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Movements of Federal Regiments.

ed Thomas' plans so far as to compel him to | of the Twelfth Kentucky,
use all his available force and a portion of
Schopff's command to repel the attack.
On Thursday, Jan. 17th,
The Camp at Logan's the Ninth Ohio, Colonel R.
L. McCook; the Second
Minnesota, Colonel H. P. VanCleve; the
Tenth Indiana, Colonel M. D. Manson; the
Fourth Kentucky, Colonel S. S. Fry; a bat-
talion of the First Kentucky cavalry, Colonel
Wolford; and Kinney's battery, arrived at
Logan's cross roads about ten miles from the
rebel camp at Beech Grove on the Cumber-
land, at the mouth of White Oak creek. The
march was excessively wearisome, and the
troops arrived at Logan's place in an exhaust-
ed condition. Thomas there pitched his
camp, to await the arrival of the rest of his
division, comprising the Fourth and Tenth
Kentucky, the Fourteenth Ohio and Eigh-
teenth United States regulars, with Wetmore's
battery. That evening he was visited by
General Schoepff, whose command was then
near to Somerset, about eight miles from
Logan's farm. On Friday the Fourteenth
Ohio, Colonel Steedman; the Tenth Ken-
tucky, Colonel Harlan; a section of the First
Michigan Engineers, Lieutenant-Colonel Hus-
ton, and a battery reached the camp in a
greatly exhausted condition, having marched
in a direct line from Columbia, constructing
a road as they moved. The regulars failed
to come up in season to participate in the
action or pursuit.

the First and Second Ten-
nessee and Captain W. E.
Standart's battery-proceeded, on the Co-
lumbia road, to Fishing creek, where they
awaited orders. They were soon directed to
report at Logan's place, and, wading the
swollen stream, reached that camp at midnight
in a wretched plight. The rest of Schopff's
force-comprising the Seventeenth, Thirty-
first and Thirty-fifth Ohio-marched to a
lower ford on Fishing creek-leaving the
Thirty-eighth Ohio in the camp at Somerset,
to guard it. Attempting to cross, only one
regiment had reached the western shore at
nightfall when orders came from Thomas for
the three regiments to return to their camp
near Somerset, where they could be rendered
quickly available in case of need. These
marches and counter marches it is supposed
were designed to puzzle the enemy. They at
least had that result. Being informed that
the Federal forces were distributed in several
commands, the rebel council of war, held
Saturday evening, resolved to advance upon
Logan's place, where they hoped to surprise
Thomas and his supposed small command.

Movements of Federal Troops.

Early Saturday morning the Fourteenth Ohio and Tenth Kentucky were dispatched on a reconnoissance to the Cumberland river. They pushed on through a drenching rain, close to the rebel camp at White Oak creek, and returned late in the afternoon, almost exhausted with fatigue and exposure, to report the enemy still in his old position. The same morning a portion of Schoepff's force (Carter's brigade)—composed

of the death of Zollicoffer, was the writer's opinion. The rebel press, however, charged treachery upon General Crittenden as the cause of the unwelcome disaster. This charge was simply absurd. Crittenden may have been drunk as alleged, but he fought well and retreated in good order considering the extent of the disaster to his command.

On the morning of Sunday the Federal regiments were distributed as follows, at and around the cross roads at Logan's farm, viz: the Ninth Ohio and Second Minnesota on the right of the road to Hart's ford; on the left Carter's brigade; in advance of both and between them lay the Fourth Kentucky, the Tenth Indiana and Standart's and Wetmore's batteries. A section (one hundred and twenty) of Wolford's Kentucky cavalry, also stood on outpost duty in front of the Tenth IndiaThe residue of the cavalry was out on scout and picket duty. The Fourteenth Ohio and the Tenth Kentucky lay away to the north-east of the cross roads, about eight miles distance on detached duty. The force at Thomas' immediate call was, therefore, but seven regiments, three batteries and a battalion of cavalry.


