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made. Chunda Saib in the mean time determined to recover, by force, the nabobship of Arcot, from which he had been deposed by the Mogul, who had placed Anaverdy Khan in his room. With this view he had recourse to Dupleix at Pondicherry, who reinforced him with 2000 sepoys, sixty Caffrees, and 420 French; upon condition that, if he succeeded, he should cede to the French the town of Velur in the neighbourhood of Pondicherry, with its dependencies, consisting of forty-five villages. Thus reinforced, he defeated Anaverdy Khan, who lost his life in the engagement, re-assumed the government of Arcot, and punctually performed the engagements he had come under to his French allies. All this time Mohammed Ali Khan had been supported by the English, to whom he fled after his father's death. By them he was supplied with a reinforcement of men, money and ammunition, under the conduct of major Laurence, a brave and experienced officer; whereby he gained some advantages over the enemy; and, repairing afterwards to Fort St. David's, he obtained a farther reinforcement. With all this assistance, however, he accomplished nothing of any moment; and, the English auxiliaries having retired, he was defeated by his enemies. He now was obliged to enter into a more close alliance with the English, and cede to them some commercial points which had been long in dispute; after which captain Cope was despatched to put Trichinopoli in á state of defence, while de Gingis, a Swiss officer, marched at the head of 400 Europeans to the assistance of the nabob. On this occasion Mr. (afterwards lord) Clive first appeared in a military capacity. He had been employed before as a writer, but seemed very little qualified for that or any other department of civil life. He now marched towards Arcot at the head of 210 Europeans and 500 sepoys; and in his first expedition displayed the qualities of a great commander. His movements were conducted with such secrecy and despatch, that he made himself master of the enemy's capital before they knew of his march; and gained the affections of the people by his generosity, in affording protection without ransom. In a short time, however, he found himself invested in Fort St. David's by Rajah Saib, son to Chunda Saib, an Indian chief, pretender to the nabobship of Arcot, at the head of a numerous army; the operations of the siege being conducted by European engineers. Thus, in spite of his utmost efforts, two practicable breaches were made, and a general assault given; but Mr. Clive, having intelligence of the intended attack, defended himself with such vigor, that the assailants were every where repulsed with loss, and obliged precipitately to raise the siege. Mr. Clive, being reinforced by a detachment from Trichinopoli, then marched in quest of the enemy; and, having overtaken them in the plains of Arani, attacked and entirely defeated them on the 3d of December 1751. This victory was followed by the surrender of the forts of Timery, Conjaveram, and Arani; after which he returned in triumph to Fort St. David's. In the beginning of 1752 he marched towards Madras, where he was reinforced by a small body of troops from Bengal. Though the whole did not

exceed 300 Europeans, with as many natives as were sufficient to give the appearance of an army, he boldly proceeded to a place called Koveripauk, about fifteen miles from Arcot, where the enemy lay to the number of 1500 sepoys, 1700 horse, with 150 Europeans, and eight pieces of cannon. Victory was long doubtful, until Mr. Clive having sent round a detachment to fall upon the rear of the enemy, while the English attacked the entrenchments in front with their bayonets, a general confusion ensued, the enemy was routed with considerable slaughter, and only saved from total destruction by the darkness of the night. The French to a man threw down their arms on this occasion, and surrendered themselves prisoners of war; all the baggage and cannon falling at the same time into the hand of the victors. On the return of Mr. Clive to Fort St. David's, he was superseded in the command by major Laurence. Being detached by him with 400 Europeans, a few Mahratta soldiers, and a body of sepoys, to cut off the enemy's retreat to Pondicherry, he was attended with his usual success, took several forts, vanquished the French commander M. d'Anteuil, and obliged him with all his party to surrender prisoners of war. Chunda Saib, in the mean time, lay encamped with an army of 30,000 men at Syringham, an island near Trichinopoli; but, major Laurence having intercepted his provisions, he was forced to fly. Being obliged to pass through the camp of the Tanjore general, he obtained a pass for that purpose; but was nevertheless detained by the nabob, who was an ally of the British, and his head was struck off. After the flight of Chunda Saib his army was attacked and routed by major Laurence; and the island of Syringham surrendered, with about 1000 French soldiers under the command of Mr. Law, brother to him who schemed the Mississippi Company. M. Dupleix, mortified at this bad success, proclaimed Rajah Saib, son to Chunda Saib, nabob of Arcot; and afterwards produced forged commissions from the great Mogul, appointing him governor of all the Carnatic from the Kristnah to the sea. To carry on this deception, a messenger pretended to come from Delhi, and was received with all the pomp of an ambassador from the great Mogul. Dupleix, mounted on an elephant and preceded by music and dancing women, after the oriental fashion, received his commission from the hands of this impostor; after which he affected the state of an eastern prince; kept his durbar or court, appeared sitting cross-legged on a sofa, and received presents as sovereign of the country, from his own council as well as from the natives. Thus the forces of the English and French East India companies were engaged in a course of hostilities, under the title of auxiliaries to the contending parties at a time when no war existed between the two nations. In the mean time Gauzedy Khan assumed the dignity appointed him by the Mogul; but had not been in possession of it above fourteen days when he was poisoned by his own sister. His son, Shah Abadin Khan, was appointed to succeed him by the Mogul; but, the latter being unable to give him proper assistance, Salabat Zing remained without any rival, and made a present to the

