denied this, and gave his opinion of this Kane as follows:
"If the Mayor's communication and accompanying certificates have induced any person to doubt my
After the occupation of the Relay House and Baltimore, troops from the North passed freely, by railroad, to the Capital, by the Northern Central and Wilmington routes. The Baltimore and Ohio road was not open even for passenger travel, after the 12th of May-the possession of Harper's Ferry giving the Confederates entire control of the track. Up to that date, the trains ran irregularly,
and with some restrictions; but, the blowing up of culverts to the west of the Potomac, compelled the entire through traffic of the road to cease.
May 16th, Butler was relieved of the command of the Department of Annapolis-having been created Major-General, with orders to repair to Fortress Monroe. Brigadier-General of Pennsylvania volunteers, Cadwallader, was placed in command of the vacated Department, head-quarters at Fort McHenry,
The Federal Government's Plan.
That the Federal Government proposed a war of offense in its own defense became evident by the middle of May. Butler was placed in command at Fortress Monroe for active operations. Fifteen thousand troops-including all the Massachusetts contingents and several of the New York militia regiments-were placed at his disposal and soon found themselves in quarters at the extremity of the York peninsula. When this movement was ordered, Scott had definitively arranged for the descent over the Potomac, and only awaited the election in Virginia, (May 23d,) to order the first step forward of
HOW THE ORDINANCE WAS PASSED.
the campaign. The heavy concentration of troops at Washington looked less like defense than advance. The seizure, May 20th, of telegraphic dispatches, indicated a determination to ferret out all secret conspirators yet at work in the North-a stroke of policy which quite as greatly terrified the manufacturers and importers of arms, as the hidden enemies of the Government. Up to the last moment, when delivery by Adams' Express was practicable, the operators in fire-arms had freely filled Southern orders, and the Express Company had freely transported the goods" to their Southern branch lines. When the moment came for cutting off all communication with the Southern States in rebellion, the Express Company preserved its chartered rights by splitting the corporation into two sections-the Adams' Express South
and the Adams' Express North. If Government had examined the secret archives of that carrier company, it would doubtless have obtained enlarged ideas of its industry and usefulness to the South.
Before chronicling the movements over the Potomac initiated by the advance of May 24th, it will be necessary to advert to the progress of affairs in Virginia, Tennessee, North Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky and Missouri-the first four to place themselves beside the South, the latter two to vacillate and experiment with "neutrality," but finally to act out their really loyal sentiments by giving a hearty support to the Federal Administration. The narrative is one of melancholy interest, but one offering "food for thought," and rich with a moral which the future may render available.
How the Ordinance
How the Ordinance was Passed.
THE secession of Vir-, tirely in consonance with ginia has been chronicled. the malign spirit which had [See page 92 for the Ordi- controlled the secession renance.] The act was accomplished, in secret volution in other States. No sooner was the session of the Convention, April 17th, by a vote on the Ordinance recorded than legislavote of 60 to 53. That it was passed at all tive steps were taken to convey the State to the was owing to threat, bribery, intimidation, Confederate Government. April 25th, Govand a free use of the parliamentary "gag." ernor Letcher proclaimed the passage, by the Up to that moment the Union men had stood Convention, of an Ordinance adopting the Profirm, and were then placed in the minority visional Constitution of the Confederate States, only by the system of terrorism resorted to and announcing, also, that the Convention by Governor Wise and his adherents to force had agreed to a "convention between the the State into the vortex. The unusual con- Commonwealth of Virginia and the Confedcession was granted of submitting the Ordi- erate States !" If the Unionists in the State nance to a vote of the people, (May 23d;) had believed that the people were to decide but, this concession was merely to secure the the question of secession they were now unvotes of a few wavering men. Events which deceived. Their State was transferred to the quickly followed demonstrated that it was a Southern Confederacy, and the proposed voto deception of an infamous character-one en- on the Ordinance became, from that hour,
the merest mockery. We place on record | same occur, turn over to said
“An ordinance for the adoption The Deed of Transfer. of the Constitution of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America.
"We, the delegates of the people of Virginia, in Convention assembled, solemnly impressed by the perils which surround the Commonwealth, and appealing to the Searcher of Hearts for the rectitude of our intentions in assuming the grave responsibility of this act, do by this ordinance, adopt and ratify the Constitution of the Provisional Government of the Confederate States of America, ordained and established at Montgomery, Alabama, on the eighth day of February, eighteen hundred and sixty-one; provided that this ordinance shall cease to have any legal operation or effect if the people of this Commonwealth, upon the vote directed to be taken on the ordinance of secession passed by this Convention, on the seventeenth day of April, eighteen hundred and sixty-one, shall reject the same.
"A true copy.
“JNO. L. EUBANK, Secretary." "Convention between the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Confederate States of America.
