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of it about forty years. He was not carried captive to Babylon with the other Jews, but remained in Judea to lament the desolation of his country. He was afterwards a prisoner in Egypt with his disciple Baruch, where it is supposed he died in a very advanced age. Some of the Christian fathers say he was stoned to death by the Jews, for preaching against their idolatry; others, that he was put to death by Pharaoh Hophrah, because of his prophecy against him.

JEREMIAH, THE PROPHECY OF, a canonical book of the Old Testament. Part of this prophecy relates to the time after the captivity of Israel, and before that of Judah, from the first chapter to the forty-fourth; part of it to that of the latter captivity, from the forty-fourth chapter to the end. Jeremiah predicts the grievous calamities that were approaching, particularly the seventy years captivity in Chaldea. He also foretels their deliverance and happy return, and the recompence which Babylon, Moab, and other enemies of the Jews, should meet with in due time. There are likewise several intimations

in this prophecy concerning the kingdom of the Messiah; also several remarkable visions and types, and historical passages relating to those times. The fifty-second chapter does not belong to the prophecy of Jeremiah, but probably was added by Ezra, and contains a narrative of the taking of Jerusalem, and of what happened during the captivity, to the death of Jechonias. St. Jerome has observed that Jeremiah's style is more easy than that of Isaiah and Hosea; that he retains something of the rusticity of the village where he was born; but that he is also at times learned and majestic.

JERICHO, or HIERICHUS, in ancient geography, a city of Judea, between Jordan and Jerusalem, 150 stadia from the latter, and sixty from the former. Josephus says, "the whole space from Jerusalem is desert and rocky, and equally barren and uncultivated from Jericho to the lake Asphaltites; yet the places near the town and above it are extremely fertile and delicious, so that it may be justly called a divine plain, surpassing the rest of the land of Canaan, and surrounded by hills in the manner of an amphitheatre.' It produces dates; from which it is called the city of palm trees, by Moses. It is now called Raha; and is situated, Volney informs us, 'in a plain six or seven leagues long, by three wide, around which are a number of barren mountains, that render it extremely hot. Here formerly was cultivated the balm of


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jerkins and stockings grow out of the ground, what could she do better than afford us wool? More.

Unless we should expect that nature should make

Imagine an ambassador presenting himself in a poor frize jerkin, and tattered clothes, certainly he

would have but small audience. South's Sermons. I walked into the sea, in my leathern jerkin, about an hour before high water. Gulliver's Travels. JERKIN, n. s. A kind of hawk.-Ainsworth. This should be written gyrkin.

JERNINGHAM (Edward), a modern English poet and dramatic writer was descended from the ancient Roman Catholic family of this name in Norfolk, and brother of Sir William Jerningham, bart. Born in 1727, he was sent to the English College at Douay, in Flanders, for his education, and afterwards removed to Paris. On his return to England, however, he became a member of the established church. One of his earliest productions was a poem in favor of the Magdalen, which was followed by The Deserter, 1769; The Funeral of Arabert, Monk of La Trappe, 1771; Faldoni and Teresa, 1773; The Swedish Curate; The Fall of Mexico, 1775; Honoria, or the Day of all Souls, 1782; The Rise and Progress of Scandinavian Poetry, 1784; Enthusiasm, 1789; &c. His play, called Margaret of Anjou, was acted in 1777; the siege of Berwick, a tragedy, in 1794; and the Welsh Heiress, a comedy, in 1795. A collection of his works appeared in 4 vols. 8vo. 1806. He also published An Essay on the Mild Tenor of Christianity, and other religious tracts. death took place November 17th, 1812. Mr. Jerningham is spoken of with respect by lord Byron in his English Bards, and was a very amiable man.


