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Judea, and re-established their ancient worship. Filled with fury, at this intelligence, he threatened to exterminate the whole race, and commanded his charioteer to drive towards that country with the utmost speed: scarcely, however, had he given this order, when he was seized with a violent malady in his bowels, that no remedy could abate. Still he hurried forward, until he fell from his chariot, and was forced to be put into a litter. At last he was constrained to stop at Tabæ, a town on the frontiers of Persia and Babylonia, enduring, it is said, excruciating agonies from the vermin that bred in his intestines, and the stench which was insupportable even to himself. The torments of his mind were greater than those he endured in his body; Polybius, agreeing with the Jewish historians, tells us, that he was haunted by spectres and apparitions, which upbraided him with his wicked deeds, so that he was in a continual delirium. Having languished in this dreadful state for a considerable time, he expired; and thus the Jews were delivered from the most inveterate enemy they had ever known. Still the war was carried on by his generals, but Judas always defeated them, and in 163 B. C., obtained a peace on very advantageous terms. On the Syrian generals renewing hostilities, they met the same repulses as before; Judas obtained the victory over them in five engagements, but in the sixth, being abandoned by most of his men, he was slain, together with 800 who continued faithful to him.

This event filled his countrymen with the greatest consternation. Jonathan, his brother, however, succeeded him, and conducted their affairs with the same prudence and success, until he was treacherously seized and put to death by a Syrian usurper of the name of Tryphon, who afterwards murdered his own sovereign. After this the traitor prepared to invade Judea, but his designs were frustrated by Simon, the brother of Jonathan. This pontiff repaired and garrisoned the fortresses of the country, took Joppa and Gaza, and drove the Syrians out of the citadel of Jerusalem; when in the year 135, B. C., he was also murdered through the treachery of Ptolemy, his son in law.

Hyrcanus I. succeeded him, who was the first person since the captivity that had assumed the regal dignity, and who raised the nation to greater prosperity than it had ever enjoyed since that period. He entirely shook off the Syrian yoke, subdued the Samaritans, demolished their capital city, and made himself master of all Syria, as well as Samaria and Galilee, of which he kept undisturbed possession till within a year of his death. In him, we are told by the author of the fourth book of Maccabees, were united three dignities, that never before met in any other person, namely, the royal dignity, the high priesthood, and the gift of prophecy; but the evidence of the last is very equivocal. He was much disturbed in the last year of his reign by a quarrel with the Pharisees, to whom he had been a great friend, and who had occupied the most honorable stations in the government; at length, however, one of them, named Eleazar, began to dispute the legitimacy of Hyrcanus,

saying that his mother was a slave, and therefore he could not enjoy the dignity of the priesthood. The whole sect affected to believe this report, which so incensed the king that he immediately joined the Sadducees, and would never be reconciled to their rivals, who raised all the seditions they could during the short time that he survived. He died about 107 years B. C., and was succeeded by Aristobulus, his eldest son, who conquered Iturea.

He was a most cruel tyrant, murdering one of his brothers, together with his mother, and keeping the rest closely confined during his reign, which happily proved but short. To him succeeded, in 105, Alexander Jannæus, the greatest conqueror, next to David, that ever wielded the Jewish sceptre. He was hated, however, by the Pharisees, and was once very near being killed in tumult excited by them; but, having caused his guards to fall upon the mutinous mob, they killed 6000 of them, and dispersed the rest. After this, being unable to remain quiet in his own kingdom, he left Jerusalem, resolving to devote himself wholly to his conquests; but, while he was busied in subduing his enemies abroad, the Pharisees raised a rebellion against him. This was quelled in the year 86 B. C., and the rebels were treated most barbarously. The faction, however, was by these means so thoroughly crushed, that they never dared to lift up their heads as long as he lived. Having conquered several parts of Syria, he died 79, B. C.