French commander of all the English possessions to the northward. Thus concluded the campaign of 1752. Next year both parties received considerable reinforcements; the English by the arrival of admiral Watson with a squadron of ships of war, having on board a regiment commanded by colonel Aldercroon; and the French by M. Gadeheu, commissary and governor-general of all their settlements, on whose arrival M. Dupleix departed for Europe. The new governor made the most friendly proposals, and desired a cessation of arms until the disputes could be adjusted in Europe. These being readily listened to on the part of the British, deputies were sent to Pondicherry, and a provisional treaty and truce were concluded, on condition that neither of the two companies should for the future interfere in any of the differences that might take place in the country. The other articles related to the settlements that should be retained or possessed by the respective companies until fresh orders should arrive from the courts of London and Versailles; and till then it was stipulated, that neither of them should be allowed to procure any new grant or cession, or to build forts in defence of any new establishment; nor should they proceed to any cession, retrocession, or evacuation of what they then possessed; but every thing should remain on the same footing as formerly.

The treaty was published on the 11th of January 1755; at the end of which month admiral Watson returned with his squadron from Bombay; and M. Gadeheu returned to France in the beginning of February, leaving M. Leyrit his successor at Pondicherry. M. Bussy, with the soubahdar Salabat Zing, commanded in the north; and M. de Saussay was left to command the troops at Syringham. Matters, however, did not long continue in a state of tranquillity. Early in the year it appeared that the French were endeavouring to get possession of all the Deccan. M. Bussy demanded the fortress of Golconda from Salabat Zing; and M. Leyrit encouraged the governor who rented Velu to take up arms against the nabob. He even sent 300 French and as many sepoys from Pondicherry to support this rebel, and oppose the English employed by the nabob to collect his revenues from the tributary princes. In this office they had been engaged ever since the cessation of hostilities; one-half of the revenue being paid to the nabob, and the other to the company, which now involved them in military expeditions into the country of the polygars, who had been previously summoned to send agents to settle accounts with the nabob. Four of them obeyed the summons; but one Lachenaig refused, and it was therefore resolved to attack him. The country was very strong, being fortified both by nature and art: it was surrounded by craggy hills, detached from one another, and covered with bushes so as to be impassable for any but the natives. The works, which the natives had thrown up from hill to hill, were indeed very rude, being formed of large stones laid one upon another without any cement, and flanked by round earthen towers; but before the wall was a deep and broad ditch, with

