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cured.-Colonel Garfield comes up with Humphrey Marshall's force south of Paintsville, Ky. A battle follows in which Marshall's command is soon sent flying. See page 424.
Jan. 10. Reconnoissance in force by General McClernand from Cairo to the vicinity of Columbus, Ky., to locate the rebel situation.
Jan. 11.-The enemy burns two large bridges on the Louisville and Nashville railroad between Munfordsville and Bowling Green, expecting Buell's advance in conjunction with Grant's advance from Cairo. Sharp fight between three rebel gunboats from Columbus, Ky., and Commodore Foote's two gunboats Essex and St. Louis, which cover the landing of Grant's forces at Fort Jefferson. The rebel boats driven back, and followed up to the Columbus batteries.-Colonel Garfield, having routed Humphrey Marshall's brigade near Prestonburg, takes possession of that place.
Jan. 12.-The rebels continue the destruction of depots, culverts and property along the line of the Louisville and Nashville railway north of Bowling Green.-Burnside's advance sails from Fortress Monroe for Hatteras inlet.
Jan. 13.-Simon Cameron resigns his seat in the Edwin M. Lincoln cabinet as Secretary of War. Stanton is nominated by the President to the vacancy, and his nomination confirmed on the 14th.
Jan. 19.-Battle at Logan's farm near Mill Spring, Ky. Crittenden's and Zollicoffer's forces defeated by General Thomas with heavy loss; Zollicoffer being among the slain. See pages 426-28,
Jan. 21.-Return to Cairo of McClernand's command from the reconnoissance in force toward Columbus. The expedition was boldly conducted and proved very successful.
Jan. 23.-Stone ladened hulks (second fleet) are sunk in the Maffit channel approach to Charleston. Jan. 26.-Reconnoissance by Colonels Willich and Starkweather up the Nashville and Louisville R. R., from the vicinity of Munfordsville.-Expedition departs from Fort Royal to Savannah harbor.
Jan. 28.-Engagement in the Savannah river estuaries between the Federal gunboats and CommoThe Commodore "redore Tatnall's gunboats. tires."
Jan. 29.-Fifty men of the Thirty-seventh New York, under Lieutenant-Colonel John Burke, start late on the night of the 28th from Heintzelman's division position, push on to a house near Occoquan bridge where a body of rebels are enjoying a dance. The rebels resist with great fury and only surrender after nine Texan rangers, and one officer (a Major) are killed.
Jan 30.-Successful launch of Erricson's iron floating battery Monitor.
NAVAL AND LAND OPERATIONS. THE PORT ROYAL ITS CONSTITUTION AND FORCES. THE FORTS. TERRIFIC SCENE. THE FORTS CAPTURED. OCCUPATION OF THE FORTS BY THE LAND FORCES. TIONS OF SHERMAN ON THE DENTS. NEGROES AND COTTON. TON SEALED. THE BOMBARDMENT AT PENSACOLA
Scott's Programme of
Scott's Programme of
PRIOR to General Scott's | Charleston or Savannah, retirement from the posi- would have served also as tion of General-in-Chief he a base for prosecuting the had fully arranged the entire winter's cam- war into the enemy's very heart-of severing paign. Among other military strokes he had, his important railway connections and of in conjunction with the Navy Department, cutting off his ease of inland transport. It planned the several combined land and sea thus assumed a grave importance as a milexpeditions which resulted so gloriously to itary step. The Burnside expedition proposed the cause of the Government, viz.: those as its work, the severance of direct coast against the forts at Hatteras Inlet, Port Roy- communication between Richmond and al, and Mississippi River (New Orleans). The Charleston-looked to the reduction of Norfirst conception of these enterprises came folk by an approach from the south, and from his room at the War Office; and in his formed the nucleus of an army of occupation room were they arranged in detail. They designed for the reduction of the State and were designed to prelude the grand move-its restoration to the Union. The expedition ments of the winter, of the armics of the against New Orleans looked to the command east and west-avant couriers of coming events. If they now stand alone-as having no relation to advances into the interior and down the Mississippi River-it is only because Scott's plans were but partially carry purposes only after a long season, it was ried out.
of the Mississippi. River and the restoration of Louisiana to Federal rule, as well as an eventual descent upon Mobile and Galveston. If these expeditions answered their prima
from no lack of foresight in their original In the expedition to Port Royal it is true conception; and that they were allowed to the commanders chose the point of attack remain mere isolated adventures is to the after the squadron left Fortress Monroe, and discredit of those responsible for the conduct that its leading object was to secure one or of the war after Scott's withdrawal from two good harbors of refuge where the block-command. When the future sits in judgment ading vessels might find a depot and safe on the nerveless and aimless policy which resort during the winter; but, any point characterized the movements of our arms in chosen-Bull's Bay, Winyaw Bay, Port Royal, the three months succeeding November 1st,
The Port Royal Expedition.