JEROME, or HIERONYMUS, (St.), a famous doctor of the church, and the most learned of all the Latin fathers, was the son of Eusebius; and was born at Stridon, a city of ancient Pannonia, about A. D. 340. He studied at Rome under Donatus, the learned grammarian. After being baptized, he went into Gaul, and transcribed St. Hilary's book De Synodis. He then went into Aquileia, where he contracted a friendship

with Heliodorus, who prevailed on him to travel with him into Thrace, Pontus, Bithynia, Galatia, and Cappadocia. In 372 he retired into a desert in Syria, where he was persecuted by the orthodox of Meltius's party, as a Sabellian, because he made use of the word hypostasis, as used by the council of Rome in 359. This obliged him to go to Jerusalem; where he studied the Hebrew language, to acquire a more perfect knowledge of the Holy Scriptures; and consented to be ordained, provided he should not be confined to any particulat church. In 381 he went to Constantinople to hear St. Gregory of Nazianzen; and in 382 returned to Rome, where he was nade secretary to pope Damasus. He soon, however, returned to the monastery of Bethlehein, where he held a controversy with John of Jerusalem and Rufinus concerning the Origenists; and was the first who wrote against Pelagius. He died on the 30th of September, 420, about eighty years of age. The last edition of his works is that of Verona, in 11 vols. folio. His principal works are, 1. A Latin Version of the Scriptures, commonly called the Vulgate. 2. Commentaries on the Prophets, Ecclesiasties, St. Matthew, and the Epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, Titus, and Philemon. 3. Polemical reatises against Montanus, Helvidius, Jovinian, Vigilantius, and Pelagius. 4. A treatise on the lives and writings of the Ecclesiastical authors who had flourished before his time. His style is lively and animated, and sometimes sublime.

JEROME OF PRAGUE, so called from the place of his birth, in Bohemia. Having embraced the opinions of John Huss, he began to propagate them in 1480. The council of Nice cited him to appear before them, and give an account of his faith. In obedience to this citation, he went to Constance; but on his arrival, in 1415, finding Huss in prison, he set out for his own county. Being seized, however, on the way, imprisoned, and examined, he was so intimidated, that he retracted, and pretende to approve of the condemnation of the opinions of Wickliff and Huss; but on the 26th of May, 1416, he condemned that recantation, and sentence was accordingly passed on him; in pursuance of which he was burnt in 1416. He was a person of great talents, learning, and elocution.

JERSEY is a populous island of the English channel, twelve miles long and six broad. The north side is composed of rocky cliffs forty to fifty fathoms high, while the south shore is nearly level with the sea; a ridge of hills runs through the centre, whose sides are covered with orchards, 24,000 hogsheads of cyder have been yielded by their fruit in one year. The other chief pursuit is the rearing cattle, particularly sheep, whose wool, together with cyder, form the only exports; the island is obliged to import corn from France and England. The number of inhabitants upwards of 20,000.

The two towns of Jersey are St. Helier and St. Aubin. The former, being the chief place, is situated nearly in the middle of the south side of the bay of St. Aubin, the best road of the island, but still dangerous, from numerous rocks scattered round the entrance. The town consists of several good streets, and is defended by

numerous batteries, but chiefly by Elizabeth
Castle, standing on a rock insulated at high


On the west side of the island is St. Quen's
Bay, and on the east St. Catherine's Bay, which
are safe roads according to the wind. All the
accessible parts of the island are defended by
batteries or towers. See GUERNSEY.

