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Blast their design Great God of Hosts! nor let thy creatures fal! Unpitied victims at ambition's shrine.

Porteus's Death.
One effort more to break the circling host!
They form-unite-charge-waver-all is lost!
Byron. Corsair,

But Hassan's frown and furious word
Are dreaded more than hostile sword.

Id. Giaour. The question was this-is there less hostility in a Portuguese army crossing the frontier, when avowedly in the pay and service of Spain? Cunning.

Host, n. s. Fr. hostie; Lat. hostia. The sacrifice of the mass in the Romish church; the

consecrated wafer.

Pope Gregory IX. first decreed a bell to be rung, as the signal for the people to betake themselves to the

adoration of the host. The vessel wherein the hosts are kept is called the cibory; being a large kind of covered chalice. Dr. A. Rees.

Hosr is a term of mutual relation, applied both to a person who entertains another, and to the person thus lodged. It is formed of the Latin hospes, thus called quasi hostium, or ostium petens; for ostium was anciently written with the aspirate. It was a custom among the ancients, when any stranger asked for lodging, for the master of the house and the stranger, each of them to set a foot on their own side of the threshold, and swear they would neither of them do any harm to the other. It was this ceremony

that raised so much horror against those who violated the law of hospitality on either side; as they were considered as perjured.

HOST is also used by way of abbreviation for hostia, a victim or sacrifice offered to the deity. Hence host, in the church of Rome, is a name given to the elements used in the eucharist, or rather to the consecrated wafer; which they offer up every day, a new host or sacrifice for the sins of mankind. They pay adoration to the host, upon the presumption that the elements are no longer bread and wine, but transubstantiated into the real body and blood of Christ. See TRANSUBTANTIATION. The vessel wherein the hosts are kept is called the cibory; being a large kind of covered chalice.

HOSTE (Paul 1'), an eminent French mathematician, born in 1652. He was a Jesuit, and professor of mathematics at Toulon. He wrote, 1. Traité des Evolutions Navales, folio, 1727. Traités des Mathematiques les plus necessaires à un Officier, 3 vols. 12mo. He died at Toulon, in 1700.

HOSTIA, Host, in antiquity, a victim offered in sacrifice to a deity. The word is formed from hostis, an enemy; it being the custom to offer up a sacrifice before they joined battle, to render the gods propitious; or, after the battle was over, to give them thanks. Some derive the word from hostio, q. d. ferio, I strike. Isidore remarks, that the name hostia was given to those sacrifices which they offered before they marched to attack an enemy, antequam ad hostem pergerent, in contradistinction from victima, which were properly those offered after the victory. Hostia also signified the less sorts of sacrifice, and victima the larger. A. Gellius says, that

every priest, indifferently, might sacrifice the hostia, but that the victima could be offered by none but the conqueror himself. But we find these two words promiscuously used by ancient writers. We read of many kinds of hostiæ: as H. ambarvales, victims sacrificed after having been solemnly led round the fields at the ambarvalia: H. ambegna, or ambiegne, sacrifices of cows or sheep that had brought forth twins: 1. amburbiales, victims slain after the amburbium: H. bidentes, animals of two years old: H. caviares, or cancares, victims sacrificed every fifth year by the pontiffs, in which they offered the part of the tail called caviar: H. haruga, victims offered to predict future events from: H. mediales, black victims offered at noon: H. prodiga, sacrifices in which the fire consumed all, and left nothing for the priests: H. puræ, pigs or lambs ten days old: H. succedaneæ, sacrifices offered after others which had exhibited some ill omen.

HOT, adj. HOT'LY, adv. HOT'NESS, n. s. Hor'BRAINED, adj. HOT'HEADED, adj. HOT HOUSE, N. s. HOT MOUTHED, adj. HOT'SPUR, 2.s. HOT'SPURRED, adj. HorBED, n. s.

Sax. par; Scot. hat; Heb. 8, fire; Germ. heiss; Lat. cestus. Having the power to excite the sense of heat; contrary to cold; fiery: applied figuratively to temper and disposition, as ardent; zealous; ealustful; piquant; acrid: as applied to subger; violent; vehement; stances, most of the compounds are sufficiently expressive. Hot-house, a place to rear plants and exotics; a bagnio; a brothel. Hot-mouthed, lent and passionate man; a pea of speedy growth. headstrong and ungovernable. Hotspur, a vioHotbed, a bed of earth made hot by the fermentation of dung.

