« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
"2. All persons claiming to interpose in public in the name and by the authority of the United States on this frontier, will be arrested and placed in the guard-house for examination.
"3. Captain Perkins will take possession of the records and other property of the United States Court at Van Buren, Arkansas, and place the keys in custody of the Circuit Court Clerk of Crawford county, Arkansas.
4. Stationery, and twenty minutes time, will be allowed the attaches of said Court, should they desire, to write their resignations.
"5. All persons in possession of public property, taken without proper authority, are required to re
"SEC. 4. Be it further ordained, That all sales of property under legal process for collection of such debts as are described in the first section of this ordinance, the use and benefit whereof is going to citizens or residents of any of the States or Terri-port the same immediately to the Assistant Adjutant. tories aforementioned, be and the same is hereby General at head-quarters of this command, and all prohibited, until otherwise ordered by the Conven- arms or other property belonging to the United tion or enactment of the Legislature." States, will be seized. By order of "General N. B. BURROW, Commanding. "W. F. RECTOR, Assistant Adjutant-General." Various other steps were taken to exterminate every vestige of United States authority. Scenes of violence followed which, when
Acts of Seizure and
Prior to the act of secession the patriots, eager to serve "the cause," hastened to appropriate Government property, moneys, &c., &c. The United States arsenal at Napoleon was seized April 23d. It contained about twelve thousand Springfield muskets, and stores and munitions designed for the "upper country." Fort Smith was seized April 24th, by a large body of Arkansas cut-throats,* headed by Solon Borland. The fort was a very valuable property, having long been an Indian agency and point of deposit for arms, munitions, goods, &c., destined for the " upper country." May 4th, two days before the Ordinance of Secession was promulgated, the following characteristic order was issued: HEAD-QUARTERS THIRD BRIGADE, FIRST DIVISION, FORT SMITH, May 4th, 1861.
"1. The authority of the United States has ceased upon this frontier.
*We use this somewhat vulgar term, here and elsewhere, as particularly applicable to that class of persons which the Southern States of America only knew those who generally carried a huge bowieknife on their person to whom tobacco and whisky were leading necessaries - who lived by boating, gambling, horse-swapping, negro-hunting, &c., &c. This class up to 1861, was large especially in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and Missouri, and be
came one of the earliest sources for filling the ranks of the Confederate army. No country in the civilized world could produce a more hardy, desperate and ignorant set of men. Up to the breaking out of hostilities they were both feared and hated by the better portion of the Southern people.
the facts are brought to light, will show that, in real malignity, Arkansas, as a State, was second to none other in the Confederacy--not excepting Texas. Like Texas she seemed vicious in proportion to her indebtedness to the Union. If any question this, let them converse with an Arkansas Secessionist, and they will perceive what degree of malice the men of that State harbored toward the loyal sentiment of the country.
North Carolina though still in the Union was, also, in the Southern Confederacy at the date of Mr. Lincoln's first Proclamation. The answer of Governor Ellis, and the immediate steps he took to place the State in an attitude of defense, demonstrated that the Union and conservative sentiment, strong up to that moment, was dashed to the earth. As in Tennessee, Virginia and Arkansas, the spirit of disunion and war flamed up so suddenly and irresistibly as to bear all before it. The defeat, at the election held in January, of the "Conventionists," had not, as already stated, prevented the gathering, at Raleigh, of a Convention immediately after the vote was announced-so treacherous and bent upon revolution was the Secessionists. This revolutionary, and really illegal, body assumed the form and functions of other "Conventions," though it failed to legislate the State out of
the Union. Mr. Clingman, late of the United | the honor, dignity and welfare of the people of States Senate-where he had, against the sen- North Carolina imperatively demand that they timents of his constituents, consorted with the should resist, at all hazards, such usurpafion; and enemies of the Government-represented the whereas, there is an actual state of revolution existGeneral Assembly of the State to the Mont- ing in North Carolina, and our sister State of Virgigomery Congress. May 14th he introduced to that body the following:
Resolution, authorizing the Governor to use all the powers of the State, rivil and military, consistent with the Constitution, to protect the persons and property of our citizens, and to maintain and defend the honor of North Carolina. Clingman again.
