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Battle of Carnifex Ferry.

ed. The four companies | found our men groping around in perfect under Major Hayes, after bewilderment among the cliffs and jungles of infinite difficulty, scaling an unknown position. The "armed reconprecipices and forcing their way through noissance" ordered ended, certainly, with the dense thickets of laurel and blackberry bushes, roar of musketry from the rebel main works; had been halted in a ravine in front of the and the attack commenced when the two centre of the rebel's right wing, and they Ohio regiments deployed for approach assault were afterwards supported by the Twenty--all of which may have been the fault of eighth, under Colonel Moor. The former met with no casualties, though under fire. The latter pushed across the ravine, and extended the line up a precipitous hill, until the whole of the main front of the enemy was enveloped by our lines. He lost two killed and thirty-one wounded.

"It was now pitchy dark. It was impossible to distinguish an object a yard from your eyes, and it was so obviously unwise to storm the works in such dense obscurity that the General was compelled to withdraw the troops. They retired slowly and mad at their disappointment, and bivouacked wearied and supperless within musket range of the rebel front. It was nine o'clock at night when they got out of the forest where they had labored and fought unflinchingly five hours."

Floyd's Retreat.

It is to be written that Floyd, like his illustrious predecessor, retired under the cover of darkness, crossing the river just below his fortifications, bearing off with him all his artillery, but leaving pretty much all his baggage. Even his own trunk was among the trophies found in his camp, when, early next morning, the Federal troops advanced to the assault to find the enemy gone. Like Longfellow's Arab, the rebel leader could not afford to stay. His own capture would prove too great a disaster to his own private fortunes; hence he "retired."

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Benham; but, the fact that Rosecrans ordered forward supports, that he threw McCook's brigade into position for assault, as well as the artillery, gives to the Commanding General the credit or discredit of the whole affair.

Floyd, in his report, placed his force at two thousand men; and gave, as the excuse for his retreat from what could easily have been rendered an impregnable position, that Wise did not come up with reenforcements as ordered. Therefore he reported Wise to the Confederate War Department for delinquency; and a sharp quarrel sprang up between the rivals.

Floyd reported his loss as twenty wounded -none killed! He conceded the Federal assault to have been very spirited and determined. The Federal loss was fourteen killed and one hundred and four wounded-several mortally, but most of them slightly. The plunder found in the camp was considerable, consisting of all the officers' baggage, all their commissary stores, tents, and large quantities of guns, blankets, wagons, &c. Their destruction by fire would have discovered their retreat-hence, everything was left which could not be borne away on a flying retreat. A few guns, pitched into the river, were afterwards recovered by the Federals.

Rosecrans' Disposition of Force.

Wise was in the vicinity of Gauley Bridge during the operations just detailed. Cox still retained his position at that place awaiting Rosecrans' movements and orders. His force did not authorise any advance. Rosecrans' army was too small to pursue the flying columns. So long as the Confederates kept three distinct armies in the field the Federal commander could not mass his troops without losing ground at points considered important. He therefore pressed the enemy only as prudence seemed to warrant, preferring to incur no hazard of defeat where relief was so distant. The War Department

was, at that moment, devoting all its ener- | Mountain, and threw two regigies in other directions, and Western Virginia ments to the right and rear of scarcely sufficed to make a shadow on its Cheat Mountain, which united troubled “field of operations."

The Battle of Cheat Mountain.

Rosecrans, in arranging his plans of offense and defense, had placed Brigadier-General Joseph R. Reynolds in position at Cheat Mountain to cover the approaches towards Beverly and to act as a left advance of the Federal forces. Against Reynolds the rebel leaders resolved to dispatch their best men, hoping, by driving him before them, to obtain a hold on Rosecrans' flank and rear, and, by a rapid sweep, to concentrate the forces of Floyd and Wise for a march direct on Grafton. The Confederate programme, at that moment, was to crowd the war over into Maryland. To this end they occupied every point along the Upper Potomac requisite for a movement forward when the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway was secured at Grafton-thus to prevent reenforcements from reaching the Federal forces by that route.

