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Massachusetts' Re


tion in regard to the killed and
wounded, but believe there
were only three killed.

"After leaving Philadelphia, | difficult to get reliable informaI received intimation that our passage through the city of Baltimore would be resisted. I caused ammunition to be distributed and arms loaded, and went personally through the cars and issued the following order, viz.:

"The regiment will march through Baltimore in column of sections, arms at will. You will, undoubtedly, be insulted, abused, and perhaps assaulted, to which you must pay no attention whatever, but march with your faces square to the front, and pay no attention to the mob even if they throw stones, bricks, or other missiles; but if you are fired upon, and any one of you are hit, your officers will order you to fire. Do not fire into any promiscuous crowds, but select any man whom you may see aiming at you, and be sure you drop him.'

Massachusetts' Record.

"As the men went into the cars, I caused the blinds to the cars to be closed, and took every precaution to prevent any shadow of offense to the people of Baltimore; but still the stones flew thick and fast into the train, and it was with the utmost difficulty that I could prevent the troops from leav ing the cars and revenging the death of their com rades. After a volley of stones, some one of the soldiers fired and killed a Mr. Davis, who, I have since ascertained by reliable witnesses, threw a stone into the car. Yet that did not justify the firing at him, but the men were infuriated beyond control. On reaching Washington, we were quartered at the Capitol, in the Senate Chamber, and are all in good health and spirits."

The Pennsylvania Seventh was assailed as it stood in and around the President-street depot. Totally unarmed, it was soon scattered, and returned to Philadelphia in a disorganized condition.

The New York Seventh, trained and efficient regione of the most thoroughly

New York and Rhode
Island Moving.

"Reaching Baltimore, horses were attached the instant that the locomotive was detached, and the cars were driven at a rapid pace across the city. After the cars containing seven companies had reached the Washington depot, the track behind them was barricaded, and the cars containing band and the following companies, viz.: Company C, of Lowell, Captain Follansbee, Company D, of Lowell, Captain Hart, Company I, of Lawrence, Captain Pickering, and Company C, of Stoneham, Cap-ments in the country, volunteered en masse to tain Dike, were vacated by the band, and they proceeded to march in accordance with orders, and had proceeded but a short distance before they were furiously attacked by a shower of missiles, which came faster as they advanced. They increased their step to double-quick, which seemed to infu- | riate the mob, as it evidently impressed the mob with the idea that the soldiers dared not fire, or had no ammunition, and pistol shots were numerously fired into the ranks, and one soldier fell dead. The order, Fire, was given, and it was executed; in consequence several of the mob fell, and the soldiers again advanced hastily. The Mayor of Baltimore placed himself at the head of the column, beside Captain Follansbee, and proceeded with them a short distance, assuring him that he would protect them, and begging him not to let the men fire; but the Mayor's patience was soon exhausted, and he seized a musket from the hands of one of the men, and killed a man therewith; and a policeman, who was in advance of the column, also shot a man with

a revolver.

"They at last reached the cars, and they started immediately for Washington. On going through the train, found there were about one hundred and thirty missing, including the band and field music. Oar baggage was seized, and we have not as yet been able to recover any of it. I have found it very

proceed to the Capital and to serve for one month, while troops were coming forward from the more distant States. It left the city of New York on the morning of the 19th, (April.) It was followed by the Rhode Island Marine artillery, commanded by Col. Tompkins, splendidly equipped, numbering one hundred and thirty men, with one hundred and ten horses and eight choice guns. This lant little State, and in its perfections was battery was the first contribution of that galbut a type of all which followed from Governor Sprague's hands.

The excitement which reigned throughout the country, consequent on the attack by the Baltimore mob, was intense. It was the first blood shed in the war, and served only to agThe steps soon taken by gravate and consolidate Northern animosity. the mob cut off all communication with Washington by the direct railway, thus placing the Capital in a most critical position. The District militia, the Pennsylvania advance companies, the Massachusetts Sixth, the Navy Yard ma

Washington cut off.

