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ed the managers to incite tumult against the Unionists, both to intimidate them, and to create a popular feeling for an open espousal of the Confederate cause.

Union Feeling in Richmond.

On the evening of the 8th, (March,) Hon. Wm. C. Rives a name memorable

in the political annals of the country-addressed the people of Richmond. His influence was regarded as second to that of no single person in the State-hence the importance attached to his words. His speech was thoroughly Union in its sentiments. He approved the Peace Convention propositions, as wise and satisfactory. He opposed, with all the powers of his logic, the effort to place Virginia "at the tail end of the Southern Confederacy"-to become the chief sufferer, in its behalf, in the event of war. He said the State could reconstruct the Union; and it was her duty, for it was in her power, to Other speakers followed Mr. Rives in the cause of the Union. This demonstration succeeded one of another and more violent character, which transpired during the afternoon of the same day, in behalf of the cause of disunion, and as the beginning of a series of "expressions" especially designed to incite a spirit of violence towards the Unionists.

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Every sentiment of disapprobation of the action of the Convention, every sentiment in favor of secession, was received enthusiastically, and when Mr. Douglas, at the conclusion of his remarks, declared that Virginia would stand with her face to the foe and fall into a glorious grave, before she would permit the march of Lincoln's myrmidons through Virginia, or permit coercion, the people

responded to the sentiment with vociferous applause. Mr. Douglas was followed by Mr. Gordon, Mr. Wil

loughby Newton, Mr. Charles Irving, and Mr. Cropper, and we noted especially that when some of those gentlemen asked what would Virginia do, the people answered, with loud acclamation, Secede! 'Secede!' Mr. Irving, in the course of his remarks,

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impressed on the people that resistance to coercion was not enough; that the true policy was to drive the Convention out of the city. Scarcely had Mr. Irving uttered these words when the people shouted, That's it!''that's right!'' drive them out!' and these cries were followed by a thundering cheer. After Mr. Cropper concluded, the crowd, which was an immense one, marched to the music of the band

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The Reign of the Canaille.

of the Exchange Hotel, where Mr. Isbell took his stand on the steps of the hotel, and was cheered most warmly. He addressed the multitude in a thoroughly Southern rights, secession, and anticoercion speech, and was applauded to the echo throughout. The people then took up their line of march through Franklin Street to the Examiner office, where they stopped and gave three hearty cheers for John M. Daniel, editor of the Examiner." This John M. Daniel was one of Mr. Buchanan's favorite foreign representatives, who had returned to the charge of his journal, at the call of the Secessionists, to "help in carrying the State out of the accursed Union"-a Union which he had not failed to misrepresent and malign when abroad. His course, after his return, was one of mingled malignancy and baseness towards every man who presumed to question the propriety of the secession of Virginia. He was a fit embodiment of the spirit of disunion. The Whig further added:

"At the meeting of the people held at the Old Market yesterday, we heard a desire expressed by many of the crowd that the people should march en masse to the Mechanics' Hall, where the Convention was in session, and then and there have their say about the course this old Commonwealth should pursue, and teach the old women in pantaloons of our Convention that they had better become true men at once, or vamose."

There were brave and determined spirits in that Convention, who truly represented their people; but they, ere long, became powerless, if not silenced, before the leaders having the canaille at their back. It was the drama of the French Revolution attempted on American soil-differing nothing in spirit from it, only lacking its sans culotte force of arms. The Virginian who shall truthfully write the story of those forty days will illuminate the page of History with characters and deeds which will prove the " Mother of Presidents" also to have been the mother of Conspirators.









THE Confederate Con- Mr. Curry proposed to reach the Virginia The Confederate gress remained in session conscience through the vital channel of her Congress. up to March 16th. Its Star-Chamber proceedings only transpired when it became necessary to divulge the laws enacted. It debated and acted with profound secrecy. The States were living under a régime as irresponsible and dictatorial as the rule of the old Venetian Republic which it typified.

On the 6th, (March,) Mr. Curry, of Alabama, introduced and had adopted the following, in open session :

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March 7th, the Congress confirmed Jefferson Davis' appointments, as follows: Colonel Braxton Bragg, of Louisiana, to be BrigadierGeneral, and Colonel William J. Hardee, of Georgia, to be Colonel in the army of the Confederate States.

On the 8th the Texan Deputies signed the Provisional Constitution.

The Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States, under discussion for several weeks, was finally

The Permanent Constitution of the Confederate States.

adopted, March

Resolved, That the Committee on the Judiciary be instructed to inquire into the expediency of prohibiting the importation of Slaves into the Confederate States from the United States, except by per-section pays in taxation, on persons and personal of the negroes are in cismontane Virginia, and that sons emigrating thereto for the purpose of settlement or residence."

