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ment will be transported to the military prison at Tuscaloosa, and be confined there during the war. Bridge burners and destroyers of railroad tracks are excepted from among those pardonable. They will be tried by drum-head court-martial and hung on the spot."

answered: "All such as can be identified as

The Russelville Scces. sion Convention.

claiming revolution; providing for a Sovereignty Convention," to be held at Russelville Nov. 18th; recommending the or beganization of County Guards, to be placed in the service of and to be paid by the Confederate This, though done by authority of General Government; pledging resistance to all FedeCarroll, commanding at Knoxville, was sim-ral and State taxes for the prosecution of the ply in accordance with the wishes of the war; appointing a committee, composed of Confederate War Department. Secretary Robert McKee, John C. Breckenridge, HumJudas P. Benjamin, being asked what dispo-phrey Marshall, George W. Ewing, H. W. sition should be made of the bridge burners, Bruce, George P. Hodge, William Preston, George W. Johnson, Blanton Duncan and P. B. Thompson, to carry out the wishes of the Conference. The "Sovereign Convention" met at the designated time and proceeded to the inauguration of a Provisional Government, passing an ordinance of secession, and adopting a plan of government. This plan contemplated the election, by the Convention, of a Governor and ten Councillors. These persons were clothed with abso lute power-making all laws, appointing all State officers, making treaties, controlling army and navy, &c., &c. They also elected the Senators and Representatives to be sent to the Confederate Congress. They were to

having been engaged in bridge burning, are to be tried summarily by drum-head courtmartial, and, if found guilty, executed on the spot. It would be well to leave their bodies hanging in the vicinity of the burnt bridges." This was the spirit of Confederate humanity towards citizens of the South whose loyalty to the Union led them to take up arms in its


The Russelville Seces

sion Convention.

The "Conference" at Russelville, Kentucky, October 28th, claims notice at this point. It was composed of a number of leading secessionists and disloyal persons professing to "represent" forty counties. Its sessions continued through two days, with closed doors, and resulted in the passage of resolutions reciting the unconstitutional and oppressive acts of the State Legislature; pro

Hensie for bridge burning. Fry was brother to Captain Fry, already referred to. The bodies were hung from the limb of a tree close to the railway track, that persons in passing might strike them with canes and switches. They hung there for four

days before burial, as suggested by the Confederate Secretary of War. This reign of terror continued for many months. When Jefferson Davis called General McNeil, of Missouri, to account for hanging seven guerrillas" who, besides numerous outrages, had murdered an inoffensive old citizen in a cold-blooded manner-no one would have inferred that the indignant President had commissioned the prosecutors of the Unionists to their bloody work. No one reading his celebrated black flag" proclamation of December 23d, 1862, would have supposed that the Confederate Law Giver had, from the very beginning, sanctioned the most heartless and bloody usage of every loyal Union man found in his dominions. He and his emissaries showed no mercy to any Southern man guilty of repudiating the Confederate flag.

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provide "by law" for the election of the Rep

resentatives, but as the "Council" was law, it "elected" them and "appointed" the Senators. Bowling Green was to become the temporary capital.

This rather laughable legislation fully illustrates the supreme authority assumed by the self-constituted directors of affairs in the South. The Conventions, as we have already shown, sat in permanent sessions, overriding State Legislatures and enacting laws at their will. In not one single instance-save in that of South Carolina-were the Conventions elected by the people for any other purpose than to consider what was best to be done. If "co-operation" was resolved upon, the Conventions were to draft ordinances of secession, to be submitted to the people for ratification. But, with the sublime effrontery which characterized all the preliminary stages of the revolution, the Conventions, once in power, defied all other power, and became supreme: they controlled the destinies of the States. Creating a whirlwind, they rode on the storm, sedulously augmint



Kentucky's Qnota.