To Major-General Robert E. Lee was committed the work of turning Rosecrans' advance into a retreat. The Confederate commander appeared before Cheat Mountain, on the 12th of September, having a force of about nine thousand strong and ten pieces of artillery. Reynolds had disposed his forces in three sections to guard as many approaches to his position. Lee advanced on Elk Water, with his main force, by way of the Huntersville pike. Reynolds thus detailed the operations which followed:

"Our advanced pickets-portions of the Fifteenth Indiana and Sixth Ohio-gradually fell back to our main picket station; two companies of the Seventeenth Indiana, under Colonel Hascall, checking the enemy's advance at the Point Mountain Turnpike, and then falling back on the regiment which occupied a very advanced position on our right front, and which was now ordered in. The enemy threw into the woods on our left front three regiments, who made their way to the right and rear of Cheat Mountain, took a position on the road leading to Huttonville, broke the telegram wire and cut off our communication with Colonel Kimball's Fourteenth Indiana Cavalry on Cheat Summit. Simultaneously another force of the enemy of about equaf strength, advanced by the Staunton Pike on the front of Cheat

The Battle of Cheat Mountain,

with the three regiments from the other column of the enemy. (The two posts, Cheat Summit and Elk Water, are seven miles apart by a bridle-path over the mountains, and eighteen miles by the wa gon-road via Huttonville. 'Cheat Mountain Pass,' the former headquarters of the brigade, being at the foot of the mountains, ten miles from the summit.) The enemy advancing towards the Pass, by which he might possibly have obtained the rear or left of Elk Water, was met there by three companies of the Thirteenth Indiana, ordered up for that purpose, and one company of the Fourteenth Indiana from the Summit. These four companies engaged and gallantly held in check greatly superior numbers of the enemy, foiled him in his attempt to obtain the rear or left of Elk Water, and threw him into the rear and right of Cheat Mountain-the companies retiring to the pass at the foot of the mountains.

"The enemy, about five thousand strong, were closed in on Cheat Summit, and became engaged with detachments of the Fourteenth Indiana, Twen ty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Ohio, from the Summit, in all only about three hundred, who, deployed in the wood, held in check and killed many of the enemy, who did not at any time succeed in getting sufficiently near the field redoubt to give Dean's Battery an opportunity of firing into him. So mat ters rested at dark on the 12th, with heavy forces in front and in plain sight of both posts, communication cut off, and the supply train for the mountain, loaded with provisions which were needed, waiting for an opportunity to pass up the road. Determined to force a communication with Cheat, I ordered the Thirteenth Indiana, under Colonel Sullivan, to cut their way, if possible, by the mail road, and the greater part of the Third Ohio and Second Virginia, under Colonels Manon and Moss, respect ively, to do the same by the path; the two commands starting at 3 o'clock A. M. on the 13th, the former from Cheat Mountain Pass, and the latter from Elk Water, so as to fall upon the enemy if pos sible, simultaneously. Early on the 13th, the small

force of about three hundred from the Summit en

gaged the enemy, and with such effect, that notwithstanding his greatly superior numbers, he retired in great haste and disorder, leaving large quantities of clothing and equipments on the ground, and our relieving forces, failing to catch the enemy, marched to the Summit, securing the provision train and reopening our communication. While this was taking place on the mountain, and, as yet unknown to us, the enemy, under Lee, advanced en Elk Water, apparently for a general attack, one




The Battle of Cheat Mountain.