The Mayor and Gover nor to the President

rines, and two companies of regulars quarter- | loyal, but that they were all at the mercy of a set of vagabonds, led by the Secessionists of the city and by wild spirits who rushed in from Virginia—a reckless and terribly excited horde, numbering nearly twenty thousand men, all armed and eager for a fray. The Mayor and Governor, on the 19th, dispatched messengers to Washington, remitting the following letters: "SIR: This will be presented to you by the Hon. H. Lenox Bond, George W. Dobbin, and John C. Brune, Esqs., who will proceed to Washington by an express train, at my request, in order to explain fully the fearful condition of our affairs in this city. The people are exasperated to the highest degree versally decided in the opinion that no more troops by the passage of troops, and the citizens are unishould be ordered to come.

ed near the city, were all upon which its safety had to depend for several days. A determined descent of the Baltimore rowdies, and of the Virginia forces already organized, would place the city in imminent peril of destruction or capture. Arlington Heights, on the West of the Potomac, and Georgetown Heights on the North, commanding the Capital completely, were open to the enemy, and so remained for many days. General Scott, Adjutant-General McDowell, and several able and trusty officers of the regular army, were on the alert, however, and never, for a moment, were unprepared for any emergency. To their vigilance and the prestige which attached to the General-in-Chief's presence, does the country owe the preservation of its National City in those days of alarm.

The Mob Triumph


"The authorities of the city did their best to-day to protect both strangers and citizens, and to prevent a collision, but in vain; and but for their great efforts a fearful slaughter would have occurred.

"Under these circumstances, it is my solemn duty to inform you that it is not possible for more soldiers to pass through Baltimore, unless they fight their way at every step.

During the two days succeeding the attack in Baltimore, the mob hastened to complete their work of "preventing the Northern hordes from crossing Maryland soil to subjugate the South," by destroying various railroad bridges and draws. Before the "I therefore hope and trust, and most earnestly work of destruction was stayed, several imrequest, that no more troops be permitted or ordered portant and valuable connecting structures by the Government to pass through the city. If were ruined, the telegraph wires were severed, they should attempt it, the responsibility for the and the vicinity of Baltimore became a pan-bloodshed will not rest upon me. With great demonium where the canaille reigned supreme. respect, your obedient servant, The Governor and the City authorities were alike powerless, for the moment, to stay the violence and terror, particularly as the Chief of Police and most of the Board of Police Commissioners were sympathizers with the


Immediately after the attack on the troops, the Governor and Mayor "advised" that no more troops should be brought forward by the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railway; and also soon “advised” that the troops then on the route, or at the President-street depot, be "returned to Philadelphia,"-requests with which the President of the road hastened to

comply. The Baltimore and Ohio Railway was also "advised" not to allow troops to pass over the line of that great thoroughfare from the West and North, and gave its assent to the demand. All this was in deference to the mob. Not that the city and State authorities and railway managers were dis

"GEO. WM. BROWN, Mayor." "I have been in Baltimore since Tuesday evening, and co-operated with Mayor Brown in his untiring efforts to allay and prevent the excitement, and suppress the fearful outbreak as indicated above, and I fully concur in all that is said by him in the above communication. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

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The President's

"I sincerely hope the General, on fuller reflection, will consider this practical and proper, and that you will not object to it. By this, a collision of the people of Baltimore with the troops will be avoided, unless they go out of the way to seek it. I hope you will exert your influence to prevent this. Now and ever I shall do all in my power for peace, consistently with the maintenance of the Government."

All this was rendered unnecessary by the destruction of the bridges. Until they could be replaced and the tracks placed under guard, no troops could even pass around Baltimore, except by choosing other routes entirely a choice General Butler was not slow to make. He left Philadelphia April 20th, for Annapolis, having determined to open that route to the Capital. He wrote to Governor Andrew:


and thus call the State to account for the death of Massachusetts men, my friends and neighbors. If Colonel Lefferts thinks it more in accordance with the tenor of his instructions to wait rather than go through Baltimore, I still propose to march with this regiment. I propose to occupy the town, and hold it open as a means of communication. I have then but to advance by a forced march of thirty miles to reach the Capital, in accordance with the orders I at first received, but which subsequent events, in my judgment, vary in their execution, believing from the telegraphs that there will be

others in great numbers to aid me. Being accompanied by officers of more experience, who will be

able to direct the affair, I think it will be accomplished. We have no light batteries; I have therefore telegraphed to Governor Andrew to have the Boston Light Artillery put on shipboard at once, tonight, to help me in marching on Washington. In pursuance of this plan, I have detailed Captains Devereux and Briggs with their commands, to hold the boat at Havre de Grace.

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· Eleven, A. M. Colonel Lefferts has refused to march with me. I go alone at three o'clock, P. M., to execute this imperfectly written plan. If I succeed, success will justify me. If I fail, purity of intention will excuse want of judgment, or rashness. "B. F. BUTLER."