"The Commonwealth of Virginia, looking to a speedy union of said Commonwealth and the other Slave States with the Confederate States of America, according to the provisions of the Constitution for the Provisional Government of said States, enters into the following temporary convention and agreement with said States, for the purpose of meeting pressing exigencies affecting the common rights, interests, and safety of said Commonwealth and said Confederacy.
1st. Until the union of said Commonwealth with said Confederacy shall be perfected, and said Commonwealth shall become a member of said Confed
The Deed of Transfer.
lic property, naval stores, and munitions of war, &c., she may then be in possession of, acquired from the United States, on the same terms and in like man
ner as the other States of said Confederacy have done in like cases.
"3d. Whatever expenditures of money, if any, said Commonwealth of Virginia shall make before the Union under the Provisional Government, as above contemplated, shall be consummated, shall be met and provided for by said Confederate States.
"This convention was entered into and agreed to in the city of Richmond, Virginia, on the twenty-fourth day of April, 1861, by Alexander H. Stephens, the duly authorized Commissioner to act in the matter for the said Confederate States, and John Tyler, William Ballard Preston, Samuel McD. Moore, James P. Holcombe, James C. Bruce, and Lewis E. Harvie, parties duly authorized to act in like manner for said Commonwealth of Virginia; the whole subject to the approval and ratification of the proper authorities of both Governments respectively.
'In testimony whereof, the parties aforesaid have hereto set their hands and seals the day and year aforesaid and at the place aforesaid, in duplicate originals.
"ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS, [Seal.]
"Commissioner for Confederate States.
"Commissioners for Virginia.
"Approved and ratified by the Convention of Virginia, on the 25th day of April, 1861.
"JOHN JANNEY, President.
eracy, according to the Constitution of both powers,
"2d. The Commonwealth of Virginia will, after the consummation of the union contemplated in this Convention, and her adoption of the Constitution for a Permanent Government of said Confederate States, and she shall become a member of said Confederacy under said Permanent Constitution, if the
The Reign of Terror.
The reign of terror was now fairly inaugurated. Union men were silenced; Northern men doing business, or having settled, in Virginia, were compelled to flee, leaving everything in the way of property to the mercy of the mob. One who fled from the scene of violence May 1st, wrote: "Northern and ultra Union men began to leave the State in large numbers,
UNION UPRISING IN WESTERN
The Reign of Terror.
misrepresentations have been carried to such an extent tha foreigners and naturalized citizens who, but a few years ago, were denounced by the North and deprived of essential rights, have now been induced to enlist into regiments for the purpose of invading this State, which then vindicated those rights and effectually resisted encroachments which
threatened their destruction. Against such a policy and against a force which the Government at Wash
and by every possible means | ginia having been denied, her Governor Letcher's of conveyance. Many who Territorial rights assailed, her Call for Troops. could not get away became, outwardly, soil threatened with invasion by the authorities at Washington, and every artifice emSecessionists, and were thus protected. ployed which could inflame the people of the NorthTo prevent the escape of improper or susern States and misrepresent our purposes and wishes, pected persons, the Mayor of Richmond isit becomes the solemn duty of every citizen of this sued a proclamation forbidding the organi-State to prepare for the impending conflict. Those zation of Vigilance Committees, or Committees of Safety, and ordering the people to give him information of any person suspected' of being disloyal to Virginia, and he would order their arrest and trial. A number of arrests were immediately made, and the jailer's business became quite lively. The operation of this law, or proclamation, was similar to that under which New England witches were arrested and put to death. To be suspected' was sufficient cause of arrest. No person was allowed to leave Richmond without a pass. At first the Governor gave them-then the Mayor, or a deputized police officer: and they gave passes to whom they pleased. A number of men escaped who were obliged to leave everything behind them; with them it was a question of life or death, and as life was dearer than property, they saved the first by abandoning the latter. Men were not alone the objects of this persecution; the Richmond Dispatch impudently ordered the Northern female teachers to 'shut their mouths,' and that a word to the wise was sufficient.'"
What wonder that, when the day of voting on the Ordinance came, only thirty-two thousand votes were polled against it? What wonder that the people residing west of the Blue Ridge mountains, should repudiate the whole atrocious proceedings, and should proceed to reorganize the State Government on its old basis of loyalty to the Federal Government?
The reign of tyranny hastened the development of events. If treason had lurked in shadow, waiting for the moment to strike, its moment was now come and every restraint was removed-the revolutionists had entire sway. May 3d, Governor Letcher, snuffing the battle afar off, found ample excuse in the gathering hosts at Washington for issuing the following manifesto, calling out the militia, of whom many thousands were already under arms:
ington, relying upon its numerical strength, is now rapidly concentrating, it becomes the State of Vir
ginia to prepare proper safeguards. To this end and for these purposes, and with a determination to repel invasion, I, John Letcher, Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia, by authority of the Convention, do hereby authorize the commanding General of the military forces of this State, to call out, and to cause to be mustered into the service of Virginia,
from time to time, as the public exigency may require, such additional number of volunteers as he
may deem necessary.
