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while the band played "Yankee Doodle" and "Hail to the Chief." From the Isabel the garrison was conveyed to the transport Baltic, still anchored outside the bar.

The Bal

the main gates destroyed by fire, the gorge wall seriously injured, the magazine surrounded by flames, and its door closed from the effects of the heat, four barrels and three cartridges of powder only being

tie sailed for New York Tuesday evening, available, and no provisions but pork remaining, I April 16th.

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accepted terms of evacuation, offered by General
Beauregard, being the same offered by him on the
11th instant, prior to the commencement of hostil-
ities, and marched out of the fort Sunday afternoon,
the 14th instant, with colors flying and drums beat-
ing, bringing away company and private property,
and saluting my flag with fifty guns.

Major, First Artillery. This ended the drama of Sumter-a drama which served to prelude the grander tragedy of the War for the Union.

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The Awakening.

purpose!-the centuries ne-
ver recorded such a spec- The Awakening.
tacle, and truly the centu-
ries may not record a struggle like that
which came of the bombardment of Fort

THE Collision at Sumter was the requiem of peace. The first announcement, to the North, by telegraph, thrilled and excited the people with the hopes and fears of battle; soon came the consciousness of the awful crime committed in the assault upon a United States garrison even before any act of offense had been offered, and the public heart bounded as with one mighty impulse to avenge the act. In a few brief hours partisan passions and political prejudices were swept away; as, when some appalling calamity visits a community all men become brothers, so all those loving the Union and the Constitution became associates in a common cause. The world never before witnessed such a solemn uprising. It was not more solemn than it was fearful. Nineteen revolution. Even up to the very hour of the millions of population swayed by one overpowering impulse-moved by one overmastering sympathy-stirred by one relentless

The President found himself suddenly overwhelmed with congratulations at the policy inaugurated, and with offers of aid. The general apprehension that he had no power, [See Constitution, Art. I, Sec. 8,] without the consent of Congress, to call out troops and to initiate war, led the majority to infer that nothing could be done in the premises until Congress was convened. At the South the impression was general that, as the President had no power to call out the troops, none would be forthcoming to repress the

responses to the Proclamation, (April 15th,) the Southern people believed it impossible that a majority of Congressmen would favor





the policy of "coercion:" how they misconceived the truth but a few days were necessary to demonstrate.

The Act of 1795.

it necessary thus to resort to military force,
he shall command the insurgents by procla-
mation to disperse within a limited time.
The manifesto of the Ex-
ecutive was as follows:


The Proclamation.

By the President of the United States:

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"Whereas, The laws of the United States have been for some time past and now are opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed, in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Missis

powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the Marshals by law:

"Now, therefore, I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President of the United States, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution and the laws, have thought fit to call forth, and hereby do call forth, the Militia of the several States of the Union, to the aggregate number of 75,000, in order to suppress said combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed. The details for this object will be immediately communicated to the State authorities through the War Department.

The President's Proclamation was not long withheld, and the public then learned that the Executive was vested with full powers to meet the emergencies.* The unrepealed and unmodified Act of 1795, [see Vol. I. p. 6,1 gave him all requisite authority to call an army and all its necessary consequents into the field, over which, as Commander-in-sippi, Louisiana, and Texas, by combinations too Chief, [see Constitution, Art. II, Sec. 2,] he could exercise supreme control. The Act gave the President power to call upon the militia in case of invasion, or imminent dan ger of invasion; in case of insurrection in any State against the laws thereof, if called upon by the Legislature or Executive of the State; and, finally, "whenever the laws of the United States shall be opposed, or the execution thereof obstructed, in any State, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the Marshals, in this act, it shall be lawful for the President of the United States to call forth the militia of such, or of any other State or States, as may be necessary to suppress such combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed; and the use of the militia so to be called forth, may be continued, if necessary, until the expiration of thirty days after the commencement of the then next session of Congress." The Act also requires that, when the President deems

*The belief prevailed in Europe that our Executive was powerless to repress a rebellion. Thus, the London News-ever friendly to the cause of the North-in its issue of April 9th, said: "In Europe we cannot understand how it is that a Chief Magistrate is without what may be called an Executive; he is in authority, but has no authority to act promptly and energetically. With us it would have been a word and a blow. Rebellion would have encountered opposition from the first moment of its raising its head, and the struggle would not terminate until the insurrection had been put down or had achieved a revolution. In America it is different. There are so many Sovereign States, that there appears to be no compact with the measure of the law. The Republic is divided, outraged, insulted, but no action has been taken."

