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in-chief, greatly weakened the British operations. Hyder Aly had the prudence to avoid a general engagement, but frequently intercepted the convoys of the English, cut off their detached parties, and wearied them out with long and continual marches. The news of his success, against an enemy hitherto invincible by all the powers of India, so raised his reputation, that adventurers flocked to him from all parts; by which means his cavalry soon increased to upwards of 90,000, to which, however, his infantry bore no proportion. Notwithstanding all his success, the forces of Hyder Aly were altogether unable to cope with those of Britain, even when there was the greatest imaginable disparity of numbers. A detachment of the company's forces had made an assault upon a fort called Mulwaggle, in which they were repulsed with some loss. This, with the small number of the detachment, encouraged Hyder to march, at the head of a great part of his army, to the protec tion of the fort. The commanding officer however, colonel Wood, did not hesitate, with only 460 Europeans and 2300 sepoys, to attack this army, consisting of 14,000 horse, 12,000 men armed with matchlock guns, and six battalions of sepoys. The engagement lasted six hours; when at last Hyder, notwithstanding his numbers, was obliged to retreat, leaving the field covered with dead bodies; and the loss of the British was upwards of 300 killed and wounded. This engagement, however, was attended with no consequences affecting the war in general, which went on for some time in the same manner, and greatly to the disadvantage of the company. The divisions and discontents among the officers and council daily increased, the soldiers deserted, and every thing went to ruin. The revenues of the establishment of Madras being at last unequal to the expenses of the war, large remittances were made from Bengal to answer that purpose; and, as these were made in a kind of base gold coin, the company is said by that means alone to have lost £40,000 in the difference of exchange. At last Hyder Aly suddenly appeared within a few miles of Madras, which occasioned such an alarm, that the presidency were induced to enter into a negociation with him. An offensive and defensive treaty was therefore concluded on the 3d of April 1769, on the simple condition that the forts and places taken on both sides should be restored, and each party sit down contented with their own expenses.

It was stipulated that, in case of either party being attacked by their enemies, the other should give them assistance: and in this case even the number of troops to be supplied by each was specified. It soon after appeared, however, that the presidency of Madras was resolved to pay very little regard to this engagement. Hyder Aly, being in a little time after involved in a war with the Mahrattas, applied for assistance; but was refused by the presidency, who pretended that they themselves dreaded a quarrel with the Mahrattas. Hyder now, therefore, found himself overmatched, and applied several times to the English for the assistance he had a right to expect; but was constantly refused. This first

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appears to have inclined him to apply to the French, and by their means he obtained military stores in the greatest abundance, a number of experienced officers and soldiers, and much of the European discipline. Thus, in a short time, imagining himself a match for the Mahrattas, he renewed the war, and gained such decisive advantages as quickly obliged them to conclude an advantageous treaty with him. It now appeared that the English had not much hesitation in quarrelling with the Mahrattas. These tribes were originally governed by princes called rajahs, who reigned at Setterah; and, though in process of time they came to be divided into a number of petty states, yet they paid a nominal respect to the ram-rajah, who had a right to assemble the chiefs, and order out their troops on any emergency. By degrees the dignity of ramrajah or sou-rajah (as he was also called) became merely titular, the administration being entirely possessed by the paishwa or chancellor. This office being usurped by one particular family, Nana-row, the reigning paishwa seized the ramrajah, and confined him in a fortress. At his death he left two sons, Mada-row and Narainrow; of whom the former, being the elder, succeeded him in the paishwaship. Ionogee Boosla, or Bouncello, the immediate predecessor of Modagee Boosla, rajah of Berar, was one of the pretenders to the dignity of ram-rajah, as being the nearest of kin; at the same time that Roganut-row, called also Ragobah, uncle to Madarow himself, pretended to the paishwaship. On this account the latter was confined by Madarow, but he imprudently released him a little before his death, and recommended to him in the most affectionate manner the care of his brother Narain-row, who was to succeed to the paishwaship. Rogonaut, notwithstanding this, murdered Narain-row, and then fled to Bombay, where, on promising a cession of territory, he was protected and encouraged in his pretensions. The Mahrattas remonstrated against his behaviour; but the English had determined to profit by the civil dissentions of the Indian powers, and paid little regard to the justice or injustice of their cause. The Mahrattas therefore not only made up their differences with Hyder Aly, but became determined enemies to the English, at the same time that a confederacy was formed among the most powerful princes of India to expel from that part of the world these western intruders.

