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Eleventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Jarrett. First regiment Wisconsin volunteers, Colonel Starkweather. Fourth regiment Connecticut volunteers, Colonel Woodhouse.

Crossing the Potomac.

A Sixth brigade was afterwards (June 23d) added, composed of three regiments from the Fifth brigade, (the last three named,) and U. S. infantry and a battery. This was given to Brigadier-General Abercrombie. General Negley's brigade was filled up with newly arrived Western regiments. The First brigade, General Thomas, moved direct upon Williamsport, crossing the Potomac at that point, by wading, on the morning of the 16th. This passage was made as preparatory to the march upon Martinsburg, where, it was understood, the enemy still lingered. General Cadwalader's division moved over the river at the same point shortly after the passage by Thomas. Governor Sprague accompanied the Rhode Island battery. General Williams' brigade encamped at Williamsport on the afternoon of the 16th. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, was with Patterson during the 16th, and cooperated with the General in making the disposition.

Retrograde Movements.

These movements were

countermanded, however, by the Commanding-General, and the several brigades recrossed the Potomac on the 18th, encamping at Williamsport. Their disposition was then materially changed-the Rhode Island regiment, (Colonel Burnside,) the Rhode Island battery, and all the U. S. regulars of Thomas' brigade, being ordered on to Washington. Patterson's position at Hagerstown, for the moment, remained unchanged. The rebels, taking heart at this counter movement, again infested the opposite banks of the Potomac, in large bodies. A troop of three hundred revisited Harper's Ferry to render more complete their work of destruction. Everywhere Union men who had not already fled were seized and carried off within the Confederate lines. Terror sat enthroned throughout that lately peaceful and prosperous land. Treason had made good its words,* to transfer the

* The people of the Gulf States need have no apprehension; they might go on with their planting and their other business as usual; the war would not come to their section: its theatre would be along the borders of the Ohio River and in Virginia."-Howell Cobb's Speech.

seat of war to the Potomac. Thenceforward it was to become the abode of desolation, its hills and valleys to echo with the tramp of armed hosts, and the blood of men to crimson all its streams.



Cadwalader, with six thousand men, remained at Williamsport, whose heights he fortified. Johnston soon pressed down upon the river at that point. General Jackson (rebel) occupied the peninsula in strong force, with reserves distributed along the approaches. Reenforcements direct from Richmond were sent to Winchester, which point the Confederates had resolved to retain. Harper's Ferry they evacuated, the Richmond press stated, because it was "a mere trap too dangerous to hold.”

The withdrawal of the Federal forces was stated to have been a strategic movement ordered by Scott, designed to draw the rebel main body from its concentration toward Williamsport, thus to aid McClellan's move ments toward Romney, while Patterson could move the more readily over the river at a point below Williamport.

Patterson's Tardi


Patterson, however, explicitly stated [see his defense given in the Appendix] that the retrograde was ordered because Scott had not made the demonstration promised toward Manassas; but had, on the other band, ordered him (Patterson) to send to Washington, at once, all the regulars, horse and foot, and the Rhode Island regiment and battery, with further command for him (Patterson) to keep within his then limits, &c.

Patterson, in the document referred to, gives a somewhat detailed statement of his manœuvres and movements up to and his final occupation of Harper's Ferry. It was not until the morning of July 2d that the Potomac was again crossed. Williamsport again was chosen as the point-why, is not explained. The troops consisted of the following regiments, now brigaded and reor ganized anew :


Brevet Major-General George Cadwalader, commanding, consisting of First, Third and Fourth brigades.


Colonel George H. Thomas, Second U. S. cavalry, com manding, consisting of four companies U. S. cavalry and



First Philadelphia city troops, Captain James; battalion of artillery and infantry, Major Doubleday; First Rhode Island regi

ment and battery, Colonel Burnside; Sixth Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Nagle; Twenty-first Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Ballier; Twenty-third do., Colonel Dare.


Brigadier-General E. C. Williams, commanding, consisting of Seventh regiment Pennsylvania volunteers, Colonel Irwin;

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of things, expected to do, having Governor Curtin and Governor Hicks for his support. The fact that he had in his front an active, vigilant and determined antagonist, should have made him self-reliant, quick to strike, tenacious to hold, and ready for any emergency. Scott and the Secretary of War

Eighth do., Colonel Emley; Tenth do., Colonel Meredith; would have offered little opposition to a Twentieth (Scott Legion) do., Colonel Gray.