Though Alexander had two sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, he bequeathed the government to his wife Alexandra as long as she lived; and directed her just before his death to send for the principal leaders of the Pharisees, and pretend to be entirely devoted to them. With this advice the queen complied; but found afterwards great difficulty how to act with them, as they would at last be satisfied with nothing less than the extirpation of their adversaries. A most cruel persecution, therefore, took place against the Sadducees, which continued for four years; until, upon their earnest petition, they were sent into the several garrisons of the kingdom, to secure them from the rage of their enemies. Being not long after attacked with a dangerous sickness, her youngest son, Aristobulus, formed a strong party to secure the crown to himself: the queen, however, displeased with his conduct, appointed Hyrcanus, whom she had before made high priest, to be her successor also in the kingdom, and soon afterwards expired.

The Pharisees now raised an army against Aristobulus, which almost instantly deserted to him; Hyrcanus, therefore, was obliged to make peace on the terms of abandoning the royal and pontifical dignity. But this did not extinguish his party. A new cabal was raised by Antipater, an Idumæan proselyte, the father of Herod the Great; who carried off Hyrcanus into Arabia, pretending that his life was in danger in Judea, and applied to Aretas, king of that country, who undertook to restor the deposed monarch. Having invaded Judea, he defeated Aristobulus, and closely besieged him in Jerusalem. The latter, therefore, now sought the alliance of the Romans; and having bribed Scaurus, one of

lamps, and other vessels; but he did not venture to touch them, and on retiring commanded the priests to purify the place in the usual manner.

their generals, he defeated Aretas, cutting off 7000 of his men, and driving him quite out of the country. Soon after the two brothers sent presents to Pompey, at that time commander-inchief of the Roman forces in the east, making Pompey, after this, set out for Rome, taking him arbitrator of their differences. But he, with him as captives, Aristobulus, Alexander, fearing that Aristobulus, against whom he in- and Antigonus, his sons, to adorn his triumph. tended to declare, might obstruct his intended Alexander made his escape into Judea, where he expedition against the Nabatheans, dismissed raised 10,000 foot, and 1500 horse, and fortified them with a promise, that, as soon as he had some strong holds, from which he made constant subdued Aretas, he would come into Judea and incursions into the neighbouring country while decide their controversy. This so offended Aris- Hyrcanus was no sooner delivered from the ritobulus, that he departed without even taking valship of his brother, than he became indolent leave of the general, who on his part took no as usual, and trusted the management of his less umbrage at this want of respect. The con- affairs to Antipater, who took this opportunity sequence was, that Pompey entered Judea, and to advance his own interests. He attempted by summoned Aristobulus to appear before him. all means to ingratiate himself with the Romans, The Jewish prince would now gladly have ex- and Scaurus, being in great want of provisions cused himself, but he was forced by his own for an army which he had marched against the mepeople to comply in order to avoid a war. He tropolis of Arabia, received from him a plentiful accordingly waited on him several times, and supply of corn and other necessaries. Soon was dismissed with great marks of friendship. after this he prevailed on the king to pay 200 At last, Pompey insisting that he should deliver talents to the Romans, to preserve the country, into his hands all the fortified places, Aristobulus as he alleged, from being ravaged by Alexander. plainly perceived that he was on his brother's The latter, now venturing a battle, was defeated side, upon which he fled to Jerusalem, resolving with great loss, and besieged in the fortress of to oppose the Romans to the utmost of his Alexandrion, where he would have been obliged power. Pompey quickly followed him, and, to to surrender, but his mother interceded for him prevent hostilities, Aristobulus was at last forced with the Roman general. After this the fortresses to throw himself at the feet of the haughty Ro- were again demolished, and Hyrcanus reinstated man, and promise him a considerable sum of in his pontifical dignity; the province being dimoney. This was accepted; but, Gabinus being vided into five districts, with a separate court of sent with some troops to receive the sum, the judicature in each. garrison of Jerusalem now shut the gates against him, and refused to fulfil the agreement. Pompey was so exasperated that he immediately marched with his whole army against the city, and laid regular siege to it. As the fortifications were strong, he might have found it very difficult to accomplish his design, had not the Jews been again seized with a qualm of conscience respecting the observance of the sabbath day. From the time of the Maccabees they had not scrupled to take up arms against an offending enemy on the sabbath; but now they thought, that, though it was lawful on that day to stand on their defence when attacked, it was unlawful to do any thing to prevent those preparations which the enemy might make. Never, therefore, attempting to hinder the erection of batteries, or the making of breaches in their walls on the sabbath, the beseigers at last made so great a breach, that the garrison could no longer resist them. The city was taken in the year 63 B.C.; 12,000 of the inhabitants were slaughtered, and many more put an end to their own lives: the priests, who were engaged in their usual service, choosing rather to be butchered with their brethren than to interrupt the worship. Hycanus, again made high priest, was now for bidden to assume the title of king, to wear a crown, or to extend his dominions beyond Judea. The walls of Jerusalem Pompey demolished, to prevent all future attempts at revolt, and left Scaurus as governor, with a strong force: before he departed, however, he offended the Jews more than ever, by penetrating into the sacred recesses of the temple, and taking a view of the golden table, the candlestick, the censers,