The resentment of Hyder Aly was particularly directed against the presidency of Madras; he had also received fresh provocation by their causing a bedy of troops to march through his dominions without his leave, to the assistance of a prince for whom he had no friendship; as also by the capture of the French settlement of Mahie, on the coast of Malabar, which he said was within his dominions, and consequently that the French were under his protection. His troops were therefore assembled from every quarter, and the greatest preparations made for a powerful invasion. The presidency of Madras in the mean time spent their time in mutual altercations, neglecting even to secure the mountain passes, through which alone an invasion

could be made, until their active antagonist, having seized and guarded those passes, suddenly poured out through them 100,000 men, among whom was a large body of European troops under French officers, and commanded by colonel Lally, a man of great bravery and experience. The alarm was given on the 24th of July 1780, that Hyder Aly's horse were only nine miles from Madras. The inhabitants instantly deserted their houses, and fled into the fort; while the unresisted barbarian burnt the villages, reduced the inferior forts, and prepared to lay siege to the capital. It being now absolutely necessary to make some resistance, measures were taken for assembling the troops; in doing which, an express was sent to colonel Baillie, at that time at Gumeroponda, twenty-eight miles from Madras, to proceed thence directly to Conjeveram with the corps under his command. But the first regiment of cavalry posisively refused to move without money; and, as they persisted in their resolution, were at last made prisoners, and sent to Madras. The main army, then consisting of 1500 Europeans, and 4200 sepoys, under Sir Hector Munro, with their train of artillery, proceeded towards Conjeveram. On their arrival they found the town in flames, great bodies of the enemy's cavalry advancing on both flanks, and no appearance of colonel Baillie's detachment. The march of this body had been impeded by a small river, swelled by a sudden fall of rain. Hyder Aly having now raised the siege of Arcot, in which he had been employed, marched towards Conjeveram; in the neighbourhood of which he encamped, and in the course of several days, at different times, offered battle. On the 6th of September, he detached his son Tippoo Saib with the flower of his army to cut off the detachment under colonel Baillie, who was now at Perrambaukam, a small village distant about fifteen miles, he himself remaining in the neighbourhood of Conjeveram, to watch the motions of Sir Hector Munro. The detachment under Tippoo consisted of 30,000 horse, 8000 foot, and twelve pieces of cannon. Notwithstanding this superiority in number, however, they were bravely repulsed by colonel Baillie's troops; and a junction was effected with a detachment under Sir Robert Fletcher, sent by Sir Hector Munro. This was on the 9th of September, and next morning orders were given for the whole army to march; colonel Fletcher's detachment being dispersed in different parts of the line. About ten at night several guns began to open on the rear of the English, on which colonel Baillie detached captain Rumley with five companies of sepoy grenadiers to storm. This he could not accomplish, being interrupted by an unexpected torrent, which it was found impossible to ford. Next day Hyder Aly himself joined Tippoo, and suddenly opened on colonel Baillie's detachment the fire of from sixty to seventy pieces of cannon, with an innumerable quantity of rockets; and for a while Hyder's numerous cavalry, supported by his regular infantry and European troops, driven on by threats, encouraged by promises, and led on by his most distinguished officers, bore on our little army in different quarters, without, however, making