Christianity was first planted here, it is be-
lieved, in the sixth century, and the island made
part of the see of Doln Bretagne. It is now
governed by a dean. Besides the abbey of St.
Helier, there were four priories, Noirmont, St.
Clement, Bonnenuit, and le Leck, and above
twenty chapels, now mostly in ruins. During
the American war this island was twice invaded
by the French. The first attempt was in 1779.
About 6000 men were embarked in flat-bot-
tomed boats, and endeavoured to land in the
bay of St. Ouen, on the 1st of May, supported
by five frigates, and other armed vessels; but
they met with such vigorous resistance, that
they were compelled to retire without having
landed a single person. Another attempt was
now resolved on. The troops and seamen were
equally desirous of retrieving their honor; but
they were for some time prevented from making
any attempt by bad weather; and, before auo-
ther opportunity offered, the squadron designed
to cover their descent was attacked by Sir James
Wallace, who drove them ashore on the coast of
Normandy, silenced a battery under whose guns
they had taken shelter, captured a frigate of
thirty-four guns, with two rich prizes, burnt two
other large frigates, and a considerable number
of smaller vessels. The scheme, though thus
totally disconcerted, was resumed in 1781. The
conduct of this expedition was given to baron
Rullecourt, a man of courage, but very deficient
in the prudence requisite for such an enterprise.
His force consisted of 2000 men; with whom
he embarked in tempestuous weather, hoping
that he might thus be able to surprise the garri-
son. Many of his transports, however, were
dispersed, and he himself, with the remainder,
obliged to take shelter in some islands in the
neighbourhood. As soon as the weather grew
calin, he landed, in a dark night, at Grouville,
where he made prisoners of a party of militia.
Hence he proceeded with the utmost expedition
to St. Helier, and, being wholly unexpected,
seized on a party of men who guarded it, toge-
ther with the commanding officer, and the ma-
gistrates. Rullecourt then drew up a capitulation,
the terms of which were, that the island should
be instantly surrendered to the French, and the
garrison sent to England; threatening the town
with immediate destruction in case of non-com-
pliance. This point being gained, he summoned
Elisabeth Castle to surrender in virtue of the
capitulation just concluded.
To this a per-
emptory refusal was given, and followed by such
a vigorous discharge of artillery, that he was
obliged to retire into the town. In the mean
time the British troops stationed in the island
under the command of major Pierson began to
assemble from every quarter: being required by
the French commander to submit, that officer
replied, that if the French themselves did not,

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within twenty minutes, lay down their arms, he would attack them. An attack was accordingly made with such impetuosity, that the French were totally routed in less than half an hour, and driven into the market-place, where they endeavoured to make a stand. Their commander, exasperated at this change of affairs, endeavoured to wreak his vengeance on the captive governor, whom he obliged to stand by his side during the whole time of the conflict. This, however, was quickly over; the French were broken on all sides, the baron himself mortally wounded, and the next in command obliged to surrender himself and the whole party prisoners of war; the captive governor escaped without a wound. This last disaster put an end to all hopes of the French ministry of being able to reduce the island, and was indeed no small mortification to them; 800 troops having been landed at that time, of which not one escaped. During the late wars Jersey flourished, and was we believe never attacked.

JERSEY, NEW, one of the United States of North America, is bounded north by New York, east by the Hudson and the Atlantic, south by the Atlantic, and west by Delaware Bay and River, which separates it from the states of Delaware and Pennsylvania. It is 163 miles long, and fifty-two broad; containing 8320 square miles. Population, in 1790, 184,189; in 1800 211,149; and, in 1810, 245,592, of whom 10,851 were slaves, and 7843 free blacks. The number of militia, in 1817, amounted to 35,169.

Trenton is the seat of government. The other most considerable towns are Newark, New Brunswick, Elizabeth-town, Burlington, and Amboy. There are fourteen banks in this state; and the counties, number of townships, population, and chief towns, are thus exhibited :

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The three northern counties, Sussex, Morris, and Bergen, are mountainous. The next four, Hunterdon, Somerset, Essex, and Middlesex, are agreeably diversified with hills and valleys. South Mountain, a great ridge of the Alleghany range, crosses the state in lat. 41° N., and the Kittatinny ridge crosses a little to the north of South Mountain. The greater part of the six southern counties is composed of the long range of level country, which commences at Sandy Hook, and lines the coast of the middle and southern states. Much of this range is nearly barren, producing only shrub oaks and yellow pines; but the rest of the state has a large proportion of good soil, excellent for grazing, and for the various purposes of agriculture. The productions are wheat, rye, maize, buck-wheat, potatoes, oats, and barley. Great numbers of cattle are raised in the mountainous parts for the markets of New York and Philadelphia. Large quantities of butter and cheese are also made. New Jersey is remarkable for an excellent breed of horses. The exports are flour, wheat, horses, cattle, hams, cyder, lumber, flax seed, leather, and iron. The greater part of the produce exported from this state passes through New York and Philadelphia.