Thus the government was changed from a monarchy to an aristocracy, and the Jews became subject to a set of the most arbitrary tyrants. About this time Aristobulus, having escaped from Rome, formed new troubles in Judea, but was conquered and again taken prisoner; his son also renewed his attempts, but suffered a similar defeat and lost nearly 10,000 men. After this Crassus was made governor of the province, the only act of whose government, worthy of record, is his having plundered the temple of its treasures and sacred utensils, valued at more than £2,000,000 sterling. Having committed this sacrilege he set out on his expedition against Parthia, where he perished miserably, as a judgment, according to the Jews, for his impiety.

The nation had some respite from oppression during the war between Cæsar and Pompey, and this likewise afforded them an opportunity of gaining the favor of the former, of which the politic Antipater readily availed himself. Cæsar rewarded him for his services by confirming Hyrcanus in the priesthood, and entailing on his posterity the principality of Judea for ever. He restored the Jews to their ancient privileges, ordering a pillar to be erected on which these grants were to be engraved, together with his own decree; and soon after, coming himself to Judea, gave them permission to fortify the city and rebuild the wall which Pompey had demolished. During his life, the Jews, indeed, hardly seemed to feel the Roman yoke.

But after his death those great disorders ensued, which were not effectually checked, till Herod, who had been made king of Judea by

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1 year 40 B. C., was settled Oi, dis occasion another cruel rowed by the death of maintained himself against years, murdered his brother of Hyrcanus's ears to render or the high priesthood.

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sences of the Jews were not at all 15y this change of masters; Herod beof the greatest tyrants that history mentioned. At the beginning of his reign pot to death all those who had taken part with her val Antigonus, and confiscated their ... for his own use. So jealous was he in this pt, that he stationed guards at the city to watch the bodies as they were conveyed at any of their riches should be carried the them He next sent for Hyrcanus from Pad, whather he had been banished, and put tom to death in despite of the most solemn proars of safety. Having no other victims, to sahas thirst for blood, his cruelty turned on ins own family. He had married Mariamne, the daughter of Hyrcanus, whose brother Aristobuhe, a young prince of great merit, the tyrant used to be drowned in a bath. Afterwards beng summoned to appear, first before Marc and then before Augustus, to answer for some crimes laid to his charge, he left orders But if he was condemned, Mariamne should be to death The consequence was, she cond me greatest aversion for him, and was not in showing it. Enraged at this, fed caused her to be falsely accused of infidenty, and she was condemned and executed. 15 at her ended all the happiness of her husHis love increased so much after her that for a long time he appeared like red person. Her death was followed by Pot of her mother Alexandra, and soon after by tot of several other persons who had joined her in an attempt to secure the kingdom to her grandHaving now freed himself from most of I supposed enemies, Herod began to show a Contempt of the Jewish ceremonies, by introdoing a number of Roman games at Jerusalem. Teens at last resolved to enter the thew, while the tyrant was celebrating these games, wm, daggers concealed under their clothes. They the desperate satisfaction to think, that, if y perished, the tyrant would be rendered still rodious by the punishment they suffered. Herod, informed of their design, put this however the proof, and caused them to be put to a most Kuriating death: the people were so much exweperated against the informer, that they tore Wow to pieces, and cast his flesh to the dogs. For * long time he tried in vain to discover the auths of this affront; but at last, by means of ark, he extorted from some women the the principal persons concerned, whom mmediately to be put to death, togefamilies. In consequence of this, e, so that, apprehending nothing l revolt, he began to fortify Jeveral additional works, rebuilt t garrisons into several fortresses. 23, B. C., he began to adorn the 1 with many stately buildings. His