This looked like "coercing" Virginia whose best source of income was in the production of negroes for a Southern market. Missouri and Kentucky sent some negroes South, but only such as were sold in the breaking up of estates, or were disposed of by owners fearful of the slaves escaping to the North. The Old Dominion alone, of all the States of the Confederacy, made the raising of negroes for market a leading business.*

The Richmond Examiner gave publicity to the figures of this traffic in negro "stock," which we are sure will take many by surprise :

"There are now in this State negroes of the estimated value of nearly $400,000,000. Upon an inside estimate, they yield in gross surplus produce, from sales of negroes to go South, $10,000,000; tobacco, $8,000,000; flour, $8,000,000; corn, cotton, and other products, $2,000,000-a total of $28,000,000. Most

property, lands and lots, and licenses, $1,750,000, against $1,000,000 of transmontane Virginia, or threefourths more.

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From about 1815 to 1845 emigration to the South was greatest. In that time Virginia emigrated some $450,000,000 worth of slaves; in the middle decade of the term, $180,000,000; and, notwithstanding the low price at which, with one short interval, slaves ruled in the three decades, and the consequent encouragement to home agriculture, cismontane lands went down 124 per cent. in the face of a transmontane appreciation of 50 per cent.— a comparative loss to Eastern Virginia of 62 per cent!"

This last confession, it is presumed, was made unintentionally. That Eastern Virginia lands, which produced most of the slaves for a market, should have depreciated, while lands in Western Virginia, a region comparatively free of slaves, should have increased enormously in value, certainly is a thundering argument both against Slave breeding and Slave labor.

10th. It assumed as its basis the Constitution of the United States, but differed from that instrument in important points. One of its added provisions recognized and protected Slavery. A synopsis of the Constitution read as follows:

"No person who is foreign, and not a citizen of the Confederate States, is allowed to vote for any officer, civil or political, State or Federal.

"Under the first clauses South Carolina is entitled to 5 Representatives in Congress; Georgia 10; Alabama 9; Florida 2; Mississippi 7; Louisiana 6; Texas 6; and each State to two Senators.

"The State Legislatures may impeach Judicial or Federal officers resident and acting in said States

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Usurpations of the

the people, without their
direct consent
-as Ordi-
nances of Secession had been
adopted without their submission to a vote
of the people-as the Confederate Congress
was made up of members whom the people
had no voice in selecting-as a new Govern-
ment had been put in force, upon which the
people were not permitted to vote-it was
expected by the Southern communities that,
when the Permanent Constitution was to be
ordained, the people would have a vote upon
it, thus to give their endorsement to the new
order of things. But, never were hopes, ra-
tionally formed, doomed to a more certain
disappointment. In not a single instance was
the Constitution allowed to go before the people
for their vote! The same high-handed tyranny
which had prevailed to bring about the revo-
lution, was now too secure in its power to
fear the popular clamor; and the State Con-

"Congress is not allowed, through duties, to foster ventions alone assumed the right to pass any branch of industry.

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upon the final organic law. Thus, men chosen merely to consider the question of Union or Dis

Congress is prohibited from making appropria-union-or, if the latter was decided upon, to tions unless by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses, except the appropriations be asked by the head of some department, or the President.

agree upon an Ordinance of Secession, upon which the voters alone should be permitted to pass judgment-usurped dictatorial powers, remained "No extra compensation is to be allowed to any in permanent session, passed Ordinances of Secession, inaugurated a new Government, and,

contractor, or officer, or agent, after the contract is made, or the service rendered.

Every law shall relate to but one subject, and finally, sealed their revolutionary proceedings, by be expressed by titles. adopting the new Constitution-all without

"The President and Vice-President are to hold once allowing the popular voice any expression! office for six years.

A parallel for such proceedings can only be found in the bayonet-rule of the First Consul of France, and, like his rule, but prepared the way for the next step in tyranny assumption of regal power, by one

"The principal officers of departments and the diplomatic service are removable at the pleasure of the President. Other civil officers are removable when their services are unnecessary, or other good-the causes and reasons. Removals must be reported to the Senate when practicable. No captious removals are tolerated.

"Other States are to be admitted to the Confederacy by a vote of two-thirds of both Houses.

"The Confederacy may acquire Territory, and

Slavery shall be acknowledged and protected by
Congress and the Territorial Government.

"When five States shall ratify the Permanent Constitution, it shall be established for said States, until ratified. The Provisional Constitution shall continue in force, not extending beyond one year."

Another feature of the revolution was now to be developed. As the entire Secession movement had been made over the heads of


The Alabama Convention ratified the Permanent Constitution March 11th, by a vote of 87 to 5.

Ratifications of the

The South Carolina Convention, having taken a recess to April 1st, did not immediately pass the instrument. It was ratified April 6th, by a vote of 114 to 16.

The Louisiana Convention, March 16th, voted down an ordinance for submitting the Constitution to the people--yeas 26; nays 74. The instrument was not adopted until March 21st. It was very bitterly opposed by


the minority, who did not hesitate to pro- | nounce the rule of the Confederate States an unmitigated oligarchy. It was finally adopted by a vote of 101 to 7-many of those in the minority having withdrawn rather than sit under the pressure brought to bear on them. The Georgia State Convention remained in session until March 23d, to adjust all relations with the new Government. It adopted the Permanent Constitution nearly unanimously, and, before adjournment, passed over to the Confederate Government all the forts, arsenals, custom-houses, &c., "seized" from the United States. It also provided for a loan of five hundred thousand dollars, to be raised on State securities, for the benefit of the Central Government.