a large hedge of bamboos in front, so thick that it could not be penetrated but by the hatchet or fire. Two lines of this kind were forced, though not without some loss; after which, Lachenaig was obliged to submit. The English army now marched to Madura, a strong Indian town about sixty miles south of Trichinopoli. On their approach it submitted without opposition, and the inhabitants seemed pleased with their change of government. Here a deputation was received from a neighbouring polygar, desiring an alliance, accompanied with an offer of two settlements on the sea coast, opposite to the island of Ceylon. Before this time they could not have reached Tinevelly, but by a circuitous march of 400 or 500 miles; but from the new settlements the distance to that place was only fifty miles, and reinforcements or supplies of any kind might be sent them from Madras or Fort St. David in four or five days. This offer being accepted, colonel Heron, the English commander, marched to attack the governor of Madura, who had fled to Coilgoody. The road was so rugged, that cannon could with difficulty be brought up: and, as the troops were not furnished with scaling ladders, there seemed to be little hope of gaining the place. The colonel, however, determined to make an assault after the Indian manner, by burning down the gates with straw; and eventually the place was taken and plundered, not sparing even the temples. After this exploit the army returned to Madura; where leaving a garrison, they proceeded to Tinevelly, which submitted without opposition, and owned the jurisdiction of the nabob. It afterwards appeared that the revenues collected in this expedition had not been sufficient to defray the expenses of the army; and a report being spread that Salabat Zing was advancing into the Carnatic along with M. Bussy, the French commander, it was thought proper to recal colonel Heron to Trichinopoli. Before this he had been prevailed on by Mazuphe Cawn, the Indian chief who accompanied him, to convey to him an investiture of the countries of Madura and Tinevelly, for an annual rent of £187,500 sterling. In his way he was likewise induced by the same chief to make an attempt on a strong fort named Nellytangaville, situated about thirty miles west of Tinevelly, and belonging to a refractory polygar. This attempt, however, proving unsuccessful for want of cannon, the colonel returned with Mazuphe Cawn to Trichinopoli. The last expedition of this commander was against a fort named Volsynatim, situated near the entrance of the woods belonging to the Colleries. In their march the English army had to go through the pass of Natam, one of the most dangerous in the peninsula. It begins about twenty miles north of Trichinopoli, and continues for six miles through a wood; being barely sufficient to admit a single carriage, at the same time that a bank running along each side rendered it impossible to widen it. A detachment of pioneers and sepoys were sent to scour the woods before the main body ventured to pass through such a dangerous defile; but the march was after all stopped by one of the heaviest tumbrils sinking in a slough, out of which the oxen were not able

to draw it. This prevented the other tumbrils from moving forward, as well as three field pieces that formed the rear division of artillery, and the whole line of baggage; and in this divided and defenceless state the rear division of the baggage was attacked by the Indians; and the whole would have been destroyed, had it not been for the courage and activity of captain Smith, who here commanded forty Caffres and 200 sepoys, with one six-pounder. Considerable damage, however, was done, and the Indians recovered their gods. Colonel Heron being tried by a court-martial for misconduct in this expedition, and found guilty, was declared incapable of serving the company; soon after which he returned to Europe, and died in Holland.

In the mean time Nanderauze, an Indian prince, formed a scheme to get possession of Trichinopoli; and communicated his design to M. de Saussay, the commander of the French troops but this gentleman communicated this intelligence to the English commander, and the enterprise miscarried. As soon as the company were informed of the acquisitions made by M. Bussy in the Deccan, it was determined to encourage the Mahrattas to attack Salabat Zing, in order to oblige him to dismiss his French auxiliaries. It was necessary therefore to select a commander well experienced in the political systems of the country, as well as in military affairs; and for this purpose Mr. Clive, now governor of Fort St. David's, was invested with a lieutenant-colonel's commission in the king's troops. Three companies of the king's artillery consisting of 100 men each, and 300 recruits, were sent from England on this occasion, and they arrived at Bombay on the 27th of November: when on a sudden the presidency of Madras conceived that this expedition could not be prosecuted without infringing the convention made with the French commander. It was therefore laid aside, and the presidency of Madras directed all their force for the present against Tulagee Angria, who had long been a formidable enemy to the English commerce. The dominions of this pirate consisted of several islands near Bombay, and an extent of land on the continent about 180 miles in length, and from thirty to sixty in breadth. He possessed also several forts that had been taken from the Europeans; the trade of piracy having, it seems, been hereditary in his family, and indeed followed by most of the inhabitants of this coast. His fleet consisted of two kinds of vessels peculiar to this country, named grabs and gallivats; both having generally two masts, and some three; the latter being about 200 tons burden, and the former 150. They had forty or fifty oars, by which they might be moved at the rate of four miles an hour; and were mounted with six or eight pieces of cannon, carrying balls from 6 to 12 lbs. Angria had commonly a fleet of sixty or seventy of these vessels. An unsuccessful attempt had been made in 1717, by the presidency of Bombay, against the forts of Geriah and Kennary, the principal strong holds of Angria. Another was made in 1722, under admiral Matthews, against a fort named Coilabley, about fifteen leagues south of Bombay but this also miscarried, through the VOL. XI.