Colonel D. S. Miles, U. S. infantry, commanding, consisting of Second and Third U. S. infantry, Major Sheppard; Ninth Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Longnecker; Thirteenth do., Colonel Rowley; Sixteenth do., Colonel Zeigle.


campaign thus waged; and, such a campaign

they positively enjoined.

The first attempt at a second advance was made

The Second Crossing

of the Potomac.

at Sheppard's Ford, two
miles below dam No. 4. The tow-path was

Major-General William H. Keim, commanding, consisting cut down for the easy passage of the men,

of the Second and Fifth brigades.


Brigadier-General G. C. Wynkoop, commanding, consisting of First Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Yobe; Second do., Colonel Stambaugh; Fourth do., Colonel Minier; Twenty

baggage and guns; the opposite bank was attained by the advance companies, when it was discovered that the ascent into Virginia territory was there too steep to be practicable. The troops therefore all marched back again and took up a position around Brigadier-General Negley, commanding, consisting of Four-Williamsport: from whence they advanced teenth Pennsylvania regiment, Colonel Johnston; Fifteenth do., Colonel Oakford.

fourth do., Colonel Owen.


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The change noticeable in this reorganization shows how temporary was every order -how illy defined were the movements of the army, and how imperfectly means were adapted to ends. Here was a large body of men moving with an imperfectly defined object into an enemy's country, having only six guns. The strength and disposition of the enemy apparently were unknown, and, by Patterson's own confession, no special point of attack or plan of campaign had been definitively arranged in his own mind. Patterson had men enough for bold, dashing, effective work; and such work, without detailed orders, Scott evidently expected him to perform leaving to the General commanding, to a great degree, the duty of finding his own equipments, providing his own transportation, creating his own depots of supplies, organizing his own reserves from reenforcements to be had for the asking. He must, of course, have assumed some responsibility; but, that he was, in the very nature

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twelve miles toward Winchester. Patterson then asked for reenforcements to follow up

his blow by an advance upon Winchester, where Johnston was understood to be in strong force-say fifteen thousand men, with proper artillery. Pending the arrival of reenforcements, Martinsburg was occupied, while the advance brigades pushed out for several miles beyond, on the Winchester road. These were afterwards withdrawn to Martinsburg, and the army kept in close order, apprehending, as Patterson did, a visitation from Jackson and Johnston. rebel pickets pressed the Federal lines closely, and picket skirmishes became frequent.


Reenforcements began to reach Martinsburg rapidly after the 7th of July, on which


strong, reached Williamsport. It consisted
of the Seventeenth Pennsylvania volunteers,
(artillery,) Colonel F. E. Patterson; the Ninth
New York regiment, Colonel Styles; the First
New Hampshire regiment, Colonel Tappan,
and a portion of the. Twenty-fifth Penn-
sylvania regiment, Colonel Coke. The Nine-
teenth and Twenty-eighth New York soon
followed. These forces were soon added to
Patterson's division, giving him about twen- |
ty-five thousand men, The Rhode Island
battery, detached by orders of Scott, was
restored, and assumed its place in the bri-
gade of Thomas. The First and Third
Pennsylvania and the First Rhode Island
also came forward and took their division

An Advance Countermanded.

Patterson's Continued


day General Stone's column, | thing less was required of him. Keep John-
about twenty-six hundred ston engaged that he should not reenforce
Beauregard at Manassas. He offered no at-
tack, pushed no material advance, made no
feints to confuse and distribute the enemy,
who remained at Winches-
ter and Bunker Hill closely
compacted ready for any
sudden movement that emergencies might
require. These are the simple facts of the
last twelve days of Patterson's campaign.
They should have been days of great achieve-
ment. His troops, whose terms of enlistment
expired on or near the 20th of July, panted
| for action, prayed for it, begged for it; yet
the eager men, and no less eager officers, re-
turned home, having seen no enemy. Only
Abercrombie's two regiments, McMullin's ran-
gers and Perkins' battery had "smelt pow
der." Such a waste of energy, of fine mili-
tary force, of patriotic ardor, were enough to
excite the storm of scorn and indignation
which swept over the country after the Gene-
ral's failure became apparent.