Great quantities of leather are manufactured at the valuable tanneries of Trenton, Newark, and Elizabethtown. Large quantities of shoes are made at Newark. There is a glass-house in Gloucester county, and there are paper mills and nail manufactories in various parts of the state. But the most important manufacture is that of iron. In the county of Morris there are seven rich iron mines, two furnaces, two rolling and slitting mills, and about thirty forges. The annual produce of these works is about 540 tons of bar iron, 800 tons of pig, besides large quantities of hollow ware, sheet iron, and nail rods. There are also iron-works in the counties of Burlington, Gloucester, Sussex, &c. The annual produce in the whole state is computed at about 1200 tons of bar iron, 1200 tons of pig, and eighty tons of nails, exclusive of small articles.

Two colleges have been incorporated in this state, one at Princeton, and one at New Brunswick. The latter is not at present in operation. There are theological seminaries at Princeton and New Brunswick; and academies have been established at Amboy, Aniwell, Baskingridge, Bedminster, Bergen, Bloomfield, Bordentown, Bridgetown, Burlington, Camden, Elizabethtown. Flemington, Hackinsack, Morristown, New Brunswick, Newark, Newton, Salem, Springfield, Somerville, and Trenton. Most of these academies have but small funds, and five or six of them are not incorporated.

The most numerous denomination of Christians in New Jersey is the English Presbyterians, who have seventy-four churches, and fifty-nine clergymen. The Dutch Reformed have thirty-one churches, and twenty clergymen; the Baptists have thirty churches, and twenty-three, clergymen; the Episcopalians have twenty-four churches, and eleven clergymen; the Congregationalists have ninehurches, and five clergymen; the Friends have forty four meeting-houses. The Methodists are numerous; the number of communicants was stated, in 1811, at 6739.

The legislature is composed of a legislative council, and a house of assembly; the former consisting of thirteen members, one from each county, and the latter of thirty-five members, all chosen annually. The executive is composed of a governor chosen annually by a joint vote of both branches of the legislature, a vice-president chosen by the council, and a privy council, composed of three members of the legislative council. The annual elections are in October. New Jersey sends six representatives to con


JERSEY, n. s. From the island of Jersey, where much yarn is spun. Combed wool, and yarn made of combed wool.

JERVIS (John), earl of St. Vincent, a late distinguished naval commander, was descended of an ancient family in Staffordshire. His father, Swynfen Jervis esq., was auditor of Greenwich Hospital. Our admiral was born at Meaford Hall, January 9th, 1734 (old style). At the age of fourteen he was a midshipman on board the Gloucester, of fifty guns; and, in 1755, served as lieutenant under Sir C. Saunders, in the expedition againt Quebec. Soon after he was appointed as commander to the Experiment, and afterwards to the Albany sloop. In 1760 he obtained the rank of captain of the Foudroyant, and fought in the action between admiral Keppel and the French fleet in July 1778. In 1782 he engaged and took the Pegasé, of seventy-four guns and 700 men. Receiving a severe wound in the head from a splinter, he obtained the red riband as a reward for this gallant conduct.

In 1794 he had the command of a squadron equipped for the West Indies, and reduced Martinique, Guadaloupe, and St. Lucie; for which he received the thanks of parliament, and the freedom of the city of London. On the 14th of February 1797, however, he obtained his great victory. Being in command of the Mediterranean fleet of fifteen sail, he engaged and defeated twenty-seven Spanish ships of the line, the smallest carrying seventy-four guns, and seven of them mounting from 112 to 130 each. He was now raised to the English peerage, by the titles of baron Jervis and earl of St. Vincent. To this was added a pension of £3000 a year, and a gold medal from the king. In 1801 he became first lord of the admiralty; in which capacity he undertook and executed many salutary reforms in naval expenditure, but resigned his post in 1804. May, 1814, lord St. Vincent was appointed general of marines, and July 19th, 1821, admiral of the fleet. He died March 15th, 1823, in his eighty-ninth year, and a monument was voted by the house of commons to be erected to his memory in St. Paul's cathedral.

JERUSALEM, Heb. from 1 they shall see, and, Salem, Peace, a famous and ancient city, cap tal of Judea, now a province of Turkey in Asia. According to Manetho, an Egyptian historian, it was founded by the shepherds who invaded Egypt in an unknown period of antiquity. See EGYPT. According to Josephus, it was the capital of Melchisedek's kingdom, called

Salem in the book of Genesis: and the Arabians

assert, that it was built in honor of Melchisedek by twelve neighbouring kings. We know nothi of it with certainty, however, till the time

of king David, who took it from the Jebusites, and made it the capital of his kingdom, which it ever after continued to be. It was first taken in the days of Joash, by Hazael, king of Syria, who slew all the nobility, but did not destroy the city. It was afterwards taken by Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, who destroyed it, and carried away the inhabitants. Seventy years after it was rebuilt, by permission of Cyrus king of Persia, and it continued to be the capital of Judea (though frequently suffering much from the Grecian monarchs of Syria and Egypt), till the time of Vespasian emperor of Rome, by whose son Titus it was totally destroyed. See JEWS. It was, however, rebuilt by Adrian: and seemed likely to have recovered its former grandeur, being surrounded with walls, and adorned with several noble buildings; the Christians also being permitted to settle in it. But this was a short-lived change; for when the empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, visited this city, she found it in the most ruinous situation. Having formed a design of restoring it to its ancient lustre, she caused, with a great deal of cost and labor, all the rubbish that had been thrown upon those places where our Saviour had suffered, been buried, &c., to be removed. In doing this, they found the cross on which he died, as well as those of the two malefactors who suffered with him; and (as the writers of those times relate) discovered by a miracle that which had borne the Saviour of mankind. She then caused a magnificent church to be built, which enclosed as many of the scenes of our Saviour's sufferings as could conveniently be done, and adorned the city with several other buildings. The emperor Julian is said to have formed a design of rebuilding the temple of Jerusalem, and of restoring the Jewish worship, on purpose to give the lie to our Saviour's prophecy concerning the temple and city of Jerusalem; namely, that the temple should be totally destroyed, without one stone being left upon another: and that the city should be trodden down of the Gentiles till the times of the gentiles were fulfilled. In this attempt, however, according to the accounts of the Christian writers of that age, the emperor was frustrated by an earthquake and fiery eruption from the earth, which totally destroyed the work, consumed the materials which had been collected, and killed a great number of the work



This event has been the subject of much dispute. Bishop Warburton published a treatise expressly on the truth of this fact, and collected testimonies in favor of it, from Ammianus Marcellinus, and Gregory of Nazianzen ; for which we shall refer our readers to the bishop and the original authors. But it is a matter of very little consequence, whether this event happened, with the circumstances related by these authors, and quoted by the bishop, or not. Julian did make any attempt to rebuild the temple, it is certain that something obstructed his attempt, because the temple was never rebuilt. If he made no such attempt, the prophecy of our Saviour still holds good; and it surely cannot detract from the merit of a prophecy, that nobody ever attempted to elude it, or prove it to be a falsehood. Jerusalem continued in the bands of the eastern emperors till the reign of the caliph

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Omar, who reduced it under his subjection. The Saracens continued in possession of it till 1099, when it was taken by the Crusaders, They founded a new kingdom, of which Jerusalem was the capital, and Godfrey the first king. See GODFREY. The Christian kingdom of Jerusalem lasted eighty-eight years under nine kings, when it was taken by Saladin, sultan of Egypt in 1187. See EGYPT. In 1217 the Saracens were expelled by the Turks, who have ever since continued in possession of it. Jerusalen, in its most flourishing state, was divided into four parts, each enclosed with its own walls; viz. 1. The old city of Jebus, which stood on mount Zion, where the prophets dwelt, and where David built a magnificent castle and palace, which became the residence both of himself and successors; on which account it was emphatically called the city of David. 2. The lower city, called also the Daughter of Zion, being built after it; on which stood the two magnificent palaces which Solomon built for himself and his queen; that of the Maccabæan princes; and the stately amphitheatre built by Herod, capable of containing 80,000 spectators; the strong citadel built by Antiochus, to command and overtop the temple, but afterwards razed by Simon the Maccabee, who recovered the city from the Syrians; and lastly, a second citadel, built by Herod, upon a high and craggy rock, and called by him Antonia. 3. The new city, mostly inhabited by tradesmen, artificers, and merchants; and, 4, Mount Moriah, on which was built the famed temple of Solomon, described in 2 Kings vi. and vii.; and, since then, that rebuilt by the Jews on their return from Babylon, and afterwards built almost anew, and greatly adorned and enriched by Herod. Some idea of the magnificence of this temple may be had from the following considerations: 1. That there were no fewer than 164,300 men employed in the work: 2. That, notwithstanding this prodigious number of hands, it took up seven years in building: 3. That the height of this building was 120 cubits, or eighty two yards; and the courts round it about half as high: 4. That the front, on the east side, was sustained by ramparts of square stone, of vast bulk, and built up from the valley below; which last was 300 cubits high, and being added to that of the edifice amounted to 420 cubits; to which, if we add, 5, The height of the principal tower above all the rest, viz. sixty, it will bring it to 480 cubits, which, reckoning at two feet to a cubit, will amount to 960 feet; but, according to the length of that measure, as others reckon it, viz. at two feet and a half, it will amount to 1200 feet; a prodigious height from the ground, and such as might well make Josephus say, that the very design of it was sufficient to have turned the brain of any but Solomon. 6. These ramparts, which were raised in this manner, to fill up the prodigious chasm made by the deep valley below, and to make the area of a sufficient breadth and length for the edifice, were 1000 cubits in length at the bottom, and 800 at the top, and the breadth of them 100 more. 7. The huge buttresses which supported the ramparts were of the same height, square at the top, and fifty cubits broad, and jutted out 150 cubits at

the bottom. 8. The stones of which they were built were, according to Josephus, forty cubits long, twelve thick, and eight high, all of marble, and so exquisitely joined, that they seemed one continued piece, or rather polished rock. 9. According to the same Jewish historian, there were 1453 columns of Parian marble, and 2906 pilasters; of such thickness, that three men could hardly encircle them; with height and capitals proportionable, of the Corinthian order. But it is probable, that Josephus has given us these last two articles from the temple of Herod, there being nothing like them mentioned by the sacred historians, but a great deal about the prodigious cedars of Lebanon used in that noble edifice, the excellent workmanship of them adapted to their several ends; together with their gilding and other ornaments. At present Jerusalem is called by the Turks Cudsembaric, Coudsheriff, and Heleods, or the Holy City.

Dr. Clarke, on his recent visit to this spot, did not find it, as a whole, that picture of desolation which he had been prepared to expect. On reaching an eminence, to the north of the city, he observes, the sight burst upon us all. We had not been prepared for the grandeur of the spectacle which the city alone exhibited. Instead of a wretched and ruined town, by some described as the desolated remnant of Jerusalem, we beheld, as it were, a flourishing and stately metropolis, presenting a magnificent assemblage of domes, towers, palaces, churches, and monasteries; all of which, glittering in the sun's rays, shone with inconceivable splendor.' Ali Bey speaks of the streets as tolerably regular, straight, and well paved, several of them having foot-paths, but they are narrow and dull, and many of them on a descent. The houses are two or three stories high, with few windows and very small doors. Most of them are constructed of free-stone, and their fronts wholly without ornament; so that, in walking the streets, it does not require any great stretch of fancy to conceive one's self in the corridors of a vast prison. The population is estimated at 30,000, more than 20,000 of whom are said to be Christians, with about 7000 Mussulmans, besides Arabs, Turks, Jews, &c. Dr. Clarke says, 'in Jerusalem there are sects of every denomination, and perhaps of almost every religion upon the earth. As to those who call themselves Christians, in opposition to the Moslems, we found them divided into sects, with whose distinctions we were often unacquainted. It is said there are no Lutherans ; and if we add, that, under the name of Christianity, every degrading superstition and profane rite, equally remote from the enlightened tenets of the gospel and the dignity of human nature, are professed and tolerated, we shall afford a true picture of the state of society in this country.'

The edifice most resorted to by Christian pilgrims is that called the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. It was built, as already intimated, by the empress Helena, the mother of Constantine, and is a handsome structure, 300 feet long, and nearly 200 broad, professing to comprehend within these limits the scene of all the great events of the crucifixion, burial, and resurrection

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