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owing to the almost impassable condition of | dered his right wing com-
the roads, it was three o'clock Sunday morn-panies to fall back upon
ing before the rebel advance (Zollicoffer's his left. At that moment
brigade, composed of four regiments and a
battery of four guns) arrived within one mile
of the Federal pickets. There they halted,
awaiting, in a deluge of rain, the coming up
of the rest of their force under General Car-
roll. It was nearly seven o'clock before the
Federal pickets (Wolford's cavalry) were
driven in. The cavalry fell back to their
lines, and reenforced to a battalion, again
rode forward to engage what was supposed
to be a foraging party. They advanced down
the Mill Spring road to discover the enemy's
heavy columns coming on over the hills.
The alarm was quickly given, and a half
hour sufficed to dispose the
entire seven Federal regi-
ments in position to re-
ceive their not unwelcome assailants. The
Tenth Indiana, under command of Lieuten-
ant-Colonel W. C. Kise, moved forward to
the support of its two companies stationed
as pickets one mile in advance on the direct
road to the Cumberland.* It arrived on the
ground to find the pickets hotly engaged
Colonel Kise quickly threw his force into the
woods, five companies to the right of the
road and five to the left. The battle then
opened in earnest. The Indianians held
their ground firmly and kept the infuriated
enemy at bay, but suffered severely. Four
rebel regiments were held by their fire for
half an hour, when Colonel Kise observed
cavalry flanking him on the right. He or-

Battle of Mill

* This statement varies from General Thomas' official report. He said: "Upon my arrival on the field, I found the Tenth Indiana formed in front of

their encampment, apparently awaiting orders, when I ordered them forward to the support of the Fourth Kentucky, which was the only regiment then engaged." Our statement, we believe, however, to be correct. The account of every correspondent on the field gives to the Indianians the honor of being first in the field. Colonel Kise, in his report, explicitly narrates the movements to the field, to the support of his pickets, and he also explicitly states that he fought until his right wing was forced to retire (about half an hour) before the Kentuckians came to his help. Thomas' report evidently was grounded upon partial information.

Battle of Mill

the Fourth Kentucky sprung into the field uttering a shout which made the woods echo with one wild huzza. This regiment was composed of new troops, but hearts of fire burned beneath every gray coat, and they fought with unflinching fury. Their Colonel passed along the lines inspiriting all by his example. These two regiments sustained the unequal conflict alone for a half hour after the Kentuckians came into the field on the Indianians' left wing; when Colonel Manson, commanding the brigade, was forced to fall slowly back to escape being outflanked. Colonel McCook's forces-the Ninth Ohio and Second Minnesota-were then thrown into the conflict, the Minnesotians occupying the ground just vacated by the retiring troops; while the Ninth Ohio, passing to the left, checked the enemy's attempted flank movement. This regiment" McCook's own" - was composed almost wholly of Germans, and like all Teutonic regiments, knew better how to advance than to retreat. The Germans soon found themselves face to face with their foe-a small field about eighty yards wide intervening, while the rebels held a corn crib, a log house and stable in the field, only fifty yards away. In the woods beyond and along the fence bounding the field, the enemy found excellent cover, and used it with spirit. The Minnesota men, holding what then was the Federal right wing, fought with astonishing intrepidity, not only holding in check the three regiments on their front, but pressing back their lines to their first position. McCook, in his report, said:

"Along the lines of each of the regiments, and from the enemy's front a hot and deadly fire was opened. On the right wing of the Minnesota regiment the contest was, at first, almost hand to hand -the enemy and the Minnesota men poking their guns through the same fence at each other. How ever, before the fight continued long in this way, that portion of the enemy contending with the Second Minnesota retired in good order to some rail piles hastily thrown together-the point from which they had first advanced upon the Fourth Kentucky. This portion of the enemy obstinately maintaining its position, and the balance remaining as before described, (in front of the Ninth Ohio.) A desper



Battle of Mill


ate fire was continued for about thirty minutes with seemingly doubtful result. The importance of possessing the log house, stable and corn crib becoming apparent, companies A, B, C and D of the Ninth Ohio were ordered to flank the enemy's extreme left and obtain possession of the house. This done, still the enemy stood firm to his Position and cover."

The Fourth Kentucky and Tenth Indiana kept the field to the last. McCook's two regiments were about in the position first held by the brigade of Colonel Manson, and from which it had been temporarily driven. But, it was only for a moment. The Kentuckians walked into the fight along with McCook's men, taking position on their left. The Tenth Indiana men were still divided, one half on each wing of the Kentuckians. The enemy appearing on the Kentucky left, General Thomas (who was on the field ordering the entire battle) directed the regiment (Tenth Indiana) to consolidate and move to that part of the field threatened. It passed promptly to the line of battle and again became obstinately engaged. After a half hour's struggle, the rebels were forced from their rail fence defense back into the woods beyond the Indianians bayonetting some of the most obstinate of the enemy through the fence. This success was followed by the regiments again changing location, this time to the Kentucky right, where the conflict was very stubborn.