"Whereas, The Constitution of the United States has been entirely subverted, and its Government has been converted into a military despotism by the usurpations of the Administration of Abraham Lincoln; and whereas, the said Abraham Lincoln has promulgated a proclamation declaring the ports of North Carolina in a state of blockade, and directing our ships engaged in lawful commerce to be seized; and whereas, such measures are, by the laws of civilized nations, only to be resorted to against a foreign State, and one against which war has been declared; and whereas, North Carolina has no alternative consistent with her safety and honor, but to accept the position thus assigned to her, as being that of an independent and foreign State :
"Therefore, be it resolved, That the Governor is hereby authorized to use all the powers of the State, civil and military, consistent with the Constitution, to protect the persons and broperty of our citizens, and to maintain and defend the honor of North Carolina.
"A true copy from the Minutes of the House of Commons of North Carolina.
"EDWARD CANTWELL, C. H. C."
All of which was entered on the journals. As the Ordinance of Secession was not passed until May 20th, this action of the Confederate Congress to "authorize" the Governor of the State to use all the powers of the State, would seem strange were its entire proceedings not characterized by the same extraordinary assumptions of power and authority.
These resolves embodied the substance of resolutions adopted by the Legislature a few days prior to the date above named. They read:
Whereas, By an unwarranted and unprecedent ed usurpation of power by the Administration at Washington City, the Government of the United States of America has been subverted; and whereas,
nia, making common cause with us, is threatened with invasion by the said Administration; now, therefore,
Resolved, That his Excellency, the Governor, be authorized to tender to Virginia, or to the Govern
ment of the Confederate States, such portion of our volunteer forces now, or that may hereafter be, under his command, and that may not be necessary for the immediate defense of North Carolina."
The Legislature adopted an act calling a State Convention, empowering it with almost absolute powers. The election was ordered for May 13th-the Convention to assemble May 20th. On the very first day of the Convention the Ordinance of Secession was passed. It read as follows:
Ordinance of Secession.
We, the people of the State of North Carolina, in Convention assembled, do declare and ordain, and it is hereby declared and ordained, that the Ordinance adopted by the State of North Caroli na, in the Convention of 1789, whereby the Constitution of the United States was ratified and adopted, and also all acts and parts of acts of the General Assembly ratifying and adopting amendments to the said Constitution, are hereby repealed, rescinded and abrogated.
"We do further declare and ordain, that the Union now existing between the State of North Carolina and the other States, under the title of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved, and that the State of North Carolina is in the full possession and
exercise of all her rights of sovereignty which belong and appertain to a free and independent State. "Done at Raleigh, 20th day of May, in the year of our Lord 1861.”
At the same time an ordinance was passed ratifying the Constitution of the Confederate States. This formality sealed the fortunes of the State by linking them to the "dynasty of Davis"- -as it has now come to be called. Thenceforward North Carolina was to live in a travail that brought forth a monster, of when returning reason restored her to her which the wretched mother was only relieved old allegiance. For many a season will she
wear the wounds of that horrible birth.
Incipient arrangements for "Precipitation."
GOVERNOR Jackson's answer to the requisition for troops: "The requisition is illegal, unconstitutional, revolutionary, inhuman, diabolical, and cannot be complied with," was not unexpected by those who were familiar with that person's secessionist proclivities. His pressure on the Legislature (then adjourned) had resulted in placing means at his disposal for confronting the Union sentiment of St. Louis and Northern | Missouri with force. A Metropolitan Police Act was passed, placing St. Louis under the control of Police Commissioners to be appointed by the Governor. Three of those named were leaders of "Minute Men," organized bodies of Secessionists, who, armed and drilled, were ready for any revolutionary service. A fourth Commissioner was also a Secessionist. The fifth was the Mayor, a conditional Union" man. This placed the metropolis of the West at the mercy of the revolutionists—a fact which it is well to bear in mind in order properly to appreciate the services performed by the Unionists.