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'I appeal to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate, and aid this effort to maintain the honor, the integ

rity, and the existence of our National Union and the perpetuity of popular government, and to redress wrongs already long enough endured.

"I deem it proper to say, that the first service assigned to the force hereby called forth, will probably be to repossess the forts, places and property which have been seized from the Union, and in every event, the utmost care will be observed, consistently with the objects aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, any destruction of, or interference with property, or any disturbance of peaceful citizens in any part of the country; and I hereby command the persons composing the combinations aforesaid, to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes, within twenty days from this date.

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Deeming that the present condition of public affairs presents an extraordinary occasion, I do hereby, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution, convene both Houses of Congress. The Senators and Representatives are therefore summoned to assemble at their respective chambers at twelve o'clock, noon, on Thursday, the fourth day of July next, then and there to consider and determine such measures as, in their wisdom, the public safety and interest may seem to demand.

"In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.

hand and caused the seal of the United States to be | sition-characterizing the call as illegal and

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"SIR: Under the act of Congress for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection, repel invasion,' &c., approved February 28th, 1795, I have the honor to request your Excellency to cause to be immediately detached from the militia of your State the quota designated in the table below, to serve as infantry or riflemen for the period of three months, unless sooner discharged.

Your Excellency will please communicate to me the time at or about which your quota will be expected at its rendezvous, as it will be met, as soon as practicable, by an officer or officers to muster it

into the service and pay of the United States. At

the same time the oath of fidelity to the United

States will be administered to every officer and

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unconstitutional. North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia, coupled threats of open resistance to any attempt at coercion.

The Carnival of . Patriotism.

It would not be possible, in the compass of an ordinary octavo, to tell the story of military and popular demonstrations which soon became the one absorbing fact throughout the entire North. Each section seemed to vie in patriotism and devotion. in Public assemblages everywhere testified in their corporate capacities, to assure Government of their support. Subscriptions to the Treasury were volunteered to an amount which soon reached many millions of dollars. Local arrangements were made for the care of the families of those who should enter the ranks. In almost numberless instances, employers gave notice that the pay of those in their service, who enlisted, should not be intermitted during the three months' military duty.

American flags floated from housetops, windows and doors-were used as decorations in parlors, offices, shops and stores— ornamented the heads of horses in the street

flew by upon every locomotive-fluttered from every mast-peak. It seemed as if expressions of patriotism never would have an end; for where flags could not be used, as on the persons of men, women and children, "Union badges," red, white and blue rosettes, and the National shield, came into requisition. "Young America" flew to drums, fifes, swords, and military caps-schools, for the while, being almost deserted for the parade ground, or to witness the daily passage of troops on their hurried way to the South. The tocsin sounded from the pulpit, from the press, from the forum: the most apathetic "conservative" must have loved treason well to have withstood their flood of commingled argument, invective, and calls to duty.

It was, indeed, a carnival of patriotism, which the spirits of the Fathers of the Republic must have contemplated with sublime emotions. It was the marriage of the heart of '76 with the soul of '61.



April 16.-The excitement in the North increasing. Great satisfaction expressed by all classes at the course of the Administration. The Governors of the Free States respond with alacrity to the Proclamation by taking immediate steps to comply. Offers of money begin to flow in upon the Government from banks, wealthy individuals, cities and corporate companies.

-Governor Magoffin refuses to furnish Kentucky's quota of troops called for by the President. He writes an offensive reply to the call.

-Governor Letcher, of Virginia, refuses to comply with the call for troops. He writes a treasonable letter to the President, and proclaims that Virginia will arm for defense.