This was the moment which decided the fortunes of the day. The roar of arms was answered by the lightning and thunder of Heaven's artillery. The showers of balls went hissing and cutting through limbs and undergrowth like the deluge of rain which came down as if to wipe out the blood-stains everywhere marking the soil. The enemy's artillery (four guns) having a good position on a rise of ground beyond the field, played rapidly but harmlessly into the woods-the round shot and canister cutting the tree tops, so badly were the guns served. A section of Kinney's battery, stationed on the Fourth Kentucky's left, during the second stage of the conflict, was worked with precision, and worried the enemy's ranks wherever they appeared en masse.

Thus we arrive at the last stages of the battle, referred to by Thomas, in his report :

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Battle of Mill Spring.

Immediately after the regiments had gained their positions, the enemy opened a most determined and galling fire, which was returned by our troops in the same spirit, and for nearly half-an-hour the contest was maintained, on both sides, in the most obstinate manner. At this time, the Twelfth Kentucky (Colonel W. A. Haskins) and the Tennes see brigade (Carter's) reached the field to the left of the Second Minnesota, and opened their fire on the right flank of the enemy, who then began to fall back. The Second Minnesota kept up a most gall

ing fire in front, and the Ninth Ohio charged the enemy on the right, with fixed bayonets, turned their flank and drove them from the field--their whole line giving way and retreating in the utmost confusion."

That charge of the Germans settled the strife. McCook gave the order to empty guns and fix bayonets. Then, moving along in front, he cried: "My invincible Germans, charge!" With a shout, the regiment to a man leaped from cover, and dashed over the field. The enemy stood but a moment. The log house, barn, &c., were abandoned-only about a score of rebels standing to be bayonetted and crushed by the advancing host. This shock caused the whole Confederate line to waver. Then the rest of the Federal line, fairly blazing in its fire, burst from cover and advanced. In a moment the rout of their foe was complete, and the battle of Mill Spring was won.*

The Pursuit.



The pursuit was unworthy of the gallant army. Confessing the enemy to have retreated disorder," Thomas yet gave no excuse for the inefficient pursuit made. Wolford's cavalry, dismounting, had fought with efficiency in the ranks of the Tenth Indiana; their horses were, therefore, fresh. The Tennessee brigade (Carter's) was quite fresh, having fought but little and having marched but a short distance. Nor were any of the regiments most engaged too exhausted for a vigorous and dashing assault upon the flying mass. Tho

*This battle, like many others of the war, was misnamed. It was not fought within eight miles of Mill Spring. It should be called the Battle of Logan's Farm.

The Pursuit.

mas stated that, as soon as the regiments could be re-formed and their cartridge boxes refilled" an advance" was ordered; but the movement, executed evidently with great military precision, was not rapid enough to do the disorganized enemy any harm, and he escaped to his White Oak creek entrenchments with no loss from pursuit. The Federal advance, early in the afternoon, came up to the entrenched camp, and, deploying in formal line-of-battle a furious cannonade was kept up until dark, by Standart's, Wetmore's and Kinney's batteries. An instantaneous assault would have secured the entire Confederate force. When Monday morning came the Federal regiments — strengthened by Schoepff's command, by the Fourteenth Ohio and the Tenth Kentucky-prepared for the assault. At the word, a simultaneous rush was made along the entire Federal line; the hills were mounted, the trenches passed, the embankments scaled, to find the camp property there but not a man for its defense. Twelve guns with caissons well filled, one battery wagon, two forges, considerable ammunition and a promiscuous quantity of small arms and muskets; one thousand mules and horses, a considerable stock of rough commissary stores; the entire camp and garrison equippage, fell into Federal hands. Their destruction would have

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announced to the assailants the evacuation

going on; hence, all the property and materiel were left comparatively intact. The enemy had escaped over the river by the use of a single steamer, which, having been destroyed after it had answered for the safety of the entire rebel force, left Thomas no means of crossing for further pursuit. The

rebel force then retired at leisure.

The Losses.

The losses in this battle were not as severe as might have been inferred from the obstinate nature of the fight. Thomas reported his casualties as follows:

Ninth Ohio........

Second Minnesota..