Anticipating trouble, regular troops had been centralized at that point to the number of one thousand-three hundred occupying the arsenal and seven hundred at Jefferson barracks. Captain Nathaniel Lyon was in command at the arsenal-a brave and accomplished officer, in whom the Unionists trusted implicitly. At the arsenal were nearly thirty thousand muskets and rifles, with large quantities of side arms, ammunition, accoutrements, &c. In the city, Union organizations were rapidly formed to meet the impending crisis. But a few days after Mr. Lincoln's call, two thousand men were ready for arms and equipments. It was confidently stated that, in
event of the uprising of the "Minute Men,” ten thousand Union volunteers would quickly respond to the call to arms.' *
Feeling in the Interior.
A dispatch from St. Louis, April 22d, said: "Quite a number of editorials from prominent papers in the interior of the State, express much indignation at the action of the Federal Government in calling so large a military force into the field, and especially for calling for volunteers from the Border Slave States; but, not much ill temper is manifested, and there is less disposition to run the State into rash, indefensible measures than in some other States. There is a good deal of secession feeling in some sections, but the prevailing sentiment is unanimous for peace and conciliation." This stated the surface view of matters. Beneath all that apparent desire for peace and conciliation was the revolutionary element which only needed to be subtly controlled by the Governor and his co-conspirators, to become at once inimical
* In a communication to an Eastern journal, May 2d, Mr. Blair stated: "No State in the Union has responded more promptly to the call of the Administration, for her quota of volunteers, than Missouri; and this, too, at a time when the State Government and the Government of the city of St. Louis are both in the hands of the enemy, and every difficulty thrown in the way of our patriotic citizens. Notwithstanding their embarrassments, in one week the four regiments called for from Missouri were mus
tered into service, armed and equipped, and are now on duty at the arsenal and Jefferson barracks, and ready to do duty whenever they may be wanted.
"Another regiment and three battalions have since been forwarded, and St. Louis alone will, in two weeks, furnish from 8,000 to 10,000 men for the maintenance of the Union and the suppression of this infamous rebellion."
to peace. formidable in power,* and implacable in its hostility to the Union.
Convention of the
Governor Jackson (April 22d) called an extra session of the Legislature to convene Thursday, May 2d, "for the purpose of enacting such laws and adopting such measures as may be necessary for the more perfect organization and equipment of the militia of this State, and raise money and such other means as may be required to place the State in a proper attitude of defense." The Adjutant-General, Hough, issued orders to the commanding officers to assemble their respective commands on the 3d of May, to go to encampment for six days, as provided by law. The strength, organization and equipments of the several commands were to be reported at once to head-quarters, and the Division Inspectors were required to give all information respecting the condition of the State forces. This, in view of the refusal of the Governor to respond to the President's call, foreshadowed the treasonable designs of those in authority. These various designs were, however, quite counterbalanced by the rapid action of the Unionists, who, without the Governor's consent, responded to the President's requisition, as stated in the footnote on the previous page. Colonel Frank P. Blair assumed command of the First Missouri Volunteer regiment, April 24th. Four other regiments, at that date, were in process of formation in St. Louis.
The Arsenal Property
A large and enthusiastic "Union Peace Meeting" was held at Jefferson City, the State Capital, on the evening of April 24th-on which occasion the speakers assumed strong grounds against the designs of the Secessionists of the State. Similar meetings were arranged for at Lexington, St. Joseph and other points; but which, in most instances, were broken up by the violence of the Secessionists. On the night of April 25th, by order from the War Department, the arsenal at St. Louis was emptied of its valuable contents, which were borne to Alton, Illinois, and thence to Springfield, as a place of safety. This affair was executed with great rapidity and secrecy, by Captain Jas. H. Stokes. Governor Yates having obtained a requisition from the Department for ten thousand muskets then in the St. Louis arsenal, committed to Captain Stokes the task of securing them. As the arsenal, at all times, was surrounded by a secession mob, and a large force of the "State Guard" had been ordered to encamp in the vicinity of the premises with the evident purpose of seizing the property and its surroundings, the removal became a matter of great importance if a collision would be avoided. Communicating with Captain Lyon, arrangements were perfected by which the entire stores of arms, munitions, &c.-being 20,000 muskets, 500 new rifled carbines, 500 revolvers, 110,000
* How powerful the secession feeling was in South-musket cartridges, cannon and miscellaneous eastern Missouri will be inferred by the forced suspension of Judge Jackson's Circuit Court session. The Judge, in view of the treason bubbling up all around him, caused an order to issue, requiring all attorneys practicing before his Court to renew the oath of allegiance to the Constitution of the United States, on pain of being prohibited to appear as counsel in civil or criminal suits. At Greenville, Wayne county, the attorneys took the oath, though with much reluctance; but at Doniphan, in Ripley county, on the 224 of April, the lawyers refused the oath; the citizens took possession of the offices of the Sheriff and Clerk, and refused to allow the Court to sit. A meeting was held denouncing the order of the Judge, and asking him to revoke it. The St. Louis Democrat pointedly observed: "Judge Albert Jackson never revokes. He plays as clean and close a hand as ever won in the world."
