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PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY RICHARD CLAY AND Sons, LIMITED, BRUNSWICK STREET, STAMFORD STREET, S.E.,

AND BUNGAY, SUFFOLK.

CONTENTS

PAGE

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873

ALLEX, J. E.

the War

958

ABIA, Mrs.
Fashion, its Survivals and Revivals

930
BADDELEY, Allan
The Navy's War Rehearsals

575
Life in Eastern Galicia

97

BAILEY, The Rt. Hon. W. F., Some Glimpses of Russian Poland To-day 465

C.B.

Polish Memories

1046

BAUMANN, Arthur A.
Walter Bagebot

568

BENTWICH, Herbert

The Future of the Land of Promise

163

Napoleon I.

83

BRANDES, Dr. G: .

Napoleon II.

336

BROOKS, Sydney
The War of Contrasts

385

BRYDEN, H. A.

The Conquest of German South-West Africa 153

CIPPICO, Antonio

Italy and the Adriatic

296

Coursos, John

Feodor Sologub

480

CURLE, Richard

Mr. Joseph Conrad and “Victory

670

DE SWIETOCHOWSKI, Dr. G. Poland and her Rôle in Europe .

502

Italy's New Birth

1

DILLON, Dr. E. J.. { The Balkan Imbroglio

904
DRINKWATER, John
Sunrise on Rydal Water

1113

Escott, T. Á. S.

The New Diplomacy and the Old Tradition 733

, Mr. Lloyd George as Minister of a Deno-

EVANS, Beriah G.

cracy

884

Fox, Frank

Our Artillery Task in the Great War. · 110

GALSWORTHY, John

Art and the War .

924

Gosse, Edmund, C.B.

Lord Redesdale's Memories

Harry HARPER

542

GRAY, Ezio
Italy in the Clutches of Germany

679
GRESWELL, The Rev. Wm. Our Colonies and the War

699

HANSAX, The Rev. Thomas . { Future Army

National Cadet Corps as the Basis of our

1138

HARDY, Thomas, O.M.

Before Marching and After

609

HARPER, Harry, and Claude Zeppelin Airships : Their Record in the

GRAHAME-WHITE

War

542

Submarines versus Surface Craft for Future
HORSXAILL, W. 0.
Navies

659

Outlawry at Sea: An Indictment of the

German Navy

29

Our Trafalgar and its Sequel : August 4th,

1914–August 4th, 1915

231

“The Freedom of the Oceans" : Germany's

HURD, Archibald .

New Policy

439

Our Panic-Built Navy-Before and After

the War

644

The Revelations of the Budget

856

A Visit to the Grand Fleet.

1019

HYNDMAN, H. M.
The Armed Nation

529

JENNINGS, H. J.

The Great War Loan

203

JERROLD, Lawrence

From the French Front

589

JESSE, Miss F. Tennyson Why Senath Married

773

KEXXEDY, J. M.

Labour, Conscription, and Finance

947

The War and the English Chemical In-

dustry

324

KERSHAW, John B. C. .

Scientišic and Engineering Aspects of the

War. I.

610

Scientific and Engineering Aspects of the

War. II.

1093

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KINLOCH-COOKE, Sir Clemnent, War Problems and How to Meet Them . 131

M.P.

Kvox, G. D.

The New Tilth

1152

LEDWABD, Kenneth

The Macedonian Problem

378

LENNARD, Walter

What it Means to the Artist

765

LIVERSEDGE, A. J.

Possibilities of the Large Airship

1077

Swedish Activism : A Letter from Stock-

LONG, Robert Crozier

holm

801

MACDONALD, John F.

The Paris of To-day

174

Public Schools in War Time .

142

Mais, S. P. B.

Rupert Brooke .

348

MALLOCK, W. H.

War Expenditure of the United Kingdom 258

MARRIOTT, J. A. R.

Private Thrift and Public Expenditure . 270

MARTIN, Percy F., F.R.G.S. The Pan-American Phantom .

519

MASEFIELD, John

Good Friday: A Dramatic Poem

993

MILNE, James

The Soldier in his Letters .

747

Money, Sir Leo Chiozza, M.P. Recruiting and Organisation for War. 11. 363

MOSELEY, Sydney A.
Pictures from Gallipoli

1058

MURRAY, Colonel A. M.

Twelve Months of War .

218

NEWBOLT, Sir Henry .

The War and the Nations .

247

PARKER, Professor E. H. The Russian Character .

513
PITT, G. E.

The Military Preparation of Young France 938

POLLOCK, John

The Refugees at Kiev

476

POUND, EZRA
Remy de Gourmont

1159
The Workmanship of

A Midsummer
QUILLER-Couch, Sir Arthur
Night's Dream

121
RALLI, Augustus
George Borrow

711

RANDALL, A. W. G.

The German God

622

STEWART, Charles
Outlines for a Permanent Peace

1106

Vignettes from the Italian Front.

VERMEHR, Magdeleine

685

Vignettes from the Italian Front. II. 916

VIVIAN, Herbert
The Italian Temperament

557
WEIGALL, A. E. P. B.
German Logic-and its Results

631

454
WHELPLEY, James Davenport In Neutral America
A German Fog in Washington

725

897
American Politics and the American Note 1129

WILLIAMS, W. Llew..