the least impression. Our men, both Europeans and sepoys, repeatedly presented and recovered their fire-arms as if they had been manoeuvring on a parade. The enemy were repulsed in every attack; numbers of their best cavalry were killed, and many more were wounded; even their infantry were forced to give way: and Hyder would have ordered a retreat, had it not been for the advice of general Lally, who informed him that it was now too late, as general Munro was most probably advancing on their rear from Conjeveram; for which reason nothing remained but to break the detachment by their artillery and cavalry. Tippoo Saib had by this time collected his party together, and renewed the cannonade; and, at the same time that the English were under the necessity of sustaining an attack both from the father and son, two of their tumbrils were blown up by Hyder's guns, and a large opening made in both lines. They had now no other ammunition than grape; their guns discontinued firing: and in this dreadful situation, under a terrible fire not only of guns but rockets, losing great numbers of officers and men, they remained from half-past seven till nine o'clock. Hyder Aly, now perceiving that the guns were quite silenced, came with his whole army round their right flank. The cavalry charged them in distinct columns, and in the intervals between these the infantry poured in vollies of musketry with dreadful effect. Mhiar Saib, with the Mogul and Sanoor cavalry, made the first impression. These were followed by the elephants and the Mysorean cavalry, which completed the overthrow of the detachment. Colonel Baillie, though grievously wounded, rallied the Europeans, and once more formed them into a square, and with this handful of men he gained an eminence, where, without ammunition, and most of the people wounded, he resisted and repulsed thirteen separate attacks: but, fresh bodies of cavalry continually pouring in, they were broken without giving way. Many of our men, desperately wounded, raising themselves from the ground received the enemy on their bayonets. Captain Lucas's battalion of sepoys, at the time when our men moved up to a rising ground, was stationed to the right of the European grenadiers; but that corps seeing the Europeans in motion, and misunderstanding perhaps this evolution for a retreat, broke in the utmost confusion. The Europeans, bravely sustaining their reputation, remained in this extremity of distress steady and undaunted, though surrounded by the French troops, and by Hyder's cavalry to the number of 40,000. They even expressed a desire, though their number did not exceed 400, of being led on to the attack. At length colonel Baillie, finding that there was no prospect of being relieved by general Munro, held up a flag of truce to one of the chiefs of Hyder's army. But this was treated with contempt, and the surdar endeavoured at the same time to cut off the colonel. A few minutes after, however, our men received orders to lay down their arms, with intimation that quarter would be given. This order was scarcely complied with, when the enemy rushed in upon them in the most savage and brutal manner; and, but for

the humane interposition of the French commanders, the gallant remains of our little army must have fallen a sacrifice to that savage thirst of blood with which the tyrant disgraced his victory. In this unfortunate action nearly 700 Europeans were killed on the spot: the loss on Hyder Aly's part was so great, that he industriously concealed it; being enraged that the conquest of such an inconsiderable body should cost him so many of his bravest troops. Ever after he seemed to consider the English with an extreme degree of terror; insomuch that, notwithstanding his present exultation on account of this victory, he no sooner heard a report of Sir Hector Munro's march to attack him, than he left his camp in the utmost confusion, abandoning great part of his tents and baggage, and all the wounded.

On the news of colorel Baillie's disaster, the supreme council of Bengal requested Sir Eyre Coote to take upon him the management of the war; and a large supply of men and money was instantly decreed. In the interim Sir Hector Munro had been greatly harassed on his march to Madras, whither he had retreated after colonel Baillie's disaster; the forces of Hyder Aly had infested all the places in that neighbourhood in such a manuer, as in a great measure to cut off all supplies; and Arcot, the capital of the most faithful ally the British ever had, was taken by storm. But no sooner had Sir Eyre Coote taken upon him the command, than his antagonist changed his plan of operations. He detached large parties of his numerous forces to lay siege to the principal fortresses belonging to the company; while, with the bravest and best disciplined part, he kept the field against the British commander. On the very first appearance of our army, however, his resolution failed, and he abandoned the siege of every place he had invested, retiring to a considerable distance on the other side of the Palaar, without even disputing the passage of it. The next operation was to secure Pondicherry, whose inhabitants had revolted. But they were easily disarmed, their magazines seized, and all the boats in their possession destroyed; in consequence of which precaution, a French squadron that soon after appeared off Pondicherry, was obliged to depart without being furnished with necessaries. But in the mean time Hyder Aly, having drawn large reinforcements from all parts of his dominions, resolved to try his fortune in a pitched battle. His army, it is said, amounted to 200,000 men, 40,000 of whom were cavalry, and 15,000 well disciplined sepoys. Still, however, he durst not openly attack the British army, but took a strong post, whence he might harass them on their march. Sir Eyre Coote, was not backward to make the attack; and, on the other hand, Hyder Aly prepared to engage him with all possible advantage. The battle was fought on the 1st of July, 1781; and, notwithstanding the vast superiority of Hyder Aly's army, he was routed with great slaughter. The Indians, however, made a much more obstinate resistance than usual; the engagement lasted from 9 A. M. till 4 P. M.; and the deficiency of the English in cavalry pre

vented them from pursuing the advantage they had gained.