accoutrements were placed on a steamer and run to Alton with all possible expedition. At Alton the alarm fire-bell was rung, which brought all classes of citizens to the levee, when Captain Stokes informed the crowd of the nature of his cargo, asking and obtaining their ready aid to place it on the cars for Springfield. He apprehended pursuit by the revolutionists, who were thus suddenly and unexpectedly deprived of their much-counted upon equipments for active field service. Seven thousand rifles and muskets only were left in the arsenal for the volunteers, and these were soon in their keeping. Thus, as the Illinois men said, "the rebels were euchred" in a manner which disconcerted them
as greatly as it gratified the friends of the | the subtle music to charm
The Governor's Message of Treason.
The Governor's Mes
sage of Treason.
The extra session of the Legislature called by Gov-publicity in the St. Louis Republican, that the ernor Jackson assembled Governor had stated his policy to be one of May 3d. The Governor's Message was read to peace that he had convened the Legislature both Houses. In the course of the document for the purpose of organizing more perfectly it was said that the President, "in calling the militia, and putting the State in a proper out troops to subdue the Seceded States had attitude of defense--that he had told Sterling threatened civil war," that his act, therefore, Price, President of the State Committee, that was unconstitutional and illegal, tending that body ought not to be called together towards a consolidated despotism." Though for the passage of any Secession Ordinance— the Governor evidently accepted the right of that he was in favor of retaining the present a State to secede at will, he did not openly status of the State, leaving it to circumstanurge Missouri into that step. He said: "Our ces, as they arise, to determine the best course interests and sympathies are identical with for Missouri to pursue. The steps soon taken those of the Slaveholding States, and neces- by the Legislature to place in the Governor's sarily unite our destiny with theirs. The hands all the materiel for revolutionary sucsimilarity of our social and political institu- cess, and the military organization quickly tions, our industrial interests, our sympathies, resorted to, to overawe and repress the raphabits and tastes, our common origin, terri- idly rising Union sentiment, were palpable torial congruity, all concur in pointing out evidences of the drift of the State toward the our duty in regard to the separation now Southern Confederacy, where the Governor's taking place between the States of the old and the State Committee's sympathy all lay. Federal Union." The formation of the camp on the outskirts of St. Louis, under the orders of Adjutant-General Hough, was regarded as so inimical to the stability of the authority of the General Government, and so dangerous to the peace of St. Louis, that Captain Lyon, at the head of six thousand volunteers, with a battery, on May 10th, surrounded the camp and took the entire brigade prisoners. The letter of Captain Lyon, to General Frost, commanding the Militia camp, explains the condition of affairs at that time. It reads: HEAD-QUARTERS U. S. TROOPS, "ST. LOUIS, May 10th, 1861.
He added: "Missouri has at this time no war to prosecute. It is not her policy to make an aggression, but in the present state of the country she would be faithless to her honor, recreant to her duty, were she to hesitate a moment in making the most ample preparation for the protection of her people against the aggression of all assailants. I, therefore, recommend an appropriation of a sufficient sum of money to place the State, at the earliest practicable moment, in a complete state of defense."
In concluding he said: "Permit me to appeal to you, and through you, to the whole people of the State, to do nothing imprudently or precipitately. We have a most solemn duty to perform. Let us, then, calmly reason one with another, avoid all passion and tendency to tumult and disorder, obey implicitly the constituted authorities, and endeavor ultimately to unite all our citizens in a cordial co-operation for the preservation of our honor, the security of our property, and the performance of all those high duties imposed upon us by our obligations to our families, our country and our God."
These apparently conciliatory terms were
Captain Lyon's Capture of Camp Jackson.