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cowardice and treachery of the Portuguese, who pretended to assist the English. The Mahrattas having implored the assistance of the English against this common enemy, commodore William James was sent from Bombay on the 22nd of March 1755, with the Protector of forty-four, the Swallow of sixteen guns, and two bomb ketches; but with instructions not to hazard the fleet by attacking any of the pirate's forts, only to blockade the harbours, while the Mahratta army carried on their operations by land. He had scarcely commenced his voyage when he fell in with a considerable fleet of the pirates, which he would have taken, had it not been for the timidity and dilatory behaviour of his allies. They had invested three of the forts, but durst not approach nearer than two miles, and even there entrenched themselves up to the chin, to be secure against the fire of the fort. The commodore, provoked at this pusillanimous behaviour, determined, for the honor of the British arms, to exceed the orders he had received. Running within 100 yards of a fort named Severndroog, he in a few hours ruined the walls, and set it on fire; a powder magazine also blowing up, the people, to the number of about 1000, abandoned the place. The whole force of the attack being then turned upon Goa, a white flag was soon hung out as a signal of surrender. The governor, however, did not wait the event of a capitulation, but passed over to Severndroog, where he hoped to maintain his ground. The fire was now renewed against this fortress; and, the seamen having cut a passage through one of the gates with their axes, the garrison soon surrendered; at the same time that two other forts besieged by the Mahrattas hung out flags of truce and capitulated, and thus were four of Angria's forts, hitherto deemed impregnable, subdued in one day. These successes were followed by the surrender of Bancoote, a strong fortified island, now called Fort Victoria, which the British retained in possession: the other forts were delivered up to the Mahrattas. On the arrival of admiral Watson in November 1755, it was determined to root out the pirate at once, by attacking Geriah his capital: but it was so long since any Englishmen had seen this place, and the reports of its strength had been so much exaggerated, that it was thought proper to first reconnoitre it. It was then attacked by such a formidable fleet, that Angria, losing courage at their approach, fled to the Mahrattas, leaving Geriah to be defended by his brother. The fort was soon obliged to surrender. All its ramparts were either cut out of the solid rock, or built of stones ten feet long edgeways: in it were found 200 pieces of brass cannon, six brass mortars, and a great quantity of ammunition and military stores, he sides money and effects to the value of £125,000 About 2000 people were made prisoners; among whom were the wife, children, mother, brother, and admiral of the pirate; but they were treated with clemency: and his family, at their own request, continued under the protection of the English at Geriah. The other forts belonging to Angria soon submitted; so that his power on the coast of Malabar was entirely annihilated.

While the affairs of the British went on thus 2 Z

successfully, M. Bussy had been constantly employed near the person of Salabat Zing, and made use of his influence with that prince to enlarge the possessions of the French: "at length the prime minister of Salabat Zing represented to him the danger and shame of allowing a small body of foreigners thus to give law to a great prince; and, having formed a powerful combination against the French, obtained an order for their dismission. M. Bussy took his leave without any marks of disgust, having under his command about 600 Europeans, 5000 sepoys, and a fine train of artillery. Orders were sent to all the polygars to oppose his passage; but, notwithstanding this opposition, Bussy reached Hydrabad with very little loss. Here he took possession of a garden belonging to the kings of Golconda, where he resolved to keep his post until succours should arrive from Pondicherry and Masulipatam. Salabat Zing proposed to attack him here; and, the better to attain his purpose, applied to the English presidency at Madras for a body of troops to assist him in that service. Accordingly a detachment of 400 Europeans and 1500 sepoys was on the point of being ordered to join Salabat, when expresses from Bengal informed them of the greatest danger that had ever threatened the British settlements in Hindostan. This arose from the displeasure of Surajah Dowla, the new nabob of Bengal. His grandfather Aliverdy Khan having died, in April or May 1756, Surajah succeeded to the nabobship of Bengal, Bahar, and Orixa. He was congratulated on his accession by Mr. Drake, the English president at Calcutta, and readily promised protection to his countrymen; but he soon after took offence at the imprisonment of Omichund, an eminent Gentoo merchant, who had lived several years under the protection of the English government. Of this circumstance, however, Surajah did not directly complain; but founded his pretence of war upon the conduct of the English in repairing the fortifications of Calcutta; which indeed was absolutely necessary, on account of the great probability of a a war with the French. The nabob, however, threatened an attack if the works were not instantly demolished. With this requisition the president and council pretended to comply; but nevertheless went on with them. Surajah Dowla took the field on the 30th of May 1756, with an army of 40,000 faot, 30,000 horse, and 400 elephants; and on the 2d of June detached 20,000 men to invest the fort at Cassumbazar, a large town on an island formed by the west branch of the Ganges. This fort was regularly built, with sixty cannon, and defended by 300 men, principally sepoys. The nabob pretending a desire to treat, Mr. Watts, the chief of the factory, was persuaded to put himself in his power; which he had no sooner done, than he was made a close prisoner, along with Mr. Batson, a surgeon, who accompanied him. The two prisoners were treated with great indignity, and threatened with death; but two of the council who had been sent for by the tyrant's command were sent back again, with orders to persuade the people of the factory to surrender it at discretion. This proposal met with great opposition; but was at last complied with, though very little to the advan