The Battle of Cheat Mountain.

rified ten-pound Parrott gun, | rebel losses in these affairs from Loomis' Battery, was run were quite serious. Over to the front, three-fourths of a one hundred are known to mile, and delivered a few shots at the enemy, doing have been killed. The Federal loss was nine fine execution, causing him to withdraw out of conkilled, forty-seven wounded and sixty prisonvenient range. Our relative positions remained uners. Only twenty of the enemy were secured changed until near dark, when we learned the result as prisoners. of the movement on the mountain, as above stated, and the enemy retired somewhat, for the night. "On the 14th early the enemy was again in posi


tion in front of Elk Water, and a few rounds, ported by a company of the Fifteenth Indiana, were again administered, which caused him to withdraw as before the forces that had been before repulsed from Cheat, returned and were again driven back by a comparatively small force from the Mountain. The Seventeenth Indiana was ordered up the path to open communication and make way for another supply train, but, as before, found the little band

from the Summit had already done the work. During the afternoon of the 14th the enemy withdrew from before Elk Water, and is now principally concentrated some ten miles from this post, at or near

his main camp. On the 15th he appeared in stronger force than at any previous time in front of Cheat, and attempted a flank movement by the left, but was driven back by the ever-vigilant and gallant garrison of the field redoubt on the Summit."

Thus repulsed in his several essays to dislodge the Federals, Lee retired to fortifications at Greenbrier, apprehending a movement on his own rear, by Rosecrans, from Summerville. The rebels had to mourn the loss, among others, of Colonel John A. Washington, Aid-de-camp to General Lee. He was killed while in the act of reconnoitering. Discovering who the officer was, General Reynolds immediately dispatched the body to the rebel lines. The honored name of Washington received its first stain in the inglorious career of the rebel Colonel. The

*John A. Washington inherited the Mount Vernon Estate. He allowed it to become a ruin. Pilgrims to the shrine of Washington were shocked at the monstrous neglect everywhere apparent. The Tomb was falling into ruins and the Mansion into dilapidation. The condition of the estate became a national disgrace. But, owned by an individual, neither Congress nor the people had any control over the matter. The grand-nephew had his ends to accomplish in the matter: the greater the na tional disgrace the larger the sum he would obtain for a quit-claim of the Tomb and Mansion. Two hundred thousand dollars was the sum he demanded

This campaign, like most all others in which the Confederates were worsted, was heralded by the Southern press as a victory. The Richmond Enquirer of Sept. 19th, announcing Reynolds' hopeless situation, by Lee's environment of the Cheat Mountain Pass, gave the detail of Lee's movements as follows:

"The general position of the respective forces is stated to be as follows: General Reynolds' main body is strongly fortified in the

Cheat Mountain Pass. He has there about four thousand men. East of that Pass he has a force of some hundreds guarding the ford of Cheat River. Near this ford, on the east, General Jackson, of the Confederate army, is stationed with his command. West of Cheat Mountain, at a place called Stipes', Reynolds has another body of soldiers, about twelve hundred in number. He has others further west, at Huttonsville.

"General Lee has moved with the force under his immediate command around to the west of Cheat Mountain, and taken possession between Stipes' and Huttonsville. He made this movement by a road which he himself cut for that purpose. By this means he has gained possession of the road leading from Cheat Mountain to Huttonsville, and has thus thrown himself in the rear of the enemy at Cheat Mountain and Stipes', and cut off their retreat. He has now, it is said, a force largely superior to that of the enemy."

for the Tomb and one hundred acres adjoining. As the lands were worthless, from exhaustion, the amount named was only represented by the bones of George Washington. Through the exertions of a few patriotic women, and the zealous labors of Edward Everett, the large sum was obtained and paid over to John A. Washington. Nearly seveneighths of the amount came from Northern purses. It was not strange, after this transaction and the disposal of the negroes whom he had raised for market on the Estate, that the grand-nephew was ready for service in the cause of treason.

Battle of Greenbrier River.