-Governor Harris, of Tennessee, refuses to comply with the call. He assumes that Tennessee will repel all attempts at coercion.

-Governor Jackson, of Missouri, refuses to comply with the call. His reply is highly offensive and treasonable.

-The Confederate Government issues a proclamation calling for 32,500 troops-making 75,000 in all called out by President Davis. Great exertions are making by the rebel War Department to place its troops rapidly in the field in Virginia.

-Fort Pickens reenforced and re-provisioned by the United States' transports, which sailed from New York, April 8-10th. The fort is now pronounced safe from all attempts to carry it by bombardment or assault. General satisfaction is expressed at this announcement.

-Several military companies reach Washington from Pennsylvania, in answer to the President's call. They are the first on the roll of honor.

April 17.-The Sixth Massachusetts regiment of State militia is the first complete regiment to respond to the requisition for troops, and starts for Washington by railway this evening. The Fourth Massachusetts is on the point of starting.

-The Virginia State Convention passes an ordinance of secession, in secret session-vote 60 to 53. Governor Letcher, of that State, recognizes the independence of the Southern Confederacy, by proclamation.

April 18.-Major Anderson reaches New York in the transport Baltic. He is received with great acclamation, and becomes the hero of the day.

--More Pennsylvania troops reach Washington, including an artillery company. The Sixth Massachusetts regiment-over 1,000 strong--pass through

New York. It has an imposing reception by the people. The Fourth Massachusetts soon follows.

-The steamer Star of the West, a transport sent for the troops disbanded by General Twiggs, in Texas, is seized at Indianola, and taken into New Orleans. Its crew is sent North.

-The Treasury Department at Washington orAll coast commerce therefore ceases. ders no clearances for any port south of Maryland.

April 19.-Harper's Ferry armory and public store houses are fired by the Government Guard to prevent them from falling into the hands of the revolutionists. The garrison, under Lieutenant Jones, makes a night march through Maryland to Carlile Barracks.

-Attack on the Massachusetts Sixth regiment by the mob of Baltimore. Two of the troops killed, and eleven wounded-one mortally. Eleven of the mob killed, and four wounded. The city all in arms. Governor Hicks informs the President that no more troops can pass through Baltimore without fighting their way. Railway track torn up and bridges destroyed on the Philadelphia road. The Fourth Pennsylvania regiment in Baltimore, en route for Washington, is assailed and compelled to disband, being unarmed. The troops return to Philadelphia, The route via Baltimore being thus impracticable, where the New York Seventh regiment soon arrives. transports are furnished, and the troops, after a day's delay, pass on to Washington by Annapolis. -The President of the United States announces a blockade of the ports in all rebellious States.

April 20.-Immense Union demonstration in New York City. Sixty thousand citizens of all parties and classes participate.

-The Gosport Navy Yard burned. Property to the amount of about eleven millions of dollars destroyed, by order of the Commanding-officer, Commodore Macauley. Much of the property-includ ing 1,500 guns of various calibre-was afterwards rescued from fire and water by the revolutionists, and furnished them with valuable guns for their batteries and defenses.

-Branch Mint at Charlotte, North Carolina, seiz ed by the revolutionists. John C. Breckenridge makes a treasonable speech at Louisville.

-Bridges on the Northern (Maryland) Railroad burned. Arsenal at Liberty, Missouri, seized. Mob law prevailing in Baltimore. Volunteers rapidly concentrating at Philadelphia. Fortress Monroe reenforced and placed beyond danger of seizure.

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April 21.-The United States War Department | takes possession of the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad, and proceeds to repair it for military use. --Thousands of "war sermons" preached in Northern cities. The clergy are almost unanimously patriotic and loyal. The effect on the public mind is highly inspiriting.

April 22.-United States arsenals seized at Fayetteville, North Carolina, and at Napoleon, Arkansas. Great appropriations of funds by city authorities to aid in equipping troops. Great Union demonstration in Lexington, Kentucky,-which State is pronounced to be for the Constitution and the Union, in spite of Breckenridge's defection.