"To facilitate this call, the annexed schedule will
indicate the places of rendezvous at which the com. panies called for will assemble upon receiving orders for service."
Union Uprising in Western Virginia.
The reception of the news of the issue, by the President, on the same day, of his proclamation calling for three years' troops, doubtless confirmed the Governor's "worst apprehensions," and gave the madmen some idea of the nature of the lion they had aroused. These high-handed proceedings, in forcing the State into an attitude of offense, found bitter opponents and public expressions of indignation in those sections of the Commonwealth where the mob did not rule, and where the Confederate troops had not yet found their way. As early as May 4th, a large Union meeting was called at Kingwood, Preston county, at which the voice was unanimous for a division of the State, in order that the Western section might continue to be represented in the Federal Congress. The meeting expressed its unalterable hostility to secession, and took steps looking to a
The sovereignty of the Commonwealth of Vir- Convention of the Western counties. The
Union Uprising in
mer-servient, to a contemptible degree, to the sentiments of the slaveholding few was not slow to betray the aristocratic tendency of the revolution proposed.* The Richmond Examiner, early in May, wrote:
movements of the chants of Wheeling indicated the gathering storm. These patriotic men resolved to pay no tax "to support the usurped Government at Richmond." The resolutions rang out with the ring of the old spirit which said "We pay King George no further tribute!" These meetings were the little beginnings from whose results sprang the new Government of Virginia, which the President recognized as the true and only loyal Government of the State, and whose representatives to the National Congress were admitted to seats.
The Last Act of
"In the Northern States exists the government of pure Democracy. The lowest, most ignorant, and coars est part of the whole people, who make the major ity of it, control the action of the Government by the immediate exercise of their volition, impress upon it their violence, their instability of opinion and fickleness of feeling, and render it, in all respects,
the agent of their crude and unfounded ideas of a moment.
"The essence of the Constitution of the United
States was representative Democracy. But the continual strides of innovation, guided by demagogues, have destroyed the representative principle in the Northern States. Public officers in those countries reflect the popular feeling of the moment, instead of that National sentiment and opinion that is formed after experience and second thought. In this the South is wholly different from the North. The lowest
*The communication of Commodore Stewart ("Old Ironsides") to Mr. Childs, of Philadelphia, (under date of May 4th, 1861,) regarding his inter
cember, 1812, is so interesting as bearing on this point that we may quote:
Virginia was fully adopted into the Southern Confederacy May 6th, by act of the Confederate Congress. Two of her delegates were then sworn in and took their seats. As the people were not to vote upon the Ordinance of Secession until May 23d, this admission demonstrates with what disregard of the people the Conventions and the Congress acted. Overriding voters was part of the "system" of the Southern Government to which Mr. Stephens, in his celebrated Ex-view with John C. Calhoun in the latter part of Deposition (see pages 63–64) had not adverted; but, the contempt generally entertained, in the South, of their own poor whites-the "I observed, with great simplicity, You in the South and aristocratic idea upon which the institution South-west are decidedly the aristocratic portion of this Union. You are so in holding persons in perpetuity in slav of slavery itself was founded-the stigma ery; you are so in every domestic quality; so in every habit fixed upon all white working men and me- of your lives, living and actions; so in habits, customs, inchanics by the "ruling classes"— render it tercourse and manners; you neither work with your hands, head, nor any machinery, but live and have your living, easy to believe that, in the "new order of not in accordance with the will of your Creator, but by the things," the democratic principle of a major-sweat of Slavery; and yet you assume all the attributes, ity rule was not to be accepted. The Slave owners, breeders and traders comprised but a meagre minority of the entire white population of the South; yet, this minority was resolved to rule, and for that dissevered their relations with the Free States.
professions and advantages of Democracy.'”
"Mr. Calhoun replied: "I see you speak through the head of a young statesman, and from the heart of a patriot; but you lose sight of the politician and the sectional policy of the people. I admit your conclusions in respect to us Southrons
that we are essentially aristocratic. I cannot deny but we can and do yield much to Democracy; this is our sectional po icy. We are from necessity thrown upon and solemnly wedded to that party, however it may occasionally clash with our feelings, for the conservation of our interests. It is through our affiliation with that party in the Middle and Western States, we control, under the Constitution, the gov erning of the United States; but, when we cease thus to control this Nation through a disjoined Democracy, or any material obstacle in that party which shall tend to throw us out of that rule and control, we shall then resort to the dissolution of the Union. The compromises in the Constitution, under the then circumstances, were sufficient for our fathers, but, under the altered condition of the country from that period, leave to the South no resource but dissolution; for no amendments to the Constitution could be reached through a Convention of the people and their three-fourths rule.""