1861, it will be to pronounce a sentence of appertaining to a permadisapprobation if not of condemnation. nent land occupation in an enemy's country. Twentytwo thousand men composed the crews and land forces embarked. Their destination was a mystery Very few, even of those engaged
The Port Royal Expedition.
Seventy-seven vessels sailed and steamed out of Hampton Roads, on the morning of Tuesday, October 29th, stretching out to sea, then heading for the South. It was a fleet of conquest, bearing one of the most superb armaments that ever floated in American waters.* Frigates, sloops-of-war and gunboats were mixed in with stately ocean steamers; while these had in tow numerous small craft-all loaded to their fullest capacity with war materiel and men. For sixty days had the expedition been organizing, gathering not only vessels of war and transports, but also vast stores of everything * The comparative strength of the expedition will be illustrated by a reference to some of the famous naval and land demonstrations of other times. The "Invincible Armada" of Philip II., which sent such a terror through the English heart, was composed of one hundred and thirty-seven vessels of all grades, whose capacity may be inferre when it is announced that they bore on their decks only thirty-one thousand men, counting the crews. The prior demonstration of Philip's father, Charles Vth., on Tunis, numbered five hundred Genoese and Spanish vessels, yet carried only thirty thousand men. of Peter the Great, upon the Caspian sea, numbered two hundred and seventy ships, but embarked no more than twenty thousand men. The expedition of Gustavus Adolphus to Germany, numbered fifteen to eighteen thousand men; that of Jussuf against Candia, thirty thousand; that of Kionperti against the same stronghold, fifty thousand; that of Charles XII. upon Denmark, fifty thousand. Hoche, in his attempted descent upon Ireland, counted twentyfive thousand. Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt, consisted of twenty-three thousand men, with thirteen ships, seventeen frigates, and four hundred transports. Abercrombie's expedition to Egypt numbered twenty thousand men; Cathcart's to Copenhagen, twenty-five thousand; Wellington's to Portugal, fifteen thousand, and to Spain, thirty thonsand. Yet, the amounts of these adventures compared with the terrible guns mounted by the Federal
in the adventure, knew of its ultimate point of operations. The press and people were excited on the topic, and the suspense became intense after it was known that the fleet had actually put to sea. Not until November 10th was the veil lifted and the country permitted to know where the blow had fallen. Then, through reports from rebel sources, it was ascertained that the Port Royal forts had been assailed. A day more sufficed to announce, through the same channel, that the forts had fallen, and the Yankees had made a lodgement on the soil of South Carolina at a vital point.
The squadron as originally organized was composed and officered as follows, though all the gunboats here named did not participate in the bom bardment:
Flag Officer of the Fleet, SAMUEL F. DUPONT.
The transport fleet embraced twenty-two ocean steamers, including such first class craft as the Vanderbilt, Atlantic, Baltic, Cahawba, Ocean Queen, Ariel, Coatzacoalcas, Daniel Webster, &c., &c. There were, besides, seven smaller steamers, two steam tugs, three steam ferry boats and twenty-six sailing vessels,
fleet, were but as old horse pistols to the Minie rifle. Among the latter were the celebrated ships Great Republic, Golden Eagle, &c., &c. All of these ships named were among the most
The English expedition against Washington numbered eight thousand, and against New Orleans fifteen thousand. The French expedition against Al-powerful in our commercial service. We giers thirty thousand. The United States expedition, under General Scott, against Mexico, twelve
thousand five hundred.
mention this to indicate to what extent ship owners co-operated with Government. Their
vessels all were volunteers.
THE PORT ROYAL
The fleet moved out of Hampton Roads in fine order, on the morning of October 29th-the flag ship in the lead, and arrived off Kibben Head (Port Royal harbor entrance) during the night of Sunday and during the day of Monday, November 3d and 4th, after a very tempestuous passage. gale was encountered off the North Carolina coast which much distressed the small craft and heavily ladened transports. Three of them were disabled and returned in safety to Fortress Monroe; two foundered at sea with a loss, however, of only seven lives; two were driven ashore and abandoned. The presence of the several noble ocean steamers, as well as the active exertions of the larger steam vessels of war, saved the weaker transports from general disaster.
any land batteries open, to
Wednesday morning was fixed upon as the moment for the reduction of the enemy's batteries; but, the flag-ship Wabash grounded on Fishing Rip shoal, and did not get off until too late for tide-flow, which her heavy draught required, in order safely to clear the bar and shoals. This unlooked for detention gave the enemy time for reenforcements and additional strengthening of his position. Spades were busy all the day long flinging up the soft sand into protecting walls, and guns appeared at new embrasures. Federal fleet lay riding at anchor, all of Wednesday and night, in the outer roadstead just beyond the reach of the Confederate shot. Thursday (November 7th) was the momentous day. The morning was one of the most beautiful of Southern latitudes. A gentle breeze broke the clear water's face into ripples, as if the Naiades were smiling at the tragedy which portended. Butterflies fluttered through the air, and the songs of Southern birds broke the stillness with their waves of melody. The vessels of war reposed in quiet majesty upon the still sea, as if enjoying the listlessness of lazy life. Beyond them, yet farther away from the rebel guns, swung the transports at their anchors, swarming with the multitudes of brave men anxiously awaiting the clarion which should call them to arms.