But I n'ot how it happed, sodainly
As, about none, the sonn so fervently
Waxe hote that the pretty tender floures
Had lost the beauty of hir fresh collours.

Chaucer. The Floure and the Leafe.
The enemy, now at hand, began hotly to skirmish
in divers places with the Christians.
Knolles's History.

Now she professes a hothouse, which is a very ill house too. Shakspeare. Measure for Measure. My nephew's trespass may be well forgot; It hath the excuse of youth and heat of blood, A harebrained hotspur governed by a spleen. Shakspeare.

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HOTBEDS, in gardening, are made with fresh horse-dung, or tanners' bark, and covered with glasses to defend them from cold winds. By the skilful management of hot-beds, we may imitate the temperature of warmer climates; by which means the seeds of plants brought from any of the countries within the torrid zone may be made to flourish even under the poles. The hot-beds commonly used in kitchen-gardens are made with new horse-dung mixed with the litter of a stable, and a few sea-coal ashes, which last are of great service in retaining the heat of the dung. This should remain six or seven days in a beap; and being then turned over, and the parts mixed well together, it should be again cast into a heap; where it may continue five or

six days longer, by which time it will have acquired a due heat. The hot-beds are thus made:

In some sheltered part of the garden dig out a trench of a length and width proportionable to the frames you intend it for; and, if the ground be dry, about a foot, or a foot and a half deep; but, if it be wet, not above six inches; then wheel the dung into the opening, stirring every part of it with a fork, and laying it exactly even and smooth on every part of the bed, with the bottom part of the heap, which is commonly free from litter, upon the surface. If it be designed for a bed to plant out cucumbers to remain, make a hole in the middle of the place designed for each light about ten inches over and six deep, which should be filled with good fresh earth, thrusting in a stick to show the places where the holes are; then cover the bed all over with the earth that was taken out of the trench, about four inches thick, and put on the frame, letting it remain till the earth be warm, which commonly happens in three or four days after the bed is made, and then the plants may be placed in it. If the hot-bed be designed for other plants, there need be no holes made in the dung; but, after having smoothed the surface with a spade, cover the dung about three or four inches thick with good earth, putting on the frames and glasses as before. Settle the dung close with a fork, and, if it be pretty full of long litter, it should be trod down equally on every part. During the first eight or ten days after the bed is made, cover the glasses slightly in the night, and in the day-time carefully raise them, to let out the steam. As the heat abates the covering should be increased; and, as the bed grows cold, new hot dung should be added round the sides of it. The hot-bed made with tanners' bark is, however, much preferable to that described fruits, which require an equal degree of warmth above, especially for all tender exotic plants and for several months, which cannot be effected with horse-dung. They are thus made:-Dig a trench about three feet deep, if the ground be dry; but, if wet, it must not be above a foot deep at most, and must be raised two feet above the ground. The length must be proportioned to the frames intended to cover it; but it should never be less than ten or twelve feet, and the width not less than six. The trench should be bricked up round the sides to the height of three feet, and filled in the spring with fresh tanners' bark that has been lately drawn out of their vats, and has lain in a round heap, for the moisture to drain out of it, only three or four days. As it is put in, gently beat it down equally with a dung-fork; but it must not be trodden, which would prevent its heating, by settling it too close; then put on the frame, covering it with glasses; and in about ten or fourteen days it will begin to heat; at which time plunge your pots of plants or seed into it, observing not to tread down the bark in doing it. These beds will continue three or four months in a good temper of heat; and if you stir up the bark pretty deep, and mix a load or two of fresh bark with the old when you find the warmth decline, you will preserve its heat two or three months longer. Many lay hot horse-dung in the bottom

of the trench under the bark; but this ought never to be done unless the bed is wanted sooner than the bark would heat of itself, and even then there ought only to be a small quantity of dung at the bottom. The frames which cover these beds should be proportioned to the several plants they are designed to contain. If they are to cover the ananas or pine-apple, the back part should be three feet high, and the lower part fifteen inches; if the bed be intended for taller plants, the frame must be made of a depth proportionable to them; but, if it be for sowing of seeds, the frame need not be above fourteen inches high at the back, and seven in the front; by which means the heat will be much greater.