ed, into power and Confederate greatness. | of Kentucky to call into the field for twelve Kentucky was slow to perceive the use of a months duty, "to repel invasion." These 'Convention" at all-hence, one never was men were not all ready, however, until the called; but, the Confederacy wanted the Spring of 1862. The total number of men State, on its slate at least-just as it had Mis- enlisted in the United States souri, for a good showing; the Convention service from Kentucky was was forthcoming whether the people willed stated by the Military Board to have been or not. The State was voted out of the 18,812 at the date of November 7th. This Union, a "provisional" Governor and Coun- number did not include those called into sercil were chosen, Representatives and Sena- vice prior to the organization of the Boardtors were sent to the Confederate Congress Rosseau's first brigade and Jackson's cavalry all by the "patriotism" of about forty men. being composed of these early enlistments. We say the proceedings were laughable: they It will be perceived by these figures how certainly were wicked enough, but, after all, loyal the great mass of Kentuckians were, were too absurd for serious consideration. while they serve also the good purpose of Their only significance is to indicate the pro- correcting the assumptions of Breckenridge, clivity of the revolution towards usurpation. Buckner, Marshall, Burnett and ex-Governor The Kentucky people, however, were proof Morehead, that "neutrality" was the choice against schemes of designing men. Could as of the people, and that, therefore, in its loyal much have been said of other States, a action the Legislature had betrayed the State. Southern Confederacy would have been but By March 1st, 1862, there were about thirty the dream of a few Pro-slavery fanatics. thousand Kentuckians in the field Ken[We give the Ordinance of Secession and the tucky's vote at the Presidential election 1860 "Plan of Provisional Government" in the was 146,216. Her contribution of troops Appendix more as matters of curiosity than was, using these figures as the basis of her for their importance to history. We do not population capable of bearing arms (omitrefer to the installation of "Governor" John- ting the usual per centage of one-fifth for perston, nor quote from his "message"-deem- sons exempt by age, disease, &c.), equal to ing them matters of as slight importance as more than one out of every four of her ableone of General Pillow's proclamations.] bodied men.

Buell's Force in the


The Rebel Lines and

General Buell reached The concentration of ConLouisville November 15th, federate forces at Bowling and soon assumed comGreen and Columbus was mand. He withdrew Nelson from Eastern heavy during November and December. Kentucky, strengthened Thomas at Danville General Johnston, Commander-in-Chief in while his advance was diverted toward Som- the Mississippi valley, resolvod to hold both erset. The divisions and brigades of Mc- positions at all hazards, as well as to keep Cook, Rosseau, Johnson, Wood, Negley and the Unionists from Tennessee on the west. Mitchell, secured the lines established by To this end he labored with untiring assiduSherman. The general movement of Fed-ity and with success. The States of Texas, eral forces looked to the capture of Bowling Green by flank and front approaches. The number of troops as indicated by the Department pay rolls (Dec. 10th) was sixtytwo regiments; during December this number was reenforced heavily. Ten Indiana, twelve Ohio and six Illinois-full twenty-five thousand strong-were among the number of troops placed at Buell's disposal. To this should be added in December the State quota of ten regiments which the General Goverument authorized the State Military Board

Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas and Tennessee all responded liberally to nis call; every confidence was felt in his ability to hold the Federals in check. The building of gunboats at several points on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers inspired the Confederates with no particular alarm. Memphis, Columbus and Island No. 10 were deemed impregnable to the passage of any fleet down the Father of Waters.' Powerful forts were erected on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, near the State line, equal, it was supposed, to the task

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The Rebel Lines and

The Fight at Munfordsville.

"McCook's division is at Munfordsville, General Mitchell at Bacon's Creek. Zollicoffer is either re

treating across the Cumberland river or is prepar

"General McCook reported that the rebels attacked my pickets in front of the rnilroad bridge at two o'clock to-day. The picket consisted of four companies of the Thirty-second Indiana, Colonel

of securing those fine General Buell telegraphstreams from Federal use. ed to headquarters under A rebel correspondent,writ- | date of December 18th as ing from Bowling Green, under date of Nov. follows: 29th, said: "Importance undoubtedly is attached to the menacing attitude being assumed, and the extensive preparations being made for a speedy attack, by land and water,ing to do so at the approach of any superior force. upon Columbus; but that this division is as seriously threatened as is that of General Polk is patent to all acquainted with the force intended to operate against both fronts, General Johnston rightly estimates the necessity of holding this place at all hazards, and its strength is not to be weakened by the permanent removal of any considerable por-eight enlisted men killed and ten wounded. The tion of the troops now here. Neither will this army go into winter quarters without having struck a fearful blow, which may be decisive of the fate of Kentucky."

Willich, under Lieutenant-Colonel Van Trebra. Their forces consisted of one regiment of Texan rangers, two regiments of infantry, and one battery of six guns. Our loss was, Lieutenant Sachs and

rebel loss was thirty three killed, including the Colonel of the Texan rangers, and about fifty wounded. The rebels retreated ingloriously."