Early Monday morning Commander Dupont dispatched gunboats to take soundings and verify the old topographical engineers' survey of the channel. While engaged in this duty the rebel fleet, of five small steamers under cornmand of Commodore Tatnall, late of the United States Navy, put out from one of the estuaries, and engaged the reconnoitering and surveying boats. After a sharp passage the rebel retired-evidently impress-flag-ship on Wednesday evening, at which ed with the smallness of his means to cope with such antagonists. The forts on Hilton head and Bay Point kept silence; nor did
A convocation of officers was held on the
the Commodore unfolded his plan and gave his final orders. At nine o'clock, Thursday morning, the vessels began to move into line
of battle, taking novel and | worked like furies. Their somewhat exciting posi- officer in command, Brigation. The order as arranged was to sail in singly-the flag-ship Wabash first; each vessel to follow in its allotted succession. Pass-fearful hail ? ing slowly up stream, the starboard guns were to pour their fire into the two batteries (or forts) on the Bay Point side-passing down stream, on the return, the battery (or fort) on Hilton Head, was to receive the fire. The vessels thus sailing in an ellipse, passed in and out of range of the enemy's stationary guns, dealing, as they passed in close range, a fearful shower of shot and shell.
dier-General Drayton, was efficient, cool and stubborn; but, what could withstand that
The first shot was fired by the Hilton Head fortification (Fort Walker,) as the Wabash steamed within range, at twenty-six minutes past nine, A. M. Three shots were thus fired. Then the Bay Point batteries opened, when the Wabash responded with a terrific broadside. Her batteries consisted of twenty-six guns to the side, and a heavy pivot-gun fore and aft. These iterally rained their iron shower on the lesser rebel fort (Fort Beauregard). No attention was paid to Fort Walker. The flag-ship steamed slowly up stream, keeping the enemy under fire about twenty minutes, when she winded the line, turning southward, and, steaming down stream, gave Fort Walker her entire attention, passing within eight hundred yards of the Fort, which showed itself to be a powerful work, mounting heavy aad superior guns, whose fire proved them to be, not only improved ordnance, but, well served.
The other vessels followed the same order of action. The Susquehanna,* Pawnee, Seminole, Bienville, Pocahontas, Mohican, Augusta, and the gunboats Ottawa, Seneca, Unadilla, Pembina and Vandalia joined in the fray, firing shell with great rapidity and precision, and making the battery vocal with their practice. The rebels fought their guns with desperate coolness, and fired with a rapidity really surprising under the circumstances. In Fort Walker-against which the Federals
directed their chief effort the Confederate gunners were stripped to the waist, and
* The Susquehanna, Bienville and Vandalia joined the expedition as it passed their stations on the blockade.
Around the course the stately messengers of destruction moved, never faltering, never failing to come up to the work with exhaustless fury. The smaller gunboats soon obtained a position close into shore to the north, where the fort guns were enfiladed, while the Bienville sailed in, at the second round, close to the work, and gave her tremendous guns with such fearful effect that the enemy's best guns were soon silenced, yet not until the vessel had been well spotted with the enemy's shot. The Wabash also came to a stand, at the third round, about six hundred yards from the fort. That moment decided the day. No human power could face such a death storm; the enemy suddenly fled, taking to the woods in the rear with such haste as allowed no time for any to gather up even the most prized of their goods.
The firing ceased a few minutes past two P. M.-the battle having thus been waged with stubborn fierceness for over four hours. Discovering that the enemy had probably evacuated, Commander Rodgers - aid to went ashore in the Flag-Officer DupontMercury to find the fort's defenders all gone. With his own hands he hauled down the rebel colors and flung the Stars and Stripes to the breeze. Then followed such a shout from the watching thousands as must have made appalling music for the Southern heart. Fort Walker had fallen and South Carolina was "invaded." The "dastard Yankee" had opened a way into her very vitals.
As stated, the Confederate commander of the larger fort was General Drayton, of Charleston. He was brother to Commander Drayton of the Federal gunboat Pocahontasoffering one of many cases which occurred during the war wherein brother was pitted against brother. Captain Steadman of the Bienville, who fought with great fury and determination, was a South Carolinian-one of the very few instances of loyalty in officers from that State.
The troops engaged in Fort Walker were the Twelfth regiment of South Carolina vol