General Butler's


"I have detailed Captain Devereux and Captain Briggs, with their commands, supplied with one day's rations and twenty rounds of ammunition, to take possession of the ferry-boat at Havre de Grace, for the benefit of this expedition. This I have done with the concurrence of the present master of transportation of the road. The Eighth regiment will remain at quarters, that they may get a little solid rest, after their fatiguing march. I have sent to know if the Seventh regiment will go with me. I propose to march myself at the hour of seven o'clock in the morning, to take the regular eight and a quarter o'clock train to Havre de Grace. The citizens of Baltimore, at a large meeting this evening, de-Grace, and occupied the place without opponounced the passage of Northern troops. They have exacted a promise from the President of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, not to send troops over that road through Baltimore, so that any attempt to throw troops into Baltimore entails a

march of forty miles, and an attack upon a city of two hundred thousand inhabitants, at the beginning of the march. The only way, therefore, of getting communication with Washington for troops from the North, is over the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, or marching from the West. Commodore Dupont, at the Navy-yard, has given me instructions of the fact in accordance with these general statements, upon which I rely. I have, therefore, thought I could rely upon these statements as to the time it will take to proceed in marching from Havre de Grace to Washington. My proposition is to join with Colonel Lefferts, of the Seventh regiment of New York. I propose to take the fifteen hundred troops to Annapolis, arriving there to-morrow about four o'clock, and occupy the capital of Maryland,

This movement was a complete success. Butler threw forward, on Saturday, the 20th, the companies of Capt's Devereux and Briggs (of the Massachusetts Eighth) which proceeded to the ferry at Havre de

sition. The remainder of the troops having been advanced during the day, at six P. M. the whole body embarked with General Butler upon the ferry-boat Maryland, directly for Annapolis, and arrived off the capital of Maryland at a late hour of the night, to anticipate the treasonable intentions of an ganization in the vicinity, which had formed a plot to seize the United States frigate Constitution, "Old Ironsides," that lay moored off the Naval Academy wharf. Captain Devereux took possession of the old frigate, and had her towed out into the stream.


The New York Seventh closely followed Butler's advance. It took the transport Boston, from Philadelphia, at three P. M. of Sat. urday, and steamed to Annapolis, arriving off that place Monday morning early, to find the Maryland hard aground. In this predicament

Occupation of

Arrival of Troops in

While the gen

she lay all day-the troops | ready to place the engines on board of her suffering in order, while a large body much for want of food and of track-layers and bridgewater. The Seventh landed and took pos- builders were eager for duty. session of the Academy; their transport then tlemen of the Seventh were taking their ease in brought ashore the Eighth. It was the first comfortable quarters at the Naval Academy, occupation of the "sacred soil" by the "North- the Massachusetts men were already on their ern invaders." slow march toward the Capital.

Butler's indomitable energy found a full The Massachusetts regiment assumed the response in his equally indomitable and capa- duty of opening the route via Annapolis Juncble men. Engineers were wanted to run the tion to Washington. The New York ferryboat down to Annapolis. Forthwith Seventh marched on to the Junction, and eighteen' good engineers stepped from the there took cars for the Capital, which they ranks. Upon landing, the railway property reached at noon, Thursday, April 25th-the was seized, and men were wanted to repair first regiment to enter the city after the Masdamages to crippled locomotives and destroy-sachusetts Sixth. With their arrival the ed tracks. Instantly a dozen machinists stood Capital was deemed secure.



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"RALEIGH, April 15th, 1861. Honorable Simon Cameron, Secretary of War: "Your dispatch is received, and, if genuine, which its extraordinary character leads me to doubt, I have to say in reply, that I regard the levy of troops made by the Administration for the purpose of subjugating the States of the South, as in violation of the Constitution, and a usurpation of power. I can be no party to this wicked violation of the laws of the country, and to this war upon the liberties of a free people. You can get no troops from North Carolina. I will reply more in detail when your call is received by mail.


ing treasonable and infl um-
matory proclamation :


Governor Ellis'