Orders for an advance were issued July 7th. The orders, as announced, were for a movement by two divisions-the First under Cadwalader to take the Winchester turnpike, the Second under Keim to take a parallel road a short distance further to the east. The First and Third Pennsylvania were to remain at Martinsburg as guard to the depot of stores. This advance was not made-why, we are left to surmise. Patterson, in his defense, stated that, on the 8th of July, a council of officers was called and an advance voted against. He said:

"Colonel Stone, the junior line officer, spoke twice and decidedly against an advance, advocating a direct movement to Shephardstown and Charlestown. All who spoke opposed an advance, and all voted against one. On the same day he informed the General-in-Chief of the condition of affairs in the

valley, and proposed that he should go to Charlestown and occupy Harper's Ferry, and asked to be informed when he would attack Manassas. On the 12th he was directed to go where he had proposed,

and informed that Manassas would be attacked on Tuesday, the 16th."

In this interval is written the history of the disaster to our arms at Bull Run. It was not in the power, nor province, of Patterson's subordinates to say whether or not an advance should be made. Their duty was to obey, and Patterson's duty was to fulfill orders from Washington, which were keep Johnston engaged. Nothing more nor any

The Richmond Inquirer of July 10th announced the withdrawal to Winchester of Johnston's force from Bunker Hill and the road to Martinsburg, giving as a chief reason that Patterson had intrenched himself behind the women and children of Martinsburg, whom he refused to send away at Johnston's request. A correspondent, writing from Martinsburg under date of July 14th, stated other, and, unquestionably, the true, reasons for the rebel retrograde: "It is said," he wrote, "that General Patterson believes that the retreat of the enemy is a mere ruse to draw him on; but, if Johnston succeeds in drawing our General into an ambuscade,

he will have to draw harder than he ever before drew in his life. The truth, apparent to most observers, is, that Johnston considers this force too strong for him, which, according to all accounts of his strength, it certainly is, and, therefore, very properly retreats. There is no mystery in it; and, as for us, I can see no reason whatever to surmise any deep-laid plan to circumvent. It certainly is time to test that question." This, written as early as the 14th, when there yet was time to fall with crushing force on the enemy, or to keep him diverted, may be regarded as

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the view of an observer who expressed the current army opinion.

Forward !

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The object of this movement was thus stated by one apparently properly informed:


July 13th a company of artillery and two of Doubleday's guns marched back to Williamsport-affording any prowling band of rebel scouts a fine opportunity to secure two good pieces of artillery. July 14th they marched back to Martinsburg. July 14th Negley's brigade, tired of its inaction, obtained leave to move off toward Harper's Ferry, to occupy that deserted and ruined position. It was accompanied by one battery of light artillery. July 17th the quiet at Bunker Hill (occupied after Johnston's withdrawal to Winchester) was broken by the long looked-for order-for-the ferry. By taking this materiel of war one mile up ward! The men exultingly flew to arms. Those whose three months' term had nearly or quite expired thought no more of a return home, but readily joined in the movement. They were only too rejoiced to a little glory" before disbandment.* Forward! The quick response, the shouts of pleasure, the songs, the rapid striking of tents, packing of knapsacks, deployment into brigade line proved to the commanding officer, if proof were wanting, that, to take Winchester, he only had to lead.

The deflection towards this place is doubtless based upon the idea that, to continue overland transportation from Hagerstown by way of Williamsport and Martinsburg towards Winchester, a distance of forty-one miles, would require too heavy a force to guard the route. By seizing upon this point

General Patterson obtains possession of the Winchester and Potomac Railroad from this point to Harper's Ferry, and however limited its capacity may be for transportation, it will save the wear and tear and delay attendant on the slow movements of a couple of hundred wagons. Besides, all necessary supplies can be brought by the Baltimore and Ohio road from Baltimore to Sandy Hook, one mile from

Charlestown occupied.

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"Forward! file left!" ran along the ranks. The Winchester road was deserted and left far to the right. Away the ranks moved and teams followed, to the east, along the road to Charlestown. Winchester was not to be assailed, and the troops again were to be baffled in their hope. Murmurs, curses, threats in sub-tones ran along the lines. The hilarity was all gone. The music ceased to play. The hot tramp became monotonous, From the ardor of soldierly emulation to the indifference of listlessness the change had been complete. Charlestown was occupied at noon (17th), without opposition. Colonel Yohe, with the First Pennsylvania from Martinsburg, conducting the provision train from thence, came into Charlestown on the 18th.

*The General, in his defense, makes a strong point of his lack of confidence in his troops, who, he states, were unwilling to tarry over their time, &c. It is proven by a multitude of witnesses that the men were chagrined at inaction, not disinclined to over-service if it would show them the enemy.

the Chesapeake and Ohio canal they can be taken across the breast of the Government dam, or, indeed, most of them can be boated or cross in scows to the wharf just above the desolate looking piers of the burnt railroad bridge. Thus a nearer and more certain base of suplies is had and a most essential element of success. Moreover, a larger amount of men can be thrown forward from here to the point where the real battle is to be fought."