The skirmish here referred to amounted to a well ordered battle on a small scale. It occurred at Rowlett's Station, south of Munfordsville. A rebel force under BrigadierGeneral T. C. Hindman, of General Hardee's division, consisting of two regiments of Arkansas volunteers, one of Texan cavalry and a four gun battery, advanced to force the Fed

stroy a newly erected bridge over the stream. Colonel Willich's regiment-the Thirty-second Indiana, composed exclusively of, and commanded by, Germans-held the Federal advance, and had thrown four companies as pickets forward to the station. Shortly after one o'clock Dec. 18th, the scouts reported rebels in the woods around, when two companies (Second and Third) were ordered forward by Lieutenant-Colonel Trebra to skir mish-the remaining companies of the regiment at the same time being called to the field. The skirmishers pressed the enemy so hard and so effectually as to drive his recon

Buell was kept fully informed of every rebel movement and of the force at particular points, by loyal Kentuckians who came in constantly from every county. His delays to push the advance already inaugurated by his predecessor, were occasioned by the rapid concentration of the enemy on his front. Their strength in the field and in fortifica-eral pickets back over Green river and to detions was so great that it became necessary to augment his own strength fully fifty per cent. beyond what was first contemplated as necessary to carry the war into Tennessee. Hence, the powerful reenforcements detailed to his department during December. Hence, also, the creation, Dec. 23d, of the new department of Cairo, which embraced Southern Illinois, that portion of Kentucky lying west of the Cumberland river and the tier of counties in Missouri bordering on the Mississippi river south of Cape Girardeau. Of this department General Grant assumed command. He at once prepared for the bril-noitering advance back half a mile to his liant campaign up the Tennessee and Cumberland that quickly followed, by which the enemy's lines were cut, his strong positions at Columbus and Bowling Green so entirely turned as to compel their hasty evacuation, and his entire occupation of Kentucky soil rendered worse than a defeat, since his retreat opened the way to Nashville, at

The Department of



main line. A section of the Texas cavalry then suddenly dashed forward showing the gallant Germans that they must fight their way back. The retreat was in solid square over an open field, into which the cavalry, confident in numbers and strength, dashed with reckless spirit. The ruse succeeded: the two remaining companies, posted in the woods on each side of the field, opened on




with difficulty restrained from pushing over to engage the enemy; but, two regimentsthe Forty-ninth Ohio and Thirty-ninth Indiana-were permitted to cross in order to save Willich's men from defeat.

Much interest centered in the movements of Zolli

His advance to

Zollicoffer's Second


the cavalry with fatal effect. The horsemen | tire division from Bacon creek to Munfordswere brought to a stand, when their infantry | ville on the day of the fight. His men were supports came forward. At the same time the six companies of the Indianians left on the north side of the river took flank positions, right and left, and the fight for one hour was most obstinately contested. Several times the enemy feigned retreat to draw the Federals under their artillery fire but did not succeed. Hopeless in this their battery finally opened from its masked position, with all its power, covering a second charge by the Texans. Hard pressed the Germans fell back slowly but in perfect order, until relieved by the advance of two regiments from McCook's division, under his own command. The enemy, in turn, retired from this demonstration, badly cut up by the guns of Captains Stone's and Cutter's batteColonel Terry of the Texan cavalry was killed in gallantly striving to cover the retrograde movement. [Hindman in his report stated that Terry was killed in leading the first assault.]


The Fight at Munfordsville.

In this affair Willich's

men behaved with com

mendable courage and dis cipline. They maintained the field only by excellent handling. Colonel Willich arrived on the ground when the enemy was pressing his companies back at the last assault. His presence kept all cool and determined. Lieutenant-Colonel Trebra acted throughout with skill and good judgment.

The Federal loss was eleven killed, and twenty-one wounded. Lieutenant Max Sachs, of company C, was pierced by six balls. The enemy's loss is not known. Hindman reported it as four killed, and ten wounded. Considering that there was much close quarter fighting-that the Germans fought chiefly under cover of the woods-that the regiment was armed with the Belgian musket, which the men handled with great efficiency-the mere statement of Hindman to the contrary, does not forbid the supposition of serious loss on the enemy's part.

That Hindman's force was not captured entire, or cut to pieces, was owing to orders not to cross Green river, so as to bring on an engagement. McCook marched with his en

the Cumberland river during the second week
of December, was followed by reenforce-
ments, until his troops numbered about six
thousand strong. With this force he prepar-
ed, by entrenching on both sides of the river,
at the junction with White Oak creek, about
six miles from Somerset, to retain such a po-
sition in Kentucky as would hold Thomas'
forces in check. Schoepff, after his Wild Cat
success, was ordered to Somerset. The move-
ment against Cumberland Gap was thus ar-
rested. Buell's design was to use the divi-
sion of Thomas as a flank and rear advance
upon Bowling Green. To this end the East-
ern Tennessee campaign was at least tempo-
rarily abandoned. The Confederates; quick
to detect the strategy, were as quick to profit
by it.