Hyder Aly was soon encouraged to venture another battle. This was fought on the 27th of August the same year, on the very spot where colonel Baillie had been defeated. It was more obstinately contested than even the former, being continued with great fury from 8 A. M. to near dusk. A number of brave officers and soldiers fell on the part of the British, owing chiefly to the terrible fire of the enemy's artillery, and the advantageous position of their troops. At last the Indian army was totally defeated, and driven from every post it had occupied; though, from the obstinate resistance made at this time, Hyder began to enter tain hopes that his forces might, by a successior of such battles, be at last enabled to cope with the English. He therefore ventured a third battle some weeks after, but was defeated with greater loss than before. Undiscouraged by this bad success, however, he laid siege to Vellore; and, expecting that the relief of it would be attempted, seized a strong pass through which he knew the British army must direct their march. The British commander accordingly advanced, and found the enemy in possession of some very strong grounds on both sides of a marsh, through which he was obliged to pass. Here he was attacked on all sides, but chiefly on the rear, the enemy directing their force principally against the baggage and provisions. But their utmost efforts, were unsuccessful, and Sir Eyre Coote forced his way to Vellore. Hyder Aly did not fail to wait his return through the same pass; and, having exerted his utmost skill in posting his troops, attacked him with vigor: but though the English were assaulted in front and in both flanks at once, and a heavy cannonade was kept up during the whole time of the engagement, the Indians were at last defeated with great slaughter. By these successes the presidency of Madras were now allowed so much respite, that an enterprise was planned against the Dutch settlement of Negapatam, situated to the south of Madras. A very inconsiderable force, however, could yet be spared for this purpose, as Hyder Aly, though so often defeated, was still extremely formidable. Sir Hector Munro had the management of the expedition: and so furious was the attack of the British sailors, that the troops left to guard the avenues to the place were defeated at the very first onset. A regular siege ensued; which was of a very short duration, a breach being soon made, and the garrison surrendering prisoners of war. The loss of Negapatam was quickly followed by that of Trincomale.

Admiral Hughes, who had conveyed Sir Hector Munro with the land forces to the former place, and assisted him with his sailors, immediately after its surrender set sail for the latter, where he arrived about the middle of January 1782. Trincomale itself was quickly reduced; but the main strength of the settlement consisted in a fort named Ostenburgh, the principal place on the island, and by the capture of which the whole settlement could be reduced. The governor proving obstinate, this place was taken by storin,

with the loss of about sixty on the part of the British, and very little on that of the Dutch, the victors giving quarter the moment it was asked.

A more formidable enemy, however, now appeared on the coast of Coromandel. This was Suffrein the French admiral, who, setting out from France with eleven ships of the line and several stout frigates, had fallen in with the Hannibal of fifty guns, and taken her when separated from her consorts. This ship, along with three others, a seventy-four, a sixty-four, and a fifty, had been sent out to the assistance of Sir Edward Hughes; and the three last had the good fortune to join him before the arrival of Suffrein. The latter, supposing that he had not yet received this reinforcement, bore down upon the English squadron at Madras, to which place they had sailed immediately after the capture of Trincomale. Perceiving his mistake, however, he instantly bore away. The English admiral pursued, took six vessels, five of them English prizes, and the sixth a valuable transport laden with gunpowder and other military stores, besides having on board a number of land officers and about 300 regular troops. This brought on an engagement, in which M. Suffrein, perceiving the rear division of the British fleet unable to keep up with the rest, directed his force principally against it. The ships of admiral Hughes himself and commodore King sustained the most violent efforts of the French, having two, and sometimes three, vessels to contend with. Thus the commodore's ship was reduced almost to a wreck; but about 6 P. M., the wind becoming more favorable to the English, the squadron of the enemy were obliged to draw off. The loss of men on the part of the British amounted to little more than 130 killed and wounded, but, that of the French exceeded 250. After the battle Sir Edward returned to Madras; but hearing nothing of Suffrein there, he made the best of his way for Trincomale, being apprehensive of an attack upon that place, or of intercepting a convoy of stores and reinforcements then expected from England. Suffrein was actually at that time on his way to intercept it. This brought the hostile fleets again in sight of each other; and, the British admiral having been reinforced by two ships of the line, a desperate battle ensued, which continued till towards night, when the ships on both sides were so much shattered, that neither could renew the engagement next day. Though these engagements were not decisive, they were nevertheless of the utmost prejudice to the affairs of Hyder Aly, who was thus prevented from receiving the succours he had been promised from France; and he was still farther mortified by the defeat of his forces before Tellicherry, which he had blocked up since the commencement of hostilities.