The Mississippi Convention ratified the Constitution March 30th, by a vote of 78 to 7. The Florida Convention, having adjourned, reassembled in April, and then, by an almost unanimous vote, accepted the Con



The loan called for by The Confederate the Confederate Congress was reported, at first, as having been eagerly absorbed, at par; a few days later it was reported that “ a few millions had been reserved, for the people to have the privilege of investing in ;" still later, the Charleston papers began to scold the banks for their tardiness in subscribing to it; and, by March 10th, it was confessed that the Confederate Treasury was able to obtain from the loan scarcely enough for current expenses over and above the Customs receipts. Georgia, as stated above, came to the rescue, with a loan to the Government of five hundred thousand dollars-Alabama having, several weeks previously, voted a like sum. But, in neither case was the money forthcoming. Hence, the Treasury grew weak, and the directors turned longing eyes towards the money belonging to the United States, still in the Mint and Sub-Treasury at New Orleans. How must the hearts of those unpaid patriots have rejoiced on the receipt of the following refreshing document ! “An Ordinance to transfer certain funds to the Govern

ment of the Confederate States of America: "SECTION 1. It is hereby ordained, That the sum of three hundred and eighty-nine thousand, two hun

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dred and sixty-seven dollars, and forty-six cents, now in the hands of A. J. Guirot, State Depositary, and known as the Bullion Fund, be transferred to the Government of the Confederate States of America; and that said State Depositary be, and he is hereby authorized, and instructed to pay said sum, upon the order of the Secretary of the Treasury of

said Confederate States.

"SEC. 2. It is further ordained, That the sum of one hundred and forty-seven thousand, five hundred and nineteen dollars, and sixty-six cents, being the balance received by said State Depositary from the Custom-House, the 31st of January last, be transferred to said Government, and paid by said Depositary upon the order of said Secretary."

Five hundred and thirty-six thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven dollars, and twelve cents-what a windfall! Truly, those Southern men, "endowed with such keen sense of honor and lofty respect for private virtue," were great rogues, nevertheless-or, rather, their ideas of meum and tuum were those of the highwayman. "By their plunder shall ye know them," grew to become a well-received aphorism, as applied to the Confederates, early in the year 1861. The Louisville Journal thus humorously, but severely, adverted to the Southern mania for "seizures” and “appropriations" of Federal property:

"Crime is progressive, and after the first plunge nothing is more easy than to go from bad to worse. A cotemporary says the fatally demoralizing effect of the first step is seen in the easy transition to other wrongful acts, as in De Quincey's case of the man who, beginning the downward path with murder, last to procrastination; so the Seceding States, bewent on by degrees until he came to lying, and at ginning with treason and levying war, find it easy to go on until at last they come to downright theft not of forts only, but of vessels, arms, and money."

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governed entirely by the course of Virginia | to form an Association for the purpose of maintaining Southern rights and placing Kentucky in her proper position with the South.'

North Carolina.

and Missouri. The Convention, after a not very exciting session, adjourned March 20th, having passed no Ordinance of Secession. It ordered, however, an election to be held in August, in which the people should vote simply "Secession" or "No Secession." This result did not add to the satisfaction of the Confederate leaders, who confidently expected to have Arkansas in their embraces. It was understood, however, that the State was "all right" for the Southern cause, in event of hostile measures being resorted to by the Federal Government. [See Chapter IV.] In North Carolina the vote taken was for "Convention" or "No Convention," and, being very warmly contested by the Secessionists, resulted in a larger vote for Convention than was anticipated, though many who voted for the calling of such a body did so with no intention of voting for disunionists as delegates. The final result, as proclaimed, gave the non-Conventionists a small majority. This result was no sooner determined than the Secessionists called a "State Rights Convention" at Raleigh, which, it was resolved by the intriguants, should do what people had refused to do carry the State out of the Union. The Convention assembled March 22d, and was attended by large delegations from almost every county in the State. There were also present several influential leaders from South Carolina, Virginia, &c. From the very first day's proceedings it became evident that the usual usurpation was to be practiced to commit the State to the revolution-to proclaim the "Ordinance" in spite of the people's acknowledged rejection of it.

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Union majority........ 67,054 The final figures reduced this majority to a little over fifty thousand. What should be the meed of infamy to attach to a Governor who bargained to deliver the State over to the Confederate authorities, in the face of such a vote as this? No patriot will care to bear the reputation which will attach to the name of Isham G. Harris!

the Evacuation of Sumter.

The news of the prob- Congratulations over able evacuation of Fort Sumter delighted the Secessionists greatly; and the leading journals

of the Seceded States were not slow to use the announcement as evidence of the virtual rec

ognition of Southern independence. The Charleston Mercury said:

"Sumter is to be ours without a fight. All will be rejoiced that the blood of our people is not to be shed in our harbor, in either small or great degree.

To those who have troubled themselves with vague

fears of war on a large scale, and the horrors of war

extensively, the relief will be as great as the appre

hension has been grievous.

"For ourselves, notwithstanding all the Northern thunder, we have never been able to bring ourselves seriously to believe in the probability of any more

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