tage of the prisoners; for they were not only deprived of every thing they possessed, but stripped almost naked, and sent to Hoogly, where they were closely confined. The nabob, encouraged by this success, marched directly to Calcutta, which he invested on the 15th. The capture of this city, and the catastrophe that followed, are related under the article CALCUTTA. See also HoLWELL. The news of this disaster put an end to the expedition projected against M. Bussy; and colonel Clive was instantly despatched to Bengal with 400 Europeans and 1000 sepoys, on board of the fleet commanded by admiral Watson. They did not arrive till the 15th of December at a village called Fulta, situated on a branch of the Ganges, where the inhabitants of Calcutta had taken refuge after their misfortune. Their first operations were against the forts of Busbudgia, Tanna, Fort Wil liam, and Calcutta, now in the hands of the enemy All these were reduced almost as soon as they approached them. Hoogly, the place of rendezvous for all nations who traded to Bengal (its warehouses and shops being always filled with the richest merchandise of the country), was likewise reduced and destroyed, with the granaries and storehouses of salt on each side the river; which proved very detrimental to the nabob, by depriving him of the means of subsistence for his army. Surajah Dowla, enraged at this success of the English, now seemed determined to crush them at once by a general engagement. From this, however, he was intimidated by a successful attack on his camp, which induced him to conclude a treaty, on the 9th of February, 1757, on the following conditions: 1. That the privileges granted to the English by the Mogul should not be disputed: 2. That all goods with English orders should pass, by land or water, free of any tax: 3. All the Company's factories which had been seized by the nabob should be restored; and the goods, money, and effects, accounted for: 4. That the English should have liberty to fortify Calcutta: and, 5. To coin their own gold and silver.

5. India from the war with France in 1757 to the taking of Pondicherry in 1761.-As intelligence was now received of a war between France and England, an attack was meditated on Chandernagore. It remained therefore only to obtain the consent of the nabob; but, in ten days after the conclusion of the treaty, he sent a letter to admiral Watson, complaining of his intention, and surmising that the English designed to turn their arms against him as soon as they made themselves masters of Chandernagore. This was strenuously denied by the admiral; and a number of letters passed, in which the latter made use of expressions which were supposed to imply a tacit consent that Chandernagore should be attacked. An attack was therefore made, and it soon capitulated. This intelligence, however, seemed to be by no means agreeable to Surajah Dowla. He pretended displeasure on account of the English infringing the treaties, and complained that they had ravaged some parts of his dominions. This was denied by the admiral; but from this time both parties made preparations for war. The nabob returned no

answer till the 13th of June, when he sent a declaration of war. The English council at Calcutta now resolved on the deposition of the nabob; which at this time appeared practicable, by supporting the pretensions of Meer Jaffier Ali Cawn, who had entered into a conspiracy against him. Meer Jaffier had married the sister of Aliverdy Cawn, the predecessor of Surajah; and was now supported in his pretensions by the general of the horse, and by Jugget Seet the nabob's banker, the richest merchant in all India. By these three the design was communicated to Mr. Watts, the English resident at the nabob's court, and by him to colonel Clive and the secret committee at Calcutta. The management of the affair being left to Mr. Watts and Mr. Clive, it was thought proper to communicate it to Omichund, through whom the correspondence that was necessary might be carried on with Meer Jaffier. This agent proved so avaricious, that it was resolved to serve him in his own way; and, by a piece of treachery to him also, to gain their point with both parties. Two treaties were therefore written out; in one of which it was promised to comply with Omichund's demand, but in the other his name was not even mentioned; and hoth these treaties were signed by all the principal persons concerned, admiral Watson alone excepted, whom no political motives could influence to sign an agreement which he did not mean to keep. These trcaties, the same in every other respect, were to the following purport: 1. All the effects and factories belonging to Bengal, Bahar, and Orixa, were to remain in possession of the English, nor should any more of the French ever be allowed to settle in these provinces. 2. In consideration of the losses sustained by the English Company, by the capture and plunder of Calcutta, he agreed to pay one crore of rupees, or £1,250,000 sterling. 3. For the effects plundered from the English at Calcutta, he engaged to pay fifty lacks of rupees, or £625,000. 4. For the effects plundered from the Gentoos, Moors, and other inhabitants of Calcutta, twenty lacks, or £250,000. 5. For the effects plundered from the American merchants, inhabitants of Calcutta, seven lacks, or £87,500. 6. The distribution of all these sums to be left to admiral Watson, colonel Clive, Roger Drake, William Watts, James Kilpatrick, and Richard Becher, esquires, to be disposed of by them to whom they think proper.

Colonel Clive began his march against Surajah Dowla on the 13th of June, the day on which that chief sent off his last letter. The decisive action at Plassey followed, in which the treachery of Meer Jaffier, who commanded part of the nabob's troops, and stood neuter during the engagement, rendered the victory easy. The unfortunate nabob fled to his capital, but left it the following evening, disguised like a faquir, with only two attendants. By these he appears to have been abandoned and even robbed'; for on the 3d of July he was found wandering forsaken and almost naked on the road to Patna. Next day he was brought back to Muxadabad; and a few hours after privately beheaded by Meer Jaffier's eldest son.

The usurper took possession of the capital in

triumph; and, on the 29th of June, colonel Clive went to the palace, and in presence of the rajahs and grandees of the court solemnly handed him to the musnud (or carpet) and throne of state, where he was unanimously saluted soubahdah or nabob, and received the submission of all present. While these transactions were going forward, the utmost efforts were used to expel the French entirely from Bengal. By the articles of capitulation at Chandernagore, the whole of that garrison were to continue prisoners of war; but, about the time of signing the treaty, Mr. Law with a small body of troops made his escape out of Cassumbazar, and bent his march towards Patna. There he had been protected by the late nabob; and, on the commencement of fresh hostilities, had collected about 100 French, the only remains of that nation in Bengal. With these he was within two hours' march of Surajah Dowla's camp when the battle of Plassey was fought; on hearing of which he stopped; but afterwards, being informed of the nabob's escape, he marched again to his assistance, and was within a few hours of joining him when he was taken. Three days after he was pursued by Major Eyre Coote at the head of 223 Europeans, three companies of sepoys, fifty Lascars, or Indian sailors, and ten Marmutty men, or pioneers, to clear the roads, together with two pieces of cannon, six-pounders. On this expedition the major exerted his utmost diligence to overtake his antagonist, and spent a very considerable space of time in the pursuit; for, though he set out on the 6th of July, he did not return to Muxadabad till the 1st of September. Mr. Law, however, had the good fortune to escape. Major Coote now obliged Ramnarain, the most powerful rajah in the country, to swear allegiance to Meer Jaffier; and laid open the interior state of the northern provinces. Before his return, admiral Pocock had succeeded to the command of the fleet on the decease of admiral Watson. News were also received, that the French had been very successful on the coast of Coromandel.

Salabat Zing had. applied to the English for assistance against the French; but, as they were prevented from performing their agreement by the disaster at Calcutta, he was under the necessity of accommodating the differences with his former friends, and admitting them again into his service. M. Bussy was now reinforced by the troops under Law, who had collected 500 Europeans in his journey. With these he undertook to reduce the English factories of Ingeram, Bandermalanka, and Vizagapatam: but as the latter was garrisoned by 140 Europeans and 420 sepoys, it was supposed that it would make some defence; by the conquest of it, however, the French became masters of all the coasts from Ganjam to Masulipatam. In the southern provinces the like had success attended the British cause. The rebel polygars, having united their forces against Mazuphe Cawn, obtained a complete victory; after which, the English sepoys being prevailed upon to quit Madura, the conqueror seized upon that city for himself. In the beginning of 1758 the French made au attempt on Trichinopoli. The command was given to M. d'Auteuil, who invested the place

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