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most remarkable and magnificent undertaking, however, was the rebuilding and beautifying the temple, which he is said to have accomplished in a style of grandeur superior even to that of Solomon's. Ten thousand artificers were set to work, under the direction of 1000 priests, all of whom were kept in constant pay: 1000 carts were employed in fetching materials; and such a number of other hands were employed, that every thing was got ready within two years. After this they set about pulling down the old building, and rearing up the new one with the same expedition; the holy place, or temple, properly so called, was finished in a year and a half. The remainder in somewhat more than eight years. The temple, or holy place, was sixty cubits high, and sixty broad: in the front he added two wings, which projected twenty cubits more on each side. The stones were white marble, twenty-five cubits in length, twelve in height, and nine in breadth, all wrought and polished with exquisite beauty. Instead of doors, the gates were closed with very costly veils, and on each side were planted two stately columns, from whose cornices hung golden festoons and vines, with clusters of grapes, leaves, &c., curiously wrought. The superstructure, however,

which was reared on the old foundation without sufficient additions, proved too heavy, and sunk down about twenty cubits. Yet this foundation was of an astonishing strength and height. The platform was a regular square of a stadium or furlong on each side. Each front had a spacious gate, enriched with suitable ornaments; that on the west had four gates, one of which led to the palace, another to the city, and the two others to the suburbs and fields. This enclosure was surrounded with a strong and high wall of large stones, well cemented; and on the inside had in each front a stately gallery, supported by columns of such a size, that three men could but just embrace them. There were 162 of them, which supported a cedar ceiling of beautiful workmanship, and formed four galleries, the middlemost of which was the largest and highest, being fortyfive feet in breadth, and 100 in height; those on each side were but thirty feet wide and fifty high. The piazzas and court were paved with marble of various colors; and, at small distance from the galleries, was a second enclosure, surrounded with a flight of beautiful marble rails, with stately columns at proper distances, on which were engraven admonitions in Greek and Latin, forbidding strangers and Jews that were not purified, to proceed farther under pain of death. This enclosure had but one gate on the east side, none on the west, but on the north and south it had three, at equal distances. A third enclosure surrounded the temple, or holy place, and the altar of burnt offerings, forming what was called the court of the Hebrews. This was also square, having the wall on the outside surrounded by a flight of fourteen steps, which hid a considerable part of it; on the top a terrace of twelve cubits in breadth was carried completely round the whole. In this enclosure there was one gate on the east side, none on the west, but on the north and south sides four, at equal distances; and to each of them five steps

ascended, in order to reach the level of the inner court. On the inside of each of these gates two spacious square chambers were raised in the form of a pavilion, thirty cubits wide, and forty high, each supported by columns of twelve cubits in circumference. The altar of burnt offerings, built of unhewn stones, was forty cubits high; and fifteen feet in height, with the ascent smooth and without steps. It was encircled with a low rail, dividing the court of the priests from that of the lay Israelites, none but the former being allowed to come within the enclosure. Herod had this temple dedicated with the greatest pomp, and presented it with trophies of his former

victories.