HOT-HOUSES. The changes that have of late years taken place in these important adjuncts to scientific gardening it will be impossible to enumerate in the compass of this article. Their form and general structure have been much varied and the spherical shape largely introduced. A considerable improvement in the mode of glazing hot-houses deserves also to be mentioned. It consists in making the upper and lower edges of the panes segments of a circle, instead of being rectilinear or horizontal; the upper edge being made concave, the lower convex. For a pane eight inches wide, a curvature five-eighths of an inch deep in the centre is sufficient. The advantages of this circular form must be evident. The rain which falls, or moisture which collects on the exterior of the glass, gravitates to the centre of the pane, and runs down in a continued line, instead of passing along the sides of the bars, and being partly detained by the capillary attraction of the two surfaces, at the overlapping of the panes. The extent to which one pane overlaps another can, at the same time, therefore, be much lessened; one-eighth of an inch is found sufficient. This narrowness of the lap, again, prevents breakage from the lodging of moisture, and the sudden expansion produced by freezing during the variable weather of winter. When these circular panes are cut from whole sheets of glass, the expense is scarcely greater than for oblong squares. It is proper that the glass should be flat or equal; and the kind known by the name of patent crown glass is preferred. In stoves or hot-houses, where a high temperature must be maintained, the laps are puttied. In this case, a small central opening is left in the putty, by inserting a slip of wood at first, and withdrawing it when the pane is pressed down to its bearing; by this little aperture the condensed vapor generated within escapes without dropping on the plants. Mr. Loudon uses thin sheet lead in place of putty for closing the laps; he thus avoids all risk of expansion from frost, and the lap car thus be made exceedingly

narrow.

Heating of hot-nouses by steam.—But of all the recent improvements in gardening, the most important, perhaps, is the use of steam for com municating the artificial heat, in place of depending, as formerly, on the passage of heated air through flues, aided in particular houses, called stoves, by the fermentation of tauner's bark. The advantage arising from the use of

steam consists in this, that an equable high temperature can thus be maintained for a length of time with great ease and certainty, and the plants can scarcely ever be liable to suffer a scorching heat; ladies and gentlemen visiting the house are also much less apt to be annoyed with the smoke. It has been found also that seven bushels of coal go as far in keeping up steam heat, as ten bushels do in maintaining an equal temperature the other way. It fortunately happens too, that steam may very advantageously be resorted to in aid of the common flues conveying smoke and heated air. A steam-apparatus may be appended to any ordinary hot-house, without incurring any material expense, or any considerable alteration in structure, thus: a boiler is erected over the usual furnace, the smoke of which passes through the flues as formerly. Metal, generally copper, pipes are laid along the top of the brick-flues. A square shape is sometimes preferred; and the pipes are set on edge, so that any condensed vapor trickling to the bottom may occupy little room, or present only a small surface, till it make its way back to the boiler, to which a gentle inclination is given. The boiler as in the common steam-engine, is supplied from a cistern above, and is made to regulate itself by a simple contrivance; in the feed-head is a valve which is opened by the sinking of a float, which descends in proportion as the water is dissipated in steam; and being balanced by a weight, whenever a sufficient quantity of water is admitted, rises again and shuts the valve. A safety-valve is added, loaded according to the strength of the boiler; and there is another valve for admitting atmospheric air, in case of the condensation of the steam causing a vacuum in the boiler. Instead of these steam operations requiring more of the time and attention of the gardener, he will be greatly relieved, and have several additional hours a day which he may devote to other concerns. If the furnace be duly charged, and the boiler properly prepared, the hot-house may be left with confidence for eight or even ten hours together, the temperature continuing equal for that length of time. Where forcing is practised, the gardener is thus also relieved from much anxiety and night-watching.

For heating stoves, conservatories, and greenhouses, steam is likewise well adapted. The difficulty of maintaining continually a high temperature in a large stove has, no doubt, been one cause of the comparative neglect into which the cultivation of fine tropical plants has fallen. By means of steam, this is most effectually removed.

For the conservatory and green-house, if the steam be in action from three to nine o'clock P. M. the temperature will be kept constantly within a proper range, in ordinary winter weather. In severe frosts the steam must, of course, be longer applied. The most extensive steam apparatus for the heating of plant-houses is to be seen at the grounds of Messrs. Loddiges, near Hackney, where glazed houses to the extent of almost 1000 feet in length, and forming three sides of a square, are heated solely by steam from a single boiler, of an oblong shape, measuring eleven feet by four, and made of malleable iron. In narrow houses, intended for green-house plants, a single

steam-pipe is found sufficient. In other houses, of considerable height and breadth, or where a higher temperature is required, as in the palmhouse, the steam-flue is made to describe two or three turns. The pipes at Hackney are of iron, of a round shape, and four inches bore. They are flanched and screwed together with bolts and nuts. When they make returns within the house, the joints are formed with iron cement on milboard dipped in white lead.