All of which, as well as Patterson's own version of his movements, failed to convince the public that that studied avoidance of the enemy accomplished anything but the defeat of the entire object of the expedition and the loss of our movement against Manassas. From Charlestown he hastily fell back upon Harper's Ferry, with his entire force, after the Bull Run disaster.

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tegrating and dissatisfied army awaiting his command. Patterson immediately withdrew, not tarrying even a few hours after Banks' assumption of the command. His absence was not a matter of concern.

If we have commented on this campaign with some severity, it is because a careful examination of the voluminous evidence offered in regard to its conduct has failed to produce any satisfactory excuse for the inefficiency which characterized it at almost every step. The archives of the War Department may exonerate Patterson, and may fix upon General Scott the blame which Patterson plainly

imputed to the old chief; but, the public will be slow to believe such imputations, without the corroborative evidence of official documents. The evidence cited by Mr. Chandler, of Michigan, in his Military Expose, made in the U. S. Senate July 16th, is, apparently, conclusive on the points raised-of Patter son's responsibility for the defeat of McDowell at Bull Run; and, it is not probable any evidence is in existence to disprove the plain statements before the Committee of Investigation which made the defeat a subject of inquiry. [See Appendix, page 494, for Chandler's citations, see also page 271.]


FROM JULY 4TH, 1861, TO NOVEMBER 1st, 1861.

July 4.-Extra session of the Federal Congress. Eleven (seceded) States not represented excepting one Senator (Andrew Johnson) from Tennessee, and three Representatives from Virginia. Twentythree States represented, whose constituencies number nearly five-sixths of the voters in the United States. July 5.-The President's Message delivered. It

called for four hundred thousand volunteers and four hundred millions of dollars to suppress the rebellion. The" opposition" in Congress reduced to six Senators and five Representatives.

-Battle of Carthage, Mo. Colonel Siegel, in scouting with 1,100 men, encountered the combined commands of Price, Governor Jackson, Generals Rains and Parsons. Siegel retired slowly, "punishing" the enemy seriously, until they desisted from the pursuit. Rebel loss, 80 killed and 110 wounded. Union loss, 13 killed and 31 wounded. July 6.-Department of the West created, and Fremont placed in command.

-Desperate dash at Middle York bridge, Va. Forty-five men of the Third Ohio, on a scout, cut their way through 250 rebels.

July 8.-Skirmish at Bird's Point, Mo. Rebel loss, 3 killed and 8 wounded.-Rebels routed at Bealington, Va.-Rebel camp at Florida, Mo., broken up. -Arrival of a flag of truce from Jefferson Davis, covering a bearer of dispatches to President Lincoln. The dispatches consist of a letter threatening retaliation if any " privateer" is hung.

July 10.-Battle of Laurel Hill, Va. McClellan's advance meets and drives in Pegram's outposts The fight lasts for several hours-the Ohio Fourteenth and Indiana Ninth being engaged. Only one Union soldier killed. The rebels routed.-Sharp fight at Monroe Station Mo. The rebels driven off. Seventy-five prisoners and one gun secured.

July 11.-Battle of Rich Mountain, Va., two miles east of Roaring Run. Colonel Pegram entrenched, with 800 troops, is assaulted by a section of McClel lan's forces, under General Rosecrans, composed of portions of the Eighth, Tenth and Thirteenth Indiana, and Nineteenth Ohio regiments. By cutting a road over a difficult country, the enemy was flanked and surprised. A stubborn fight followed, when the rebels retreated with a loss of 60 killed, many pri soners and wounded, and all his camp equipage, &c. Union loss, 11 killed and 35 wounded.

-The U. S. Senate expelled from that body the members from Virginia, North Carolina, Texas, Arkansas and Nicholson from Tennessee.

July 12-Surrender to McClellan of Colonel Pegram and 600 troops, at Beverly, together with cannon, tents, stores, &c.

mish near Newport News. Union scouts (12) cap-The rebels routed at Barboursville, Va.-Skir tured by the rebels.

July 13.-General Garnett forced to a stand near St. George, Va., (at Carricksford,) by McClellan's advance, under General Morris and Captain Benham. In the conflict which followed, Garnett was

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