Lee retired, as said, to the Greenbrier river, where his entrenched camp offered a defense, in event of Rosecrans' attempt upon his rear. Reynolds, however, gave his enemy no peace. On the night of October 2d, he started for Greenbrier, in strong force, to "reconnoiter." The enemy was surprised to some extent and all his advances driven in with heavy loss. The gallantry of Reynolds' men was irresistible, while the fine artillery of the division, taking position within seven hundred yards of Lee's entrenchments, cut up | his camp fearfully. This demonstration Lee could only resist by defense; he attempted no counter assault, and allowed the Federals to retire at their leisure. Lee's forces, confined to camp, soon became inefficient from the demoralization ever following defeat and inactivity; and winter set in to find the enemy in front of Cheat Mountain too peaceably inclined to warrant the retention there of more than a “corporal's guard” to watch them.

Rosecrans, after much important minor service in whipping guerillas around the country, conjoined forces with Cox, taking up a good position at Gauley Mount, on New River, three miles above the junction with Gauley River. Floyd and Wise took up their temporary residence on the opposite side, and, for a week or more [October 30th to November 7th], greatly annoyed the Federalists by cannonading supply trains passing from the junction up to their camps. This resulted in compelling Rosecran's teamsters to do their work during the darkness. The 'siege" was finally ended by the arrival of several Parrott guns, which soon sent the

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At the date of November 1st, the Union forces were disposed as follows: First and Second Kentucky and Eleventh Ohio, formed Cox's brigade, and were located around the Gauley Bridge ruins. General Schenck's brigade of three regiments was eight miles above, and Colonel McCook's brigade, also of three German (Ohio) regiments, was five miles above Rosecrans' camp on Gauley Mount; General Benham's brigade was at Cannelton, eleven miles below Gauley Bridge; Colonel Tyler held Charleston, with the Seventh Ohio and the Second Virginia regiments. These commands all were small. The summer campaign had been severe and handreds of the finest troops were disabled from active service. The press of reenforcements was for the East. No thought apparently was given to the Western Virginia corps, which had done so much in so brief a period. Eastern Tennessee was left to its fate. Kentucky was in extreme peril. Missouri hung in the balance. All interest, all effort, scemed to centre in the one movement upon Manassas, where, it was given out, the great battle was to be fought which was to decide the fate of the rebellion. That battle not only was not fought, but the movement on Manassas was a failure, in the worst sense of the word: it was taken without a blow, and the rebel host quietly and liesurely with drew, to compel the Federals to make another six months campaign in "approaches" to Richmond. Manassas was taken, but the rebellion had gathered new strength by the evacuation.



Kentucky's Loyalty.

NOTWITHSTANDING the neutrality which the Governor of Kentucky had proclaimed, May 20th, [see page 170,] and the semi-endorsement obtained for that anomalous position by the affirmative action of the State Senate, May 24th, [see page 171]-notwithstanding the Appeal to the Border State Convention, (composed of a mere corporal's guard of delegates,) for the people to "be steady in their (then) present position" [see page 172], the State drifted slowly but surely in the right direction. July 1st the election for members to the National Congress resulted in a heavy Union majority. As the candidates had been nominated on the real issue of secession or no secession, the vote indicated how immensely in the ascendant was the loyal element.

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Kentucky's Loyalty.

States, the great majority of the people were not proprietors in man-property; and, permitted to express their wishes without the fear of rebel bayonets, they declared for the Union without qualification.

The Governor of the State represented, in sentiment, the slave proprietary, and was, therefore, strenuously active in pressing the "neutral" condition of affairs voted for by the extra session of the Legislature; while the commanding General of the "State Guards"-called out to sustain the "honor of Kentucky soil" by repelling rebels and Federals alike—was known to favor the Confederate cause. But, Kentucky was not Tennessee, to be sold out and delivered, bound, over to the Davis Government; and Magoffin performed his Gubernatorial functions without exciting any popular fears for the result.

We may not recite the thousand and one minor incidents and accidents which attended the term of Buckner's military reign. He was in a constant state of activity, but succeeded in nothing which did not prove his Southern sympathies and his extremely limited loyalty to Kentucky if she should side openly with the Federal Government. The communication remitted by Governor Magoffin to Mr. Lincoln cited the grievances of the neutrals. It was:



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