Where steam is employed in the principal suite of hot-houses, it will be found easy to convey it also to the melon ground; the melon pits or frames must, however, in this case, have their side-walls of brick.

HOTCOCK'LES, n. s. Fr. hautes coquilles. A play in which one covers his eyes, and guesses who strikes him.

The chytindra is certainly not our hotcockles; for that was by pinching, not by striking.

Arbuthnot and Pope.

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HOTMAN (Francis), a learned civilian of the sixteenth century. He first took up the profession of the law at Bourges; but, becoming a protestant, was obliged to retire to Geneva, where he read lectures on civil law with great applause. He also wrote several works against the persecution of heretics. He died at Basil in 1590. His Franco-Gallia is well known, having been translated into English by lord Molesworth. He is said to have been the author of Vindicia contra Tyrannos. All his works were printed at Geneva in 1590, in 3 vols. folio.

HOTTENTOTS, a people once inhabiting a considerable district of South-eastern Africa, bordering on the Cape of Good Hope. Their country extended to the territory of the Caffres, and was bounded on the north by the Orange River. Found by Europeans in a very low state of civilisation, they have not only undergone no material improvement, but have been for the greater part reduced to a state of wretched servitude, and are now principally to be found as menial servants within the colony of the Cape.

Considered as a whole they are a singularly insulated people; being as distinct, in their persons and manners, from the negro of the west, as

they are from the Caffre of the eastern shores, of this continent. Their number has been lately estimated at about 12,000; the greater part (perhaps 10,000 of them) being found in the Graff Reynal district. Mr. Barrow regards them as approaching the nearest to the Chinese and Tartar races, in their color, and the construction of their features, but particularly in the shape of the eye. The name Hottentot is of uncertain etymology; they call themselves Quaiquæ, and were formerly divided into the distinct hordes of the Attaquas, Hessaquas, Houtiniquas, Namaquas, and Coranas. But, while they retain most of their personal peculiarities, they are annually sinking out of being as a nation.

No distinct kraals, or villages, such as Kolben states himself to have found in the neighbourhood of Camtoos River, are now seen in any part of the colony, nor even twenty independent individuals in whole districts where they most abound. They have been wholly subdued by the Dutch, to a sort of service worse than slavery; and have purchased the enjoyment of some few European indulgencies, not only at the price of every thing dear to man in society, but almost at the forfeiture of the necessaries of his physical existence. They are the menials of every sort of establishment at the Cape; and while the slaves, from their price, and the circumstance of their being transferable property, are said to be treated better than many European servants, and to live in much more comfort than the peasantry of many civilised states, the Hottentot, in the remoter parts, is exposed to as cruel usage as any of the West Indian slave-drivers can exercise. If he be killed by his master, society does not seem to have any property in him, and the master feels only the personal loss of his services, as the price of his vengeance. Small shot are frequently fired into his legs by way of punishment; and one of the ordinary modes of chastisement is to lash him with heavy thongs of the hide of a rhinoceros, while his more savage proprietor smokes a certain number of pipes.

From many similar instances of cruelty, recorded by Mr. Barrow, we extract the following: We had scarcely parted from these people, when, stopping at a house to feed our horses, we, by accident, observed a young Hottentot woman, with a child in her arms, lying stretched on the ground in a most deplorable condition. She had been cut from head to foot with one of those infernal whips, made from the hide of a rhinoceros or sea cow, known by the name of sambocs, in such a barbarous and unmerciful manner, that there was scarcely a spot on her whole body free from stripes; nor had the sides of the little infant, in clinging to its mother, escaped the strokes of the brutal monster. The only crime alleged against her was the attempt to follow her husband, who was among the number of those of his countrymen that had determined to throw themselves upon the protection of the English.' A pamphlet, published by Baron de P private secretary to governor Jansen, during the peace of Amiens, gives an account of fifteen poor Hottentots going to a farm to beg tobacco, being most inhumanly tortured tc extort from them the confession of a crime they never contemplated,

viz. that they came to rob the colonists--and that then they were shot in cold blood. Of another instance, equally inhuman, we give the following translation:-'As soon as the English had abandoned the fort (at Algoa Bay), a boor, named Ferrara, of a Portuguese family, made himself master of it, and kept possession till the arrival of a detachment of troops, which government sent thither, under the command of major Von Gelter, The Caffres, fully persuaded that the late peace had put an end to all disturbances between them, sent to the new commander of the fort a bullock to be slain, as the test of reconciliation and friendship. The Caffre, sent on the occasion, put himself under the guidance of a Hottentot; and Ferrara, by way of returning the kind intention, laid hold of the Caffre and broiled him alive; bound the poor Hottentot to a tree, cut a piece of flesh out of his thigh, made him eat it raw, and then released him.'