-The Vermont Legislature assembles in extra session to provide for the emergencies of war. The Massachusetts Sixth regiment lands at Annapolis, and immediately seizes the railway to Washington. The Annapolis Naval School disorganizes-the New York Seventh, occupying its grounds. The old ship Constitution is saved from seizure.

April 23.-Martial law is proclaimed in Baltimore. Governor Hicks, of Maryland, protests against the occupation of Annapolis.

-The First South Carolina regiment starts for the North.

-Troops from Georgia and Mississippi are under orders for Virginia.



April 24.-Fort Smith, in Arkansas, seized. tra session of the Kentucky Legislature called. fears apprehended that Governor Magoffin can affect its loyalty.

April 25.--Major Sibley, of the United States' Army, surrenders 450 troops to the rebels, " upon demand," at Saluria, Texas. Fort Smith, in Arkansas, seized by a force of cut-throats under Solon Borland.

-The New York Seventh regiment reaches Washington. It is received with great joy, and the Capital is regarded as safe.

-Virginia" annexed" to the Southern Confederacy, by proclamation of Governor Letcher. The people have had no voice in the matter.

---United States Senator Douglas declares for the Union, and the enforcement of the laws. He takes strong grounds in support of the Administration.

April 26.-Governor Brown, of Georgia, prohibits the payment of debts due to citizens of the Free States, ordering the amounts due to be paid into the State Treasury. North Carolina Legislature called in extra session. More bridges burned in Maryland, by the secessionists. Large numbers of secessionists passing into Virginia from Maryland. Governor Burton, of Delaware, issues his call for troops in response to the President's proclamation.

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-The Connecticut Legislature votes $2,000,000 for war purposes.

May 4.-Meeting at Cleveland, Ohio, of the Governors of Western and Middle States to concert plans for a co-operation. Committee of the Maryland Legislature visit Mr. Lincoln to learn his purposes.

May 5-Brigadier General Butler in possession of the Relay House station, Maryland. This serves as a menace to the Maryland mob and secures direct railway communication with Washington.

-Expiration of the day of grace" allowed by President Lincoln for those in rebellion to return to

their allegiance.

-The Confederate Congress formally declares war as existing with the United States.

May 6.-Virginia admitted to the Southern Confederacy-seventeen days prior to the day on which the people of that State are permitted to vote on the Ordinance.

--The Arkansas State Convention passes an Ordinance of Secession. Vote 69 to 1. The Ordinance is not to be submitted to the people.

-The Confederate Government proclaims the War and Privateer act.

-The Kentucky Legislature meets in extra session.

-The Tennessee Legislature pass a "declaration of independence," which is to be submitted to a vote of the people, June 8th.

May 7.-Governor Harris, of Tennessee, announces a league" with the Confederate States. It throws the State under control of the Confederate army, and awes the Unionists into submission. Union sentiments soon become treasonable.

---Michigan Legislature meets.

May 8.-The Governor of Ohio calls for 100,000 troops to be held as a militia reserve, organized and ready for service.

May 9.-First landing of Federal troops in Baltimore (by steamers) since the 19th of April.

-The Confederate Congress authorizes President Davis to accept all volunteers that offer, in regi ments, battalions, companies or singly.

April 27.-The President issues a supplementary proclamation, announcing the blockade of ports in Virginia and North Carolina. Twenty-one thousand troops reported to be in Washington. The rebels are concentrating forces to menace Washington, which thus becomes the strategic point. General Scott in full command of the United States forces. April 29.-Maryland declares against secession by a strong vote in its Legislature. Three steamers --The mob in St. Louis attack the Government seized in New Orleans. by the rebels. The Collect- recruits, who fire into the crowd, killing seven of the or's office at Nashville, Tennessee, seized. rioters. General Lyon, in command at St. Louis. -The Confederate Congress meets in extra session. surrounds and compels the surrender of a brigade

May 10.-Major-General Robert E. Lee, of Virginia-late Colonel in the United States army placed in command of the army of Virginia.

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