General Johnston at once ordered Zollicoffer to assume the offensive by taking such a position as would retain Thomas from his flank advance. The choice was made of the very strong position on the Cumberland, at and opposite Mill Springs, where natural barriers were quickly transformed into almost impregnable fastnesses. At this point the Confederate sympathisers from Eastern Kentucky gathered in considerable numbers, and the rebel camp soon became a terror to the Southern tier of counties. Atrocities of every conceivable nature were perpetrated, seemingly upon friend and foe alike. "Zollicoffer's Den" soon assumed its place in history as a general rendezvous of all the worst elements of Kentucky and Tennessee life.

Humphrey Marshall's


The withdrawal, by Buell, of Nelson from his career of successes in the west fork of the Big Sandy, left that region open to Confederate occupancy. Humphrey Marshall, a leading citizen of Kentucky, having gone over to the Southern cause, opened

a rendezvous at Paintsville, in Johnson coun- | pass infantry, artillery and trains over with ty, where he rapidly gathered a brigade com- | freedom, and thus to provide for the continposed chiefly of Kentuckians, who, influenced gencies of a retreat as well as an advance in by his inflamatory appeals, cast their fortunes force. The delay, in all probability, was exwith his own. His friend John C. Brecken- tended in order to give time for Thomas' ridge, at the same time, was in command of movements, designed to make an end of Zola similar brigade at Bowling Green. Mar- licoffer's demonstration. shall was an 66 old line Whig"-Breckenridge an "old line Democrat ;" they struck palms when the Southern Confederacy commanded. Life-long political enemies fraternized with a zeal indicative either of remarkable devotion to the Southern idea, or of remarkable recklessness of consequences.

Rout of Marshall's

Marshall was soon disposed of by Colonel Garland, who entered Paintsville January 7th, with two regiments and three hundred cavalry. Hearing of this approach, the rebel commander beat a rapid retreat, leaving behind him a strongly entrenched camp. He was pursued by the Federal cavalry to the mouth of Jennis creek, where a sharp skirmish took place, in which the rebel rear guard was badly worsted. Garland followed, January 9th, with eleven hundred men, and came up with the enemy's pickets two miles below Prestonburg. Marshall had made a stand at the forks of Middle creek. At noon of January 10th, Garland was in hot action with him. Marshall had about two thousand five hundred men and three guns, all well posted. The fight lasted until dark-the Federals being reenforced by seven hundred infantry from Paintsville. In the night Humphrey fled, leaving twenty-seven of his dead on the field. Garfield occupied the village of Prestonburg, from which Nelson had but two months before driven "Cerro Gordo" Williams. This was the last of Marshall for some weeks, and Eastern Kentucky, for the second time, was pronounced "cleared."

These little affairs, though gallantly executed, served scarcely to arrest notice. All attention was directed to the front and flank movements of Buell's army. The general movement upon and over the line of Green river did not immediately follow the skirmish at Munfordsville, December 18th. Three weeks were spent in reconstructing the bridge at that important point, so as to

Zollicoffer's Move


This Tennessee leader had issued his proclamation, dated from Beech Grove, December 16th, 1861, addressed to the people of South-eastern Kentucky, and designed especially to inflame the minds of all against the Federal Government. It was his hope to excite a general uprising, offering his camp as a rallying point. It accomplished nothing save to gather in the rebel camp a large number of vagabonds whom Kentucky had called citizens, but whose absence was a source of congratulation, particularly to all property holders.

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Thomas' March to the

Thomas rendezvoused his division--the 4th of Buell's army at Columbia, in Adair county. The different brigade encampments at Lebanon, Bardstown and Loudon were deserted. He moved from Columbia via Jamestown to the Cumberland. The design was to engage Zollicoffer upon the front Schopff co-operating by advancing upon the enemy by way of Fishing Creekwhile a strong force was to pass over the river to the rebel rear, reaching Monticello in time to cut off his retreat from Mill Springs. The plan to bag the enemy en masse was well arranged but failed owing chiefly to the rebel counter-movement. Without waiting for the threatened assault, Zollicoffer and Crittenden moved forward from the camp at White Oak creek, and engaged the Federalists before they were prepared for it.* This disconcert

*An account of the rebel movements written by one evidently in high command, and published in a Richmond journal Feb. 4th, stated that the want of rations and forage was so great as to have compell

ed the Confederate abandonment of the campaign even if Thomas had not advanced. A council of commanders was held on the evening of Jan. 18th, when the attack on Thomas was determined upon, against, it would appear, the judgment of several of the Colonels. Only two days rations were then in camp. The attack resulted in a defeat only because

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