This misfortune was the more sensibly felt, as an open passage was now left for the English into those countries best affected to Hyder. His bad success, here, however, was in some measure compensated by the entire defeat of about 2000 English infantry and 300 cavalry under colonel Braithwaite, a brave and experienced officer. This detachment, consisting of chosen troops

from Sir Eyre Coote's army, lay encamped on the banks of the Coleroon, which forms the north boundary of Tanjour. Tippoo Saib, having procured exact intelligence of its situation, formed a design of attacking it, while no danger was suspected, on account of the distance of Hyder Aly's army. He set out on this design with an army of 15,000 horse and 5000 foot, accompanied by a body of French regulars; and, having crossed the Coleroon, suddenly surrounded the British forces. The colonel, perceiving his danger, formed his men into a square, distributing the artillery to the several fronts, and keeping his cavalry in the centre. He thus resisted for three days the utmost efforts of his numerous enemies, always compelling them to retreat with great loss. At last general Lally, rightly conjecturing that the strength of the English must be exhausted and their number thinned by such desperate service, proposed that the infantry, which was fresh and entire, should attack one of the fronts of the square, while the forces of Tippoo should do the same with the other three. This proved successful; the British forces were broken with great Slaughter, which however was stopped by the humanity of the French commander; who even obtained from Tippoo Saib the care of the prisoners, and treated them with a degree of humanity which they certainly would not otherwise have experienced. A number of British officers, however, perished in the engagement, and only one remained unwounded.

In the mean time, the succours from France, so long expected by Hyder, arrived; and, as soon as a junction was formed, they proceeded, under the command of M. Duchemin, to invest Cuddalore; which, not being in a situation to stand a siege, was surrendered on capitulation. Some other places of less consequence were also reduced, until at last, being joined by Hyder's numerous forces, they determined to lay siege to Vandervash, a place of great importance, and the loss of which would have been extremely detrimental to the English. This quickly brought Sir Eyre Coote with his army to its relief; but Hyder Aly, notwithstanding his being reinforced by the French, durst not yet venture a battle in the open field. On this the British commander proceeded to attack Arnee, the principal deposit of his warlike stores and necessaries. Thus the latter was obliged to quit his advantageous ground; but he did so with such secrecy and speed, that he came upon the British army unawares, while preparing for its last march to Arnee, now only five miles distant. Perceiving that the march of the British was through low grounds, encompassed on most parts with high hills, he planted his cannon upon the latter; from which he kept a continual and heavy fire on the troops below, while his numerous cavalry attacked them on every side. Notwithstanding all disadvantages, however, the British comman der at last closed in with the enemy; and after an obstinate dispute completely routed them on the 2d of June 1782.

Still Sir Eyre Coote, wanting cavalry, in which the enemy abounded, was obliged to move rearer Madras; soon after which he was obliged, on