The wounded included thirteen commis

sioned officers. Only one commissioned officer (of Wolford's cavalry) was killed.

Thomas also reported the rebel loss to be one hundred and ninety killed and left on the field, including General Zollicoffer; sixtytwo wounded, left on the field, and eightynine prisoners not wounded. As many of the killed and wounded were borne off the field by the enemy, the above does not correctly represent the Confederate losses. The real casualties were not made public by the Confederate authorities.

The rebel forces which
out to assail
Thomas were ascertained

The Rebel Force

to have been as follows:
Under Zollicoffer: the Fifteenth Mississippi,
Colonel Walthall; Nineteenth Tennessee,
Colonel Cummings; Twentieth Tennessee,
Captain Battle; Twenty-fifth Tennessee, Cap-
tain Stanton, and a battery of four guns, Cap-
tain Rutledge.

Under General Carroll: Seventeenth Ten

nessee, Colonel Newman; Twenty-eighth Tennessee, Colonel Munger; Twenty-ninth Tennessee, Colonel Powell, with a battery of two guns, Captain McClung.


The reserve consisted of the Sixteenth Ala

bama, Colonel Wood, and two battalions of cavalry. Two battalions moved in Zollicoffer's advance. Several independent companies of ‘rangers” and “mountain boys” also held a place in the advance column. All told in numbers, the force under General Crittenden, which assailed Thomas' brigades, was about ten thousand strong.

Demoralized beyond hope of reorganization, the rebels quickly retreated from their fortifications at Mill Springs, leaving no further work for Thomas, in that quarter, except to push on into East Tennessee by Pound Gap, or Walker's Gap, or by the direct route to Huntsville, passing Cumberland Gap to the west. But, the exciting nature of the campaign then progressing up the Cumberland Wou ded. and Tennessee rivers, impelled Buell to divert the division from further progress toward Knoxville. It soon reversed its order of march by again co-operating with the advance against Bowling Green and Nashville..





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Fast Day.

Vindictiveness to

wards the North.

AFFAIRS in the Confede- | course it did not prevent rate States during the last the South from being demonths of the year 1861 were, if "the pa-pendent on that very class pers" are authority, neither hopeless nor un- for their best schools, their best teachers and satisfactory. President Davis in his procla- | preachers, their best commerce and their best mation setting apart November 15th as a Fast day, used the terms “fasting, humiliation and prayer;" but, the general tone of the invocation was one of thanks for victory won. As compared with his first proclamation for a Fast day (June 13th, 1861) the second gave evidence of a slight progress toward a consciousness of sin, for it embodied the word "humiliation." The first did not-it prayed standing; the second brought the Confeder-ments towarcs the Northern people. When ates to their knees, and, in that respect, leaves us to infer that there was less confidence in their hearts than their words of victories won would imply.

Vindictiveness toward the North.

hopes for the future. Their terms of opprobrium simply served to indicate that undertone of scurrility and insolence which a slave ownership ever has and ever will engender. But, no matter what the cause, the effect was none the less deplorable. The vocabulary of vile terms was exhausted-new words were coined and phrases compounded-all in the endeavor to give utterance to their senti

words and utterance failed Southern "ladies" would spit upon such 'Yankees' as came in their way-would lift their skirts in passing that they should not be contamiThe tone of the South-ted by the touch of Yankee breeches. It was ern press was not improved laughable yet painful, proving as it did the -it literally could be no existence of a demoralization in Southern somore malignant. In this it reflected the para-ciety incompatible with personal dignity and mount feeling apparently prevalent in all white circles. From the lips of the highest and the lowest, from male and female, from old and young, burst a volcano of epithet and imprecation upon the Yankees' that would have been appalling to one not well versed in Southern idioms; but, that was less an evidence of devotion to their cause than of hate of rivals. For many years the growing power and prosperity of the Free States had been resented by an openly expressed scorn of a free society; "Yankee" became a word to imply something mean and inferior. Of

The Secret of it.

public purity. We leave it for others to
speculate on the influences which contributed
to effect such a demoralization; it is enough
for us to chronicle the fact of its presence.
This general defamation
of the North, of the Feder-
al Executive and of its agents was sedulously
encouraged by the leaders and the press of
the South, for the good reason that it filled
the ranks of their army, and inspired their
troops with that kind of courage which springs
from hate. Keep the people up to the point
of detestation and it would be easy to raise

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