Armenians and the Partition of Asia Minor 968

Wilson, Philip Whitwell The War and Social Revolution

757
Woods, H. Charles .
The Situations in the Near East

491

r Antonio Salandra

70

ZIMMERN, Helen
Baron Sidney Sonnino

283
ANONYMOUS :--
The Fall of Warsaw and its Sequel .

413

The Rationale of Prayer

1115

History of the War. With Maps

186, 399, 597, 785, 978, 1167

The National Government. Auditor Tantum

44

Three Months of Coalition Auditor Tantum

426

The Spirit of the House. Auditor Tantum

842

Efficiency and Numbers. Auditor Tantum

1036

Holland's Opportunity. En Vedette

316

Are We Winning ? Outis

16

A Shrinking Colonial Empire. Politicus

304

Greece and Europe. Politicus

826

V Roumania's Attitude and Position. Politicus

1067

What will be Austria's Future? V.

55
The New Phase of the Campaign. Zero

815
Correspondence : The End Sanctifies the Means. w. s. Lilly

200
Ultra-Protestantism. Baron Porcelli

202
The Pope and Mgr. Gerlach. The Very Rev. Mgr.
H. Barton Brown

799

THE

FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW

No. DLXXXIlI. NEW SERIES, JULY 1, 1915.

ITALY'S NEW BIRTH.

ITALY has just emerged unscathed and rejuvenated from an ordeal of the nature of which no foreigner who draws his information on the subject solely from the official Green Book can form an adequate conception. To the future historian the recent crisis and its various accompaniments will appear as a sequence of symptoms connoting a national fermentation which could end only in a rapid decay or else a new spiritual conformation of the Italian people. The Green Book is hardly more than a useful and instructive record of one of the manifestations of that remarkable process; it offers a picture of the concrete struggle between narrow-minded Austrian egotism embodied in formulas of negation and suspense which no system of logic can hold in coherent bonds, and a set of' fixed principles and rules of conduct cemented by national faith at the base of which lay equity and plighted troth. Baron Sydney Sonnino, who was responsible for the Italian part of the official correspondence, was peculiarly fitted for the work

setting forth the position of his country as affected by the Triple Alliance and as subsequently modified by Austria's failure to carry out the obligations which that instrument imposed on her. His qualifications were six years' experience in Italian legations and embassies of the ways of foreign diplomacy, a passion for detail which enabled him quickly to master the bearings of a problem from which he had long stood aloof, a rare public spirit and unquestioned personal probity. And all his communications from December 9th, 1914, down to May 3rd, 1915, inspire one with respect for the reserve, dignity, and moral integrity of Italy's Minister and for the force of the pleas which he advanced in favour of the special thesis which had been formulated by his predecessor.

But the Green Book affords us at most interesting glimpses of dialectical thrust and parry, and an amazing instance of the denseness of Austrian diplomacy. We search its pages in vain for an attempt to examine Italy's relations with Austria and Germany

VOL. XCVIII.

N.S.

B

in their fundamental and comprehensive bearings. None of the official communications goes to the roots of things, still less does the Minister announce cr imply the decisive fact that these roots had been loosened long before hy Austria’s corrosive anti-Italian machinations. Yet it was mainly because of this sundering of interests, and despite the seeming sincerity of the tone of the official discussion, that the conclusion seemed to me to be foregone from the first, nay before Baron Sonnino had ever signed one of the despatches. And Italy's partnership with the Central Empires was bereft of its last shred of justification when the European conflict was unchained, and might aptly be likened to a hollowed tree whose leaves were still green, but whose trunk the first fierce gust that blew would sweep from the ground. And the war of nations was not merely a blast, but a whirlwind. Moreover, the issues in the Green Book are narrow, and the forensic arguments, dealing with a single aspect of a vast problem, and that the least momentous, could carry their expounders no further than the expediency of granting or the right of withholding this or that strip of territory and left wholly untouched the higher spiritual grounds on which the Italian people, as distinguished even from its trusty leaders, has since courageously taken its stand. Baron Sonnino, indeed, expressly admitted to his Austrian colleague that the consensus of public opinion in Italy favoured neutrality, and that only Austria's refusal to gratify Italy's ambitions in the Balkans and the Adriatic would cause a grave reaction. What he and his colleagues were seemingly unaware of was that a potent principle of fermentation had already begun to stir the nation, and that this fermentation, none the less active that it was largely inarticulate, was slowly working the most momentous change that that people has undergone in modern times.

Two distinct elements lay at the bottom of Italy's quarrel with Austria. One of these was the grounded conviction that the Treaty which regulated their alliance had been perfidiously twisted to her detriment, and the other was the pent-up element of indignation against the Empire whose uniform policy, whether it assumed the garb of friendship or of rivalry, had been steadily directed to the permanent crippling of the young Latin State. This moral element, reinforced by sympathy for Belgium and a profound sense of the duty of a civilised people towards its brethren, was one of the main motive powers of that inner Italy of which neither Sonnino nor Giolitti appear to have had any inkling; of the nucleus of the regenerate nation which had been

(1) Green Book. Sonnino's despatch of December 9th, 1914, p. 2.

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