Their field occupations are to guard the numerous herds and flocks of these districts, to scour the country with them oftentimes for food or water, and endure all the extremes of the climate on scorching plains and snowy heights, covered by a single sheep-skin. Some, regarded as free by the law, and who were bargained with by the boors from year to year, at the rate of an ox, a couple of cows, or a dozen sheep, for their services, had their wages, up to a late period, stopped upon every pre ext that occurred; and the loss of an ox or sheep of the master's was sure to be visited on the poor Hottentot. Should no such accidents occur (in a country peculiarly exposed to them) the wretched hireling would often have a bill for tobacco or spirits brought in against his wages to the full amount, Such was the general lot of the unmarried, and those who were the least wretched in their condition.

Those who have families generally live in straw huts, at a short distance from the farm Zouses, in which their children are early seen to be running about; and, by an old law of the colony, any Hottentot child who has eaten the bread of a farmer becomes his property until he is twenty-five years of age. This is interpreted in the most literal way, so far as to get the children into their service, but the period of his emancipation the Hottentot is either too ignorant to reckon, too inured to the yoke to feel any desire for its removal, or too old (for he is an aged man at thirty) for such liberty as would be afforded him to be a blessing. This part of the law, therefore, only resorted to occasiona ly, when the starving wretch is set adrift on the world without prospect or possession of any kind. This at least is the shocking picture of their condition drawn from several recent accounts; and we can find only general assurances of the improvements introduced by government of late, and of the superior vigilance with which the laws are now administered, as a ground of hope that their situation has been truly ameliorated of late

years.

It needs not much philosophy to account for the listless disposition, and gradual diminution of such a race. Entailing nothing but misery on their posterity, they have no rational motives for marriage; and many more of them remain single

than is common in uncivilised tribes. Those who marry have not usually more than two or three children, and very many of their women are wholly barren. The mode of confining their marriages to their own immediate kraal or horde has been thought to have a tendency to deteriorate their race; but certain it is, that, in their marriages with each other, the physical powers of nature seem exhausted, and their very name, without some radical change in their condition, seems likely to be soon forgotten. The children of the Hottentot women, who marry Europeans, are, on the other hand, numerous, active, and robust. These are called baastards by the Dutch colonists, and are becoming an important part of the population.

In personal appearance the Hottentot has been often caricatured by travellers. His face, generally speaking, is certainly far from what an European would reckon handsome, though it differs materially in different families, the nose being in some particularly flat, and in others as remarkably raised. Their check-bones are high, their chin small and pointed, and their eyes placed at a remarkable distance from each other. The general color of their eyes is a deep chestnut, their teeth beautifully white. The color of the skin resembles that of a faded leaf, being of a yellowish-brown, but many are nearly as white as Europeans. The hair, which has the appearance and feel of a hard shoe-brush, grows in singular tufts at a distance from each other, and does not cover the whole surface of the scalp, but, if suffered to grow long, it hangs in the neck, in hard twisted tassels. Their limbs are extremely well-proportioned and delicate, but there is nothing to indicate muscular strength : yet it is rarely that a cripple or deformed person is seen amongst them, and, though not long lived, their health is generally firm. Many of the women, when quite young, might serve as perfect models of the human figure, so exquisite is their form; their hands and feet are small and delicate, and they move in an easy and graceful manner. Their charms, however, are quickly dissipated by child-bearing, and their whole frame undergoes a more complete revolution than that of any ot' er human female. The abdomen protrudes, the breasts grow flaccid, and at last enormously distended, while the posteriors acquire immense masses of fat, that give the whole figure a very awkward appearance, especially in walking. There is another peculiarity in the Hottentot female, which Mr. Barrow fully ascertained to be a natural appendage, both in the Bosjesman women (whom he regards as a part of the same race) and the common Hottentot; the elongation of the nymphæ, from three to five inches and a half.

The Hottentot dress is simple, and ill contrived for some of the purposes they seem to have in view, A belt cut from the skin of some animal is fastened round the body of the man, to which is attached a curious kind of a bag in front, made of the skin of a jackal. Behind hangs a triangular piece of dried skin, with the broad part downwards, and designed originally to flap and cool the body, as well, perhaps, as to rid it of insects. A sheep-skin in winter is all the addition that is

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