account of his bad state of health, to relinquish the command of the army to general Stuart. Hyder Aly, now perceiving that he was likely to obtain no decided success by land, began to rest his hopes on the success of the French by sea. He therefore earnestly requested M. Suffrein, who possessed at that time a decisive superiority in the number of ships, to lose no time in attacking the British squadron before it could be joined by a reinforcement which was then on its way, and was reported to be very formidable. As the French commander was by no means deficient in courage a third engagement took place on the 5th of July 1783. At this time the British had the advantage of the wind, the battle was much more close, and the victory more plainly on their side; though it is said, that had not the wind fortunately shifted, a total defeat would have ensued. After the engagement, the French admiral proceeded to Cuddalore, having received intelligence that a large body of French troops in transports was arrived off the island of Ceylon, with three ships of the line. As this seemed to afford hopes of retaliation, he used such diligence in refitting his ships, that the flee was able to put to sea in the beginning of August, to make an attempt on Trincomale; and so well were his designs conducted, that Sir Edward Hughes received no intelligence of the danger till it was too late; the place was not in a condition to resist a siege; and, the French batteries having silenced those of the fort in two days, a capitulation took place on the 31st of August. Sir Edward did not arrive at Trincomale before the 2d of September, when he had the mortification to see the forts in the hands of the French, and Suffrein in the harbour with fifteen sail of the line, while he had only twelve. He ventured an engagement, but the issue of the battle was only shattering the fleets, and killing and wounding a number of men on both sides. The superiority of the English, however, was very manifest; and in entering the harbour of Trincomale the French lost a seventy-four gun ship. The loss of Trincomale was severely felt by the English; for, while the French lay safely in the harbour refitting their squadron, the English were obliged, for that purpose, to sail to Madras. Here the fleet was assailed by one of the most dreadful storms ever known on that coast. Trading vessels, to the number of nearly 100, were wrecked, as well as those for Madras laden with rice, of which there was an extreme scarcity at that place. This now was 'augmented to a famine, which carried off vast numbers of the inhabitants, before supplies could arrive from Bengal. The continuance of the bad weather obliged Sir Edward, with his whole squadron, to sail to Bombay, where he arrived in the end of the year, when his squadron was so much shattered, that, in order to repair it with proper expedition, he was obliged to distribute it between the dockyards of Bombay and the Portuguese settlement at Goa.

In the mean time Sir Richard Bickerton arrived at Bombay from England with five men of war, having on board 5000 troops. It was the intention of France to signalise the campaign of this year by an immense force both by sea and

land in India. The forces already on the coast of Coromandel were to be joined by 5000 regulars, from their islands on the African coast; and Suffrein was to be reinforced by several ships of the line, when it was hoped that a decided superiority at sea would be obtained over the English. To oppose these designs it was deemed necessary by the presidency of Bombay to make a powerful diversion on the coast of Malabar. Here was situated the kingdom of Mysore, the sovereignty of which had been usurped by Hyder Aly under the title of Dayva. It is nearly in the same parallel with Arcot. On the north was Canara, the favorite possession of Hyder Aly. The expedition had been set on foot as early as the end of 1781; a strong body of forces under colonel Humberstone had taken the cities of Calicut and Panyan, besides others of less note, and penetrated into the inland country. Having made himself master of a place called Mongarry Cotta, which commanded the entrance into the inner parts of the country, he proceeded to attack Palatacherry, a considerable town some miles distant; but, being suddenly environed with a numerous and hostile army, instead of making himself master of the place, it was with the utmost difficulty that he made his escape, after losing all his provisions and baggage. A force consisting of 20,000 foot and 10,000 horse, unaer Tippoo Saib, also advanced against him with such celerity, that the colonel had only time to retreat to Panyan, where he was superseded in the command by colonel Macleod, and soon after the place was invested by the forces of the enemy, among whom was general Lally with a considerable body of French. Two British frigates, however, having come to the assistance of the place, rendered all the attempts of the enemy to reduce it abortive. At last Tippoo, impatient of delay, made a vigorous effort against the British lines; but, though both the Indian and French commanders behaved with bravery, the attack not only proved unsuccessful, but they were repulsed with such loss as determined Tippoo to abandon the siege of the place, and retire beyond the Panyan. As soon as the presidency of Bombay were acquainted with the success of colonel Humberstone, general Matthews was despatched to his assistance with a powerful reinforcement. This expedition, which began the campaign of 1783 in Canara, has been related with circumstances so disgraceful, and so exceedingly contrary to the usual behaviour of British troops, that we cannot account for them. In the story of the conquest and recovery of Canara,' say the editors of the New Annual Register, the Spaniards may be said to be brought a second time upon the scene. The Spaniards of Britain were overtaken in the midst of their career; and he who is more of a man than an Englishman, will rejoice in the irregular and unmeasured, but at the same time the just and merited, vengeance that was inflicted upon them, by the prince whose domiions they were ravaging!' In support of this exclamation the following account is given of the expedition: general Matthews had formed a design of carrying the war into the heart of Hyder Alv's dominions. For this purpose, the

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