Whereas, By proclamation of Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, followed by a requisition of Simon Cameron, Secretary of War, I am informed that the said Abraham Lincoln has made

a call for seventy-five thousand men, to be employ ed for the invasion of the peaceful homes of the South, and for the violent subversion of the liberties of a free people, constituting a large part of the whole population of the late United States; and, whereas, this high-handed act of tyrannical outrage is not only in violation of all Constitutional law, utter disregard of every sentiment of humanity and Christian civilization, and conceived in a spirit of aggression unparalleled by any act of recorded history, but is a direct step toward the sbjuugation of the whole South, and the conversion of a free re public, inherited from our fathers, into a military despotism, to be established by worse than foreign enemies, on the ruins of our once glorious Consti tution of equal rights:

"Now, therefore, I, John W. Ellis, Governor of the State of North Carolina, for these extraordinary causes, do hereby issue this, my proclamation, noti This was soon succeeded by the follow-fying and requesting the Senators and Members of

"Governor of North Carolina."




the House of Commons of the General Assembly of North Carolina, to meet in special session at the Capitol, in the city of Raleigh, on Wednesday, the 1st day of May next. And I furthermore exhort all good citizens throughout the State, to be mindful that their first allegiance is due to the sovereignty which protects their homes and dearest interests, as their first service is due for the sacred defense of

nounced by him, demonstrated that the alacrity of the North was not needless, if the country was to be spared the humiliation of witnessing its liberties in the keeping of the revolutionists. How the vista opened before such expressions as these!

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Every son of the South, from the Potomac to their hearths, and of the soil which holds the graves land. If Lincoln quits Washington as ignominiously the Rio Grande, should rally to the support of Maryof our glorious dead.

"United action in defense of the sovereignty of North Carolina, and of the rights of the South, becomes now the duty of all."


The whirlwind was sown. Repose, prosperity, political and social integrity, hopes of the future were cast to the air, and the storm soon held wild riot over all her borders. The United States forts at Wilmington and Beaufort were seized. The United States branch mint at Charlotteville was "appropriated" April 21st. The United States arsenal at Fayetteville was occupied" April 22d. As Mr. Alexander H. Stephens said, in his Richmond harangue, April 22d: "North Carolina was out, and did not hardly know how she got out." At Wilmington he counted twenty-one Confederate dags. Of the attitude of the still unseceded States, the Vice-President of the Southern Confederacy thus discoursed: "The news from Tennessee is equally cheering there the mountains are all on fire. Tennessee was no longer in the late Union. She was out by the resolutions of her popular assemblies in Memphis and other cities. Kentucky would soon be out, for her people were moving in the right direction. Missouriwho could doubt the stand she would take, when her Governor, in reply to Lincoln's insolent proclamation, had said: 'You shall have no troops for the furtherance of your illegal, unchristian, and diabolical schemes!' Missouri will soon add another star to the Southern galaxy. Where Maryland is you

Mr. A. H. Stephens' Declarations.

all know.

The first Southern blood has been shed on her soil, and Virginia would never stand by and see her citizens shot down. The cause of Baltimore is the cause of the whole South."

The presence of this personage in Richmond, so soon after the Ordinance was passed, and the programme of operations an

as he entered it, God's Will will have been accomplished. Be prepared. Stand to your arms. Defend your wives and your firesides. Rather than be the invader. The conflict may be terrible, but the conquered let every second man rally to drive back victory will be ours. Virginians! you fight for the preservation of your sacred rights-to keep from desecration the tomb of Washington,* the graves of Madison, Jefferson, and all you hold most dear." Tennessee sought, for a while, to preserve a trality," forbidding alike the Northern or Southern troops from a foothold upon her territory. Governor Harris, replying to the call of the War Department, said:



Tennessee's Disloyalty.

"Tennessee will not furnish a single man for coercion, but fifty thousand, if necessary, for the defense of our rights and those of our brethren.”

With such a declaration, Tennessee was out of the Union, so far as her Executive could pledge her. It only heralded the steps soon to be taken of a "treaty," by which the State was sold out to the Southern Confederacy-a sale that put to blush the off-hand gifts of kingdoms by Napoleon I. It was the disposal of a proprietary over which the party of the first part had not even the residuary.rights of an agent. [See page 152.] Several of the leading men of the State issued an address to the people, dated April 18th, with the ostensible design of appeasing the growing excitement. dorsed the Governor's refusal to furnish troops at the call of the Federal Govern

Address of John Bell and others.

It en

*This allusion to the tomb of Washington was

singularly mal-upropos; since, under Virginia's niggardly indifference, the tomb and grounds of the Mount Vernon Estate became a national disgrace, from which they were only (then) recently rescued by the money which the Honorable Edward Everett had obtained, through extraordinary personal exertions, chiefly from the Northern people.

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