In the midst of these magnificent works, however, this prince's mind was not diverted from its usual cruelty. His sister Salome prompted him to the murder of his two sons by Mariamne, Alexander and Aristobulus, who had been educated at the imperial court, and were much admired by all who knew them. About this time also, urged by his wicked jealousy, he attempted to destroy the Saviour of the world, and 2000 innocent children perished on the occasion. He had the mortification soon after to discover, that Antipater had conspired against him, for which he had him tried and condemned for treason; but a more terrible calamity awaited him he was seized with a loathsome and incurable disease, in which his pains were so intolerable, that his life became a burden. To the great joy of the Jews he died about five days after Antipater, having divided his dominions among his sons; Judea he gave to Archelaus, Galilee and Peræa to Herod Antipas, and made Philip tetrarch of Trachonitis, Ituræa, Batanea, and Paneas; he also left considerable legacies to his sister Salome and others of his relations. Aware that the Jews would rejoice at his death, he called together all the chiefs of them to Jericho, and ordered them to be shut up in the circus, leaving directions with Salome and her husband, to have them all butchered, as soon as he expired. 'By these means,' said he, 'I shall not only damp the people's joy, but secure a real mourning for my death!' These cruel orders, however, were not executed. Immediately on the tyrant's death Salome went to the Hippodrome, where the heads of the Jews were imprisoned, and dismissed them, telling them, that the king had no further oscasion for their attendance.

Tumults, seditions, and insurrections followed: Archelaus was opposed by his brethren, and obliged to appear before Augustus, to answer some complaints that were made against him; when the emperor, having heard both parties, assigned to Archelaus one-half of the kingdom with the title of ethnarch, or governor of a nation, and divided the remainder between Philip and Herod. For some years Archelaus continued to govern in peace; but at last, the Jews complaining of his tyranny, Augustus summoned him to his presence, and banished him to Vienne in Dauphiny.

Judea was thus reduced to a Roman province, and, being ordered to be taxed, Cyrenius, the governor of Syria, was sent to see the decree executed, which he did, and having sold the

palaces of Archelaus, and seized his treasure, returned to Antioch. This new tax first sowed the seeds of dissension between the Romans and Jews. Always impatient of a foreign yoke, and knowing from their prophecies that the time was come for the appearance of their Messiah, whom they expected to be a great and powerful warrior, they thought they had only to take up arms and victory would crown their efforts. From this time, therefore, this infatuated people, while they rejected the true Messiah, were ready to follow every impostor, who chose to assume that character, and thus brought on with their spiritual, their temporal destruction likewise. About the sixteenth year of Christ Pontius Pilate was appointed governor; whose administration, according to Josephus, was one continued scene of venality, rapine, and tyranny. Such a governor was ill calculated to appease the ferments occasioned by the tax. Instead of this he inflamed them by introducing his standards with images, pictures, consecrated shields, &c., into their city; and at last attempting to drain the treasury of the temple, under pretence. of bringing an aqueduct into Jerusalem. The most remarkable transaction of his government, however, was his condemnation of Jesus Christ, whom he ordered to be crucified at the instigation of the Jews; seven years after which he was removed and in a short time Herod Agrippa, the grandson of Herod the Great, was made king by Caligula. He did not, however, long enjoy this honor; for having raised a persecution against the Christians, and blasphemously suffered himself to be styled a God by some deputies from Tyre and Sidon, he was miraculously struck in the bowels with a fatal disease, and died most miserably. On his death Judea was once more reduced to a Roman province, and had new governors appointed over it. About this time also Gessius Florus, the last and worst governor the Jews ever had, was sent into the country. Josephus seems at a loss for words to describe his rapine and cruelty; indeed his whole behaviour was so profligate, that he was looked upon by the Jews rather as a bloody executioner than a magistrate. Many of the inhabitants sought an asylum abroad, while those who remained applied to Cestius Gallus, governor of Syria; beseeching him to pity their unhappy state. Florus, who was present, made a jest of them; and Cestius dismissed them with a general promise that the governor should conduct himself better. He then set about comput.ng the number of Jews at that time in Jerusalem, by the number of lambs offered at the festival. in order to send an account of it to Nero. By his computation, they amounted to 2,556,000; though Josephus estimates them at 3,000,000.

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In the year 67, A. D., began the fatal war with the Romans, which ended in the destruction of Jerusalem. It took place in consequence of the decision of a contest with the Syrians concerning Cæsarea; the Jews maintaining that it belonged to them, because it had been built by Herod; and the Syrians asserting that it had always been reckoned a Greek city. Both parties took up arms, but Felix put an end to the contest for a